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Peni Wahyu Prihandini, D N H Hariyono, Y A Tribudi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 37-42; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2530

Abstract:
Growth and carcass traits are of economic importances in livestock breeding, because they affect the profitability of animal production. The phenotypic expression of these traits is controlled by multiple genes (polygenes), such as myostatin (MSTN) gene. This paper aims to discuss the expression, polymorphism and potential application of MSTN gene as a marker-assisted selection (MAS) for growth and carcass traits in beef cattle based on data from published studies. MSTN gene or known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass deposition. Several published studies showed that mutations in the MSTN gene can inhibit the activation of myostatin, which leads to an increased muscle mass (hypertrophy). Several MSTN gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with growth and carcass traits in local cattle in several countries, including Indonesia, namely Bali cattle. Based on several assumptions: 1) there is MTSN gene polymorphisms in a population, 2) there is a significant association between MSTN gene polymorphisms and growth and carcass traits, as reported in several beef cattle populations and 3) those cattle with superior genotype have better growth performances, we expect that there will be improvement in growth performances in the future if those cattle are selected. Understanding MSTN gene polymorphisms would be useful to make strategies for the genetic improvement for growth and carcass traits of local cattle.
Agustin Herliatika, Yeni Widiawati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 1-12; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2706

Abstract:
The major of gas emission in the livestock sector are in the form of methane produced by microbial activity in the rumen. The emission of methane cause global warming and is predicted to keep increasing. Feed modification and rumen manipulation are important ways that can be used to mitigate methane emission. Based on this condition, this paper aims to describe several ways to mitigate methane emission using feed and rumen modification for smallholder farmers. Feed modification can be done using high Non-Fiber Carbohydrate (NFC) content in feed and also using balance nutrient feed. Meanwhile, rumen modification can be done through inlcusion of feed additive, microbial products, and oils. Providing feed contains high NFC as much as 21.8-53%DM would decrease methane emission by 3.03-28.33%. While providing feed contains balance nutrients would potentially decrease 21.87% of methane emission. Feed additive addition as much as 0.0011-12%DM decreased 0.59-78% of methane emission. Bacterial inclusion as much as 0.7x108 – 3,6x1011CFU decreased 0- 18.57% of methane emission. Oil or fat inclusion as much as 6%DM decreased 6.02-24.53% of methane emission. A combination of methods can be used to optimize methane mitigation and it can be applicable for farmers to raise their livestock in friendly environment.
Gresy Eva Tresia, Wisri Puastuti, Ismeth Inounu
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 23-36; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2723

Abstract:
Feed is one of the main pillars that need to be considered in optimizing production parameters in order to develop an efficient livestock business. Two aspects that need to be considered in order to make agricultural byproducts as a source of feed; those are the availability of raw materials for animal rations with high economic value and the function to reduce environmental pollution. Methane emissions are not only related to environmental problems, but also reflect the loss of some energy from livestock so that it cannot be used for the production process. The purpose of this paper is to review and estimate the carrying capacity for ruminant based on plantation by-products based feed and potential enteric methane emissions. The availability of feed from agricultural byproducts in Indonesia is estimated at 69.6 million tonnes of dry matter (DM), 34.8 million of total digestible nutrient (TDN), and 5 million tonnes of crude protein (CP)/year so it is estimated that it can accommodate 62.4 million livestock unit (LU) based on the DM availability or 39.1 million LU based on TDN availability or 51.6 million LU based on CP availability. From these calculations, it was found that the carrying capacity for ruminant in Indonesia could still be increased much greater than the current livestock population, namely 21.7-45 million livestock units if all byproducts are used entirely as components in rations. There are two groups of feed originating from plantation byproducts based on the potential for methane emissions produced, namely low (65-73 g CH4 / kg of material) and high (83-103 g CH4 / kg of material). Utilization of plantation byproducts as ruminant feed is expected to overcome the shortage of forage, especially during dry season. Utilization of these byproducts which in line with efforts to reduce methane emissions would enhance the development of livestock populations in friendly environment.
Mozart Nuzul Aprilliza Am, Yenny Nur Anggraeny, Elizabeth Wina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 13-22; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2548

Abstract:
Enteric fermentation and its corresponding to methane emissions take place in many wild and domestic ruminant species, such as deer, buffalo, cattle, goats, sheep. Ruminant animals are different from other animals in that they have a rumen, a large fore-stomach with a complex microbial environment. A resulting of this process is methane (CH4), which has a global warming potential (25 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2)). Because the digestion process is not 100% efficient, some of the energy intake is lost in the form of methane. Recently, natural plant products, such as tea leaves which are often inexpensive and environmentally safe have been introduced in methane mitigation strategies. Tea leaves have potential for use as an additives in ruminant diets. The adding of catechin 10-40 g/Kg DM were able to declined methane emission 7.4–13.5%. Furthermore, catechin could decrease the methane production. Catechin decreased CH4 production both in vitro and in vivo. Catechin causes direct inhibition of methanogens as well as may act as hydrogen sinks during degradation by rumen microbes via cleavage of ring structures and reductive dehydroxylation reactions. The objective of this paper is to review existing knowledge related to discuss how catechins can act as methane-lowering agents from rumen fermentation on ruminants.
Arie Febre Trisiana, A Destomo, F Mahmilia
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 43-53; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2512

Abstract:
Livestock transportation is carried out to fullfill the need for consumption as well as for raising the livestock in other areas. The regulation of livestock transportation are not well implemented, and far from the ideal way of livestock transportation, such as the aspects of animal welfare. This paper aims is to describe the transportation process, challenge and its effects on small ruminants. The process of transporting livestock is carried out by preparing thye animal that are going to be transported, and the means of transportation used. Travel distance and road infrastructure conditions provide an affordable connection for the transportation of livestock. Long distances and poor infrastructure conditions can cause stresproblems to livestock transportation. Livestock becomes stres and cortisol levels increased in the blood and physiological responses were affected due to transportation. The Goat Research Institute designed a cage in a truck to transport goats and logistical needs during the trip by land and sea routes and has been used in the distribution of goats. The journey took 1 to 16 days with average goat mortality rate was about 0.3%. Severe impacts during the trip can be overcome by transporting goats with attention to the transportation system and to ensure the welfare of animals during the trip.
Harmini Harmini, Ahmad Fanindi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 201-210; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2544

Abstract:
Climate change is characterized by an increasing in temperature, drought, and an increase in CO2. This paper aims to propose the right strategy to deal with climate change in forage crops. Plant adaptation mechanisms include increasing water content, cell membrane stability, and photosynthetic capacity by suppressing stomata conductance and C consumption through respiration. The impacts of climate change on animal feed crops include: decreased productivity and nutrient content, and reduced planting area which affects the supply of animal feed so that food availability is disrupted. Adaptation strategies are carried out by managing the cultivation of forage plants, including selecting planting and harvesting times, as well as irrigation. Besides, it is necessary to select adaptive fodder plants through breeding. Breeding methods are conducted through the exploration of genetic resources to compile new superior forage adaptive crops to climate change. Recommendations for adaptable forage include: sorghum, Brachiaria humidicola, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum).
Engki Zelpina, Susan M Noor
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 221-229; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2194

Abstract:
Non-typhypoid Salmonella (NTS) is a pathogenic bacteria causing gastroenteritis in humans which is transmitted through animals and contaminated animal products with Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella enteritidis. Many cases of NTS infection in humans have been reported in the world, however most people in Indonesian are generally more familiar with Salmonella typhoid, which is caused by Salmonella typhoid and Salmonella paratypoid. Gastroenteritis due to NTS infection seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. If there is no post-infectious complications such as septicemia, reactive arthritis or aortic aneurysm. Eggs, chicken meat, raw milk and other animal products contaminated with NTS are a source of transmission through food (food-borne pathogens). An estimated 1-3% of pets carry NTS without causing illness. Treatment of NTS in humans can be done by administering antibiotics, but the increase in Salmonella resistance to several types of antibiotics makes it more effective to prevent it through biosecurity applications in farms and prevent contamination of livestock products and their derivatives. This paper provides an overview of NTS, epidemiology, diagnosis and procedures for infection prevention and control in humans and animal reservoirs.
Dewi Ayu Ratih Daning, L M Yusiati, C Hanim, B P Widyobroto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 189-200; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2524

Abstract:
Feed efficiency is essential for dairy cows because it can increase production and quality of milk, and reduce methane emissions in the environment. One of the strategies on increasing feed efficiency is using rumen modifier. Essential oils have antimicrobial activities and have been used in rumen modifier in dairy cows. The aim of this paper is to review several studies on the utilization of essential oils as feed additive to enhance production and quality of milk of dairy cow. Based on some research reports, using essential oils which contained thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol in dairy cattle feed decreased the population of protozoa, methanogens, proteolytic, and biohydrogenase bacteria. The impact of engineering of the rumen microbial population has led to optimal rumen fermentation resulted in the efficiency of carbohydrate, protein, and fat utilizations. It can be concluded that essential oils are potential as rumen modifier by inhibit methanogenesis, increase propionate, energy efficiency and ruminal by pass protein. The inconsistent results on milk production and milk fat requires further research to study deeper the effect of dosage and type of essential oils on dairy cows performance.
Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani, S M Noor, B Bakrie
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 211-220; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2529

Abstract:
Animals have an important role in research and testing to improve human and animal health. Animal usage must be balanced between science and ethical values of animal welfare. This paper discusses the role of IACUC, the implications of animal welfare for research, animal ethical clearance and obstacles in the implementation of animal welfare. Institution of Animal Care Use Committee (IACUC) has an important role to ensure that researcher has animal ethical clearance before conducting research and testing. Research and testing using animal should comply with ethical principles: respect, beneficiary and justice; 3Rs principles: Replacement, Reduction, Refinement and 5F/Freedom: freedom from hunger and thirst, heat and discomfort, pain, trauma and disease, fear and stress and expressing behavior naturally. The application of animal ethics clearance in Indonesia in research using animals is compulsary in various institutions, However thera are several barriers in its implementation, Those are: not all research institutions have IACUC, lack of awareness of researchers to apply for animal ethical clearance, reluctant to IACUC requirements, lack of facilities animals that meet animal welfare requirements and lack of competence in animal handling according to animal welfare.
Cecep Hidayat, E Wina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 177-188; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2563

Abstract:
Heat stress is an important issue in broiler chicken farms in tropical countries, such as Indonesia. Heat stress is very detrimental to broiler chickens because reducing production performance, health, and causing mortality. In the condition of heat stress, broilers synthesize Heat Shock Protein (HSP) quickly as the body's response to heat stress. HSP 70 is the most studied HSP group related to heat stress. The objective of this study was to review the nutritional approach that has been done to mitigate heat stress in broiler chickens with the HSP70 gene expression as its indicator. Based on some studies, nutritional approaches that can be taken are through the management of feed availability, supplementation of vitamin C, vitamin E, plant bioactives, amino acids (taurine and glutamine), probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, manan oligo saccharide (MOS) and minerals (selenium, zinc, manganese, chromium). By these approaches, HSP70 gene expression decreased indicating that the heat stress level of broiler chicken also reduced. It can be concluded that the nutritional approach can be used as a method for heat stress mitigation in broilers with the HSP70 gene expression indicator.
Lailatul Rohmah, Sri Darwati, Niken Ulupi, Isyana Khaerunnisa, Cece Sumantri
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 173-181; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2525

Abstract:
The prolactin gene (PRL) is a gene that controls the incubation and egg production in laying chickens. The nature of incubation will reduce egg production and disrupt the reproductive system in local chickens. The purpose of this study was to identify the polymorphism of prolactin genes in IPB-D1 chickens using the direct sequencing method. The polymorphism of the exon 5 prolactin gene was carried out on 46 samples of IPB-D1 chicken DNA which was a collection of the Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science IPB. DNA sequences as a reference for designing exon 5 primers were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with the GenBank access code: AF288765.2. DNA extraction was carried out using the phenol-chloroform technique. DNA amplification resulted in a PCR product with a size of 557 bp. In this study, the genotype frequency, allele frequency, heterozygosity value and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were calculated. The results of the study found 5 SNPs in exon 5, namely g.7823A>G, g.7835A>G, g.7886T>A, g.8052T>C, and g.8069T>C. All SNPs are polymorphic and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except g.8052T>C. The g.7823A>G, g.7835A>G, g.8052T>C SNPs are synonymous mutations that do not change amino acids, while the g.7886T>A and g.8069T>C SNPs are non-synonymous that change amino acids. Both g.7886T>A and g.8069T>C SNPs are potential as a marker assisted selection for the characteristics of egg production in IPB-D1 chickens.
Gunawan Sitanggang, Raden Iis Arifiantini, J Jakaria
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 147-152; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2526

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on semen characteristics including ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number and sperm moetility of Bali cattle. Semen data were collected from the National Centre of Artificial Insemination at Singosari, Malang, East Java, Indonesia. A total of 3,847 ejaculates of 17 Bali bulls from 2014 to 2016 were collected and evaluated. Data were analyzed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method using mixed models which the bull was a random effect, while age of bull, season of collection, frequency of ejaculation and collection intervals were the fixed effects. Results showed that age significantly affected all semen characteristics (P<0.01). Season affected only on sperm motility (P<0.01). Effect of frequency of ejaculation and collection intervals was significant on all studied variables (P<0.01), except sperm motility. Repeatability of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number and sperm motility was 0.43; 0.35; 0.32 and 0.31, respectively. It is concluded that age, frequency of ejaculation and collection intervals were the most factors affected semen characteristics of Bali cattle. Repeatability estimations of semen characteristics were moderate to high.
Agus Hadi Prayitno, T H Rahman
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 191-195; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2514

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effect of edamame flour filler substitution on the chemical quality of culled duck meatballs. The research material consisted of culled duck meat, tapioca flour, edamame flour, albumen, garlic, onion, salt, pepper, monosodium glutamate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and ice. The edamame flour filler substitution treatments were P0 (0%), P1 (5%), P2 (10%), P3 (15%), and P4 (20%) from total filler. Each treatment consisted of five replications. The parameters which tested were moisture, protein, fat, fiber, and ash contents. Data on chemical quality results were analyzed by analysis of variance using completely randomized design and if there was significantly different (P<0.01), then it’ll be further tested by the Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that the substitution of edamame flour filler starting from the level of 5% was significantly affected water content, protein, fat, fiber, and ash of culled duck meatballs. Edamame flour can be used as a filler substitution up to 20% level by giving a good effect on increasing the meatball protein content, but also having a negative impact with increasing the fat content of culled duck meatballs.
, M Rodiallah, T Astuti, Elfawati Elfawati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 162-172; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2541

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine reproductive efficiency, population dynamics, natural increase and estimated output of the Kuantan cattle in the Kuansing Regency, Province of Riau. A total of 311 Kuantan cattle and 99 Kuantan cattle farmers were used in this study through a survey study. Respondent samples were taken from seven districts. Data sampling using purposive sampling with survey methods. Data collection was carried out by interviewing farmers and observing and was analyzed descriptively. Parameters measured were reproductive efficiency, natural increase, estimated output and population dynamics of Kuantan cattle. Results showed that the reproductive efficiency of Kuantan cattle was 1.04%, natural increase 5.14%, the balance of male and female 1: 5, the value of male NRR 50% and female NRR 100.56%, total cattle out 18.69% and total incoming cattle 18.69%, output value 48.88% and estimated population dynamics 2.85%. In conclusion, Kuantan cattle reproduction has not been efficient with the natural increase of the Kuantan cattle was very low, and the replacement stock availability for male and female cattle has not been fulfilled. It is recommended not to release Kuantan cattle in the next 5 years to maintain population balance.
Cahya Setya Utama, Zuprizal Zuprizal, Chusnul Hanim, Wihandoyo Wihandoyo
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 196-205; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2499

Abstract:
This research was aimed to assess the effectiveness of processed wheat pollard -based rations to increase the productivity of Kampung chickens raised until 8 weeks old. The research was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of wheat pollard based ration (WP), wheat pollard based ration plus probiotic mixed culture (WPPro), wheat Pollard as prebiotic mixed (WPPre) , wheat pollard as synbiotic mixed culture ration 40% (WPS40), wheat pollard as synbiotic mixed culture ration 60% (WPS60) . The parameters observed were feed consumption, final body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, nitrogen retention, income over feed and chick cost (IOFCC) and profiles of intestinal villus. Results showed a significant effect of the treatments on the final body weight, weight gain, nitrogen retention, IOFCC and profiles of small intestinal villus (duodenum, jejenum, ileum). It was concluded that the inclusion of 40% wheat pollard synbiotic mixed culture (WPS 40) in the ration was able to increase the productivity of kampung chickens reared until 8 weeks old.
Masume Ghorbani Vahed, Ramazan Khanbabaee, Mehrdad Shariati, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 153-161; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2555

Abstract:
This research was conducted in order to determine the effects of omega-3 on oocyte in vitro maturation and the level of expression of tribbles (TRIB1, TRIB2 and TRIB3 genes) in cumulus cells. Eight-ten weeks old NMRI mice were super-ovulated using 7.5 IU pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG, Intraperitoneal) and they were killed after 44 hours and their ovaries were removed. The oocytes were used for in vitro maturation and the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were released. Cumulus cells and oocytes were assigned into control, ethanol-treated and groups exposed to 10 and 100 μg/ml of omega-3. The cells were prepared to assess the maturation stage in order to evaluate the gene expression level. The data were statistically analyzed. Exposing oocytes to low dose (10 μg/ml) and high dose (100 μg/ml) of omega-3 resulted in a reduced rate of GV-stage oocytes, decreased MI-oocytes and increased MII-oocytes. The enhanced maturity of COCs was also detected in response to a high dose of omega-3 (100 μg/ml). Exposure of cumulus cells to omega-3 (10 and 100 μg/ml) induced TRIB2 and inhibited TRIB3 gene expression level; however, TRIB1 gene expression level increased and decreased in response to low (10 μg/ml) and high (100 μg/ml) concentrations of omega-3, respectively. The addition of omega-3 to the environment of oocytes or cumulus cells affected the maturation of oocytes and cumulus cells, which was followed by the differential expression of TRIB genes, suggesting that there was a role of fatty acid metabolism in the differentiation and maturation of cumulus cells.
Sugiharto Sugiharto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 123-138; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i3.2523

Abstract:
Poultry industry are facing many challenges and osbtacles especially on the supply of feed ingredients, medicines, feed supplements and additives. The high price of protein source-feed ingredients has encouraged nutritionists to explore and utilize alternative protein source-feed ingredients for poultry. This review provides an overview of their nutritional and bioactive contents and the use of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis in poultry feed based on recent literature studies and their potential development and utilization in Indonesia. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris dan Spirulina platensis have very high protein content that are potential as a protein source in poultry rations. In addition, Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis also contain several bioactive compounds that can be used as alternatives to antibiotics growth promoter and synthetic antioxidants for poultry. Indonesia has a great potential for the production of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis, however massive cultivation and economies of scale have not yet been carried out. Such conditions make Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis less profitable as protein sources, but more likely as growth-promoting additives or antioxidants for poultry in Indonesia.
Ening Wiedosari, Y Sani
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 139-148; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i3.2504

Abstract:
Coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis are both affecting the digestive tract of chicken and both are major enteric disease that mainly affect poultry. Among the enteric diseases, necrotic enteritis is a major problem. Coccidiosis is caused by the protozoan of Eimeria sp, and is commonly found as a predisposition factor for necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridum perfringens. Both diseases are commonly shown similar pathological change namely necrosis of epthelial cells in the intestinal mucosa. The diseases have great economic impact in poultry productions, due to the increased mortality, decreased performance and medication costs. Control of these diseases are commonly treated with antibiotics and ionophores. However, an intensive use of these drugs in feed may cause the emergence of drug-resistance against some strains of Eimeria sp.and Cl. Perfringens and an increased chance of contamination in animal products for human consumption. The paper is discussing the occurrence of necrotic enteritis especially due to the coccidian as a major predisposition factor and the development of alternative control strategies for avian coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis, by modulating intestinal health.
Bess Tiesnamurti, S E Sinulingga, R M Gatenby
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 163-175; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i3.1935

Abstract:
This paper outlines the principles of community breeding programs, reviews similar programs that have been conducted in Indonesia, as well as proposing improvements. Community breeding programs (CBP) are a method for genetic improvement of livestock, with voluntary participation of farmers, using animals belonging to the farmers, by defining breeding objectives and selection criteria or traits, selecting the best males of the group, performance testing and distributing males to the farmers. Farmers have the ownership of the program and contribute to the sustainability of the program, marketability of the products according the needs of the farmers, as well as strengthening farmers institutions. There are breeding scehemes of one tier, two tier and three tier that can be implemented to achieve the goals of genetic improvement. Several CBP has been carried out scatteredly, however improvements have to be made such as by long term financial support, strong commitment from breeders, mentoring by academias, data management and analysis as well as economic assessment. Therefore, a more masive and sustainable CBP should be conducted to improve the genetic quality of sheep and goat in Indonesia.
Dwi Priyanto, Dewi Rahmayuni
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 149-162; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i3.2493

Abstract:
Production of domestic fresh milk has not yet meet the national milk demand, so high amount of milk is still imported (88.56%). The distribution of the dairy cattle population is still concentrated in Java Island (98.84%) which already has limited available land resources. The low productivity of dairy cow is due to the decline in the quality of breed, limited feed and capital. The business scale majority is still low, although its institutional aspect has been well established with the existence of cooperatives and the milk processing industry. This paper discusses the strategies and policies for developing dairy cows in areas outside Java which are appropriate from the upstream to the downstream aspects. The development of dairy cows in areas outside Java Island is still slow, even experiencing a population decline in the last 4 years by 66.21% compared to that in Java that has an increase of 22.09%. Barriers include weak human resource factors, lack of availability of feed (forages and concentrates), low milk productivity and quality, and the production market which is the main thing in dairy business has not been developed. There were many obstacles encountered when dairy cow development program in areas outside Java island was established. Therefore, it requires strategies and policies as well as steps that must be carried out on target. There are several things that need to be done, namely selecting the location, procuring the right breed, training the human resources (target breeders), planting forage and making concentrates, and the main thing is institutional development (upstream to downstream), especially institutions for milk production and marketing. Routine assistance by related agencies and other institutions is needed to ensure the sustainability of dairy farming outside Java.
Nyak Ilham
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 113-122; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i3.2487

Abstract:
The problem of small-scale broiler business is the low efficiency and low application of biosecurity. In the chicken industry, however, efficiency is an essential consideration for product competitiveness in terms of both price and quality. Vertical integration involving small scale businesses in partnership models is expected to maintain the existence of small scale businesses. This paper aims to analyze the performance of the implementation of various models of broiler business partnerships with the legal basis for the establishment of partnership. In this paper there are four models to be discussed, namely: Partnership of National Price Contract (KKHN), Partnership of Regional Price Contracts (KKHR), Partnership of Local Broiler Maklun (KMLB), and Partnership of Local Revenue Sharing (KBHL). The implementation of legislation for the broiler partnership is weak. This can be seen from the tendency of the core companies to narrow down to the KKHN model, while other models are being pushed and bankrupt, and there is the occurrence of unilateral business relationship termination by the nucleus company to plasma as its business partner. The policy recommendations offered are: (i) There is a need to strengthen regulation and guidance by relevant agencies in charge of animal husbandry and animal health functions at the central and regional levels supported by Business Competition Supervision Commission (KPPU); (ii) The company is advised not to break the partnership relationship with small-scale farmers who have worked together for a long time; (iii) The company should reserve funds from the farmer's chicken harvest to reinvest the chicken cage.
Fitra Aji Pamungkas, Bagus Priyo Purwanto, Wasmen Manalu, Ahmad Yani, Riasari Gail Sianturi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 120-130; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2522

Abstract:
Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative solution that can be applied to replace invasive methods currently used in the monitoring of goats' physiological and hematological parameters. This study was done to compare and correlate the physiological and hematological conditions of young Sapera dairy goats and their correlations with results obtained by IRT. Four young Sapera dairy goats (weight of 26-28 kg) were kept in the individual rearing cage. Skin surface temperature (TS), rectal temperature (TR), body temperature (TB), heartbeat (HR), respiration rate (RR), and IRT at eyes, mouth, nose, legs, left body, right body, vagina, and vulva were monitored from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. in 2 h intervals. Blood samplings were done at the beginning and the end of the obsevation time. Results showed that IRTs at several body parts were positively correlated with physiological parameters, except for heartbeat. Negatively correlation was observed in hematological parameters. The highest correlation (r = +0.85) was observed in the correlation between the results of the left rear leg IRT on TB. It was concluded that IRT can be applied to examine goats’ physiological conditions especially body temperature.
Andi Saenab, Komang G Wiryawan, Y Retnani, Elizabeth Wina
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 139-146; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2475

Abstract:
The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of biofat with biochar or biosmoke (bioindustrial products of cashew nut shells) at the best level as feed additive in reducing methane production and improving in vitro rumen fermentation. This experiment had two series of combination and each used a randomized block design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. A series of biofat (BF) and biochar (BC) combination were added each to substrate as followed BFBC1 = 0: 100%; BFBC2 = 25:75%; BFBC3 = 50:50%; BFBC4 = 75:25%; BFBC5 = 100: 0%. While, a series of biofat (BF) and biosmoke (BS) combination as followed BFBS1 = 0: 100%; BFBS2 = 25:75%; BFBS3 = 50:50%; BFBS4 = 75:25%; BFBS5 = 100: 0%. Both series used a control treatment which contained only substrate. The in vitro experiment was repeated 4 times and each treatment was done in duplicates. The measured variables were: total gas and CH4 productions, dry matter, organic matter, NDF degradability, NH3 and partial VFA concentrations. The results showed that the combination of biofat and biochar levels resulted in a significant decrease (P
Santiananda Arta Asmarasari, Cece Sumantri, A Gunawan, E Taufik, Anneke Anggraeni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 99-111; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2502

Abstract:
Protein content in milk is an important indicator of milk. Accordingly, genetic improvement to produce Holstein Friesian (HF) dairy cattle is important. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variant of milk protein genes and its effect on milk component traits of Holstein Friesian (HF). A total of 100 HF were used in this study. The HF cattle used have physiological status in the lactation period 1 up to 3 and lactation change of 1 up to 12 months. Genotype variants of milk protein genes were identified using Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction method. Analysis of milk component was carried out covering the component of protein, fat, lactose, and solid non-fat (SNF) by using a milk quality measuring device (Lactoscan). Genotyping of cattle blood samples consisted of DNA extraction, genes amplification using the RT-PCR method. The result showed that protein milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN1S1-192 and CSN2-67 genes. Fat milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN1S1-192 and CSN3 genes. Meanwhile, solid non-fat milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN-BMC9215, CSN-BMC6334, CSN1S1-14618, CSN2_67, and CSN3 genes. Lactose milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN-BMC9215 and CSN2-67 genes. It was concluded that genetic variants of the milk protein genes have an association with the component of cow's milk (protein, fat, solid non-fat, and lactose).
Omar Mardenli, Mahdi Saleh Mohammad, Ahmad Yaser Alolo
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 131-138; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2517

Abstract:
The participatory relationship among the follicle size, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and cysteamine (antioxidant agent) contribute to the production of embryos characterized by abundance and good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of FSH, cysteamine and follicle size on in vitro embryo production of Awassi sheep oocytes. Follicles sizes were determined into two groups: small follicles (1-2 mm) and large follicles (> 2 mm). Oocytes were matured across two increasingly shared levels of FSH and cysteamine: A (40 ng/ml + 50 μM) and B (60 ng/ml + 100 μM). Results of the bilateral interaction showed significant differences across the follicle size (large follicles group) and the maturation treatment (B medium) in the rates of fertilization (highest value: 67.51%; p= 0.02), cleavage (highest value: 65.41%; p= 0.01), 2-16 cell stage (lowest value: 2.29%; p= 0.0001), blastocyst stage (highest value: 44.82%; p= 0.04), down to morula stage arrest (lowest value: 55.17%; p= 0.04) and Type I embryos (highest value: 52.87%; p= 0.03). Likewise, matured oocytes of small follicles group (B medium) attained the highest rate of morula stage (56.60%; p= 0.03). No significant differences were observed in Type II and Type III embryos. In order to obtain high yields of good quality embryos, it is advised to add FSH and cysteamine with levels of 60 ng/ml and 100 μM respectively to maturation medium of ovine oocytes obtained from follicles with a diameter > 2 mm.
Siti Darodjah Rasad, Nurcholidah Solihati, Kikin Winangun, Annisa Yusrina, Fahmy Avicenna
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 112-119; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2494

Abstract:
The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of incubation time on viability, plasma membrane integrity, abnormality, and DNA integrity of sexed Pasundan’s bulls sperm. The sperm sexing used 5% and 10% concentrations of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). A completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications was used in this study. The data were analyzed using variance analysis followed by Duncan’s multiple distance test. Parameter evaluated were sperm longevity, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), abnormality, and DNA integrity of sexed Pasundan bulls sperm. Results showed that incubation time gave significant effect (P<0.05) on the longevity of sperm, but not on the PMI of Pasundan bulls sexed sperm. The incubation time of 45 minutes gave the highest value of longevity sperm on the upper layer (4.33 days) and the lower layer (4.17 days). Furthermore, the abnormality of sperm X in the upper layer was 4.00%-4.20% and the lower layer was 4.10%- 4.40%. Meanwhile, the DNA integrity of an upper layer was 98.16%-98.66%, and the lower layer was 97.83%-98.58%. It is concluded that 45 minutes of incubation time significantly affected the longevity of sperm, but not plasma membrane integrity, abnormality, and DNA integrity of Pasundan bulls sexed sperm.
Fitrine Ekawasti, E Martindah
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 79-90; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i2.2511

Abstract:
Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis, neglected and poorly reported disease, caused by the protozoan Leishmania spp, genus Leishmania, transmitted through several vector species including the sand fly (gnat) genus Phlebotomus. This disease has complex ecology and epidemiology. This paper presents about Leishmaniasis disease from epidemiological aspects and risk factors; parasites, vectors and reservoirs; diseases transmission and control. Leishmania spp. is an obligate intramacrophage protozoan, characterized by its kinetoplast, a unique form of mitochondrial DNA. Clinical manifestations of Leishmaniasis depend on interactions between the characteristics of Leishmania species and the human host immune response, resulting in a diseases spectrum ranging from local lesions on the skin to diffuse involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. There are four forms of Leishmaniasis in humans with various clinical manifestations, namely visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar (KA), Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL) and Diffuse Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (DCL). Leishmaniasis caused by Leismania infantum is the most dangerous disease, but is never found in Indonesia. Leishmaniasis needs to be aware in Indonesia as tropical country that is suitable for the habitat of sand flies (Phlebotomus). The best method for controlling this disease is effective vector control and reduced contact between humans and vectors.
Nur Sabiq Assadah, I Sendow, Nlp I Dharmayanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 71-78; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i2.2457

Abstract:
Hantavirus is a zoonosis transmitted by rodents and have been spread in various countries. Hantavirus causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in humans is still receiving worldwide attention due to the high case fatality rate. Epidemiological studies have shown that Hantavirus is widespread globally, including in Indonesia. Indonesia is an archipelago and has a tropical climate, and is crossed by the equator so that it has an enormous diversity of animals, including those that become reservoirs of Hantavirus and other vulnerable animals. The high risk of developing Hantavirus in Indonesia does not rule out the possibility of a Hantavirus outbreak if no preventive action is taken. Until now there is no effective and safe vaccine or treatment for Hantavirus. Various development efforts continue to be made to obtain an appropriate and safe vaccine to prevent and stop the spread of Hantavirus. This paper discusses Hantavirus, including its structure and mechanism of transmission, the current situation of Hantavirus in Indonesia and the efforts that can be made to prevent Hantavirus, including the development of vaccines and their drugs.
Juniar Sirait, Kiston Simanuhuruk
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 103-111; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i2.2503

Abstract:
The obstacle in planting and developing forage plants is limited land. One solution to anticipate this is to utilize land in plantations by introducing forage shade-tolerant among the main crops. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia reaches 14,677,560 ha potentially used in the integration system. This article outlines the superiority of Stenotaphrum secundatum from the selection results so that the reader gets comprehensive information about this grass, both in terms of production, nutritional quality and digestibility. Stenotaphrum secundatum selection’s variety grass is a forage shade tolerant that had derived by positive mass selection method which had had been tried it’s adaptability at two different elevation in North Sumatra. This grass is very suitable to be integrated in plantation land. The average fresh yield of S. secundatum at 55 and 75% shading level reached 2,386 and 2,001 g/m2/harvest, respectively. The digestibility of Steno grass selection’s result on growing Boerka goat shows a fairly good value, which ranges from 60.7% to 72.8%. Palatability of S. secundatum grass in goats is very good with consumption reaching 3.6% of body weight. S. secundatum grass, besides being tolerant of shade, is also resistant to pests, as long as it is maintained with good management. The crossing of polyploid Steno grass with diploid has produced drought tolerant varieties. This grass also has advantages in terms of dry matter production, nutrient content and crude protein production compared to other grass species and can be planted in wider plantation areas with 55-75% shade.
R.M. Abdul Adjid
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 61-70; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i2.2490

Abstract:
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease attack cloven hoofed animals. Among the animals primarly livestock sensitive including cattles, bufalloes, pigs, sheed, and goats. The causative agent is the Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV). This disease is greatly feared by all countries as livestocks producer because it may raised great loss of economic impact. There are still many countries in the wolrd that are not yet free from FMD. The World Animal Health Organization (OIE/ Office des Internationale Epizootis) has included this disease in the list of disease taht must be reported “notifiable disease”. This FMD has become exotic for Indonesia since 1990, and currently included in the list of strategic infectious animal diseases in Indonesia. With current situation where the traffic of people and goods between countries in the world is very fast and frequent, it is possible for the disease to enter Indonesian territory. This paper discusses the FMD with aim of increasing alertness and readiness in preventing the entry and spread of the disease to Indonesia.
Riza Zainuddin Ahmad, Rida Tiffarent
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 91-102; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i2.2185

Abstract:
Haemonchosis in sheep and goats has a high prevalence rate in several regions in Indonesia and causes economic losses. The purpose of this paper is to explain the clinical symptoms and pathological aspects of Haemonchus contortus infection so that knowledge is expected to help in controlling haemonchosis. Clinical symptoms of haemonchosis is characterised by decreased production, cachexia, and severe anaemia due to worms that sucking blood from the abomasal mucosa. In chronic infections the symptoms shows general oedema. Gross pathological findings are pale mucosa and carcass, hydrothorax, ascites, and haemorrhagic abomasum. Whereas histopathological features shows desquamation of villous abomasum, extensive hemorrhage of abomasal mucosa-submucosa, infiltration of large numbers of eosinophil and mononuclear cells, and cells undergoing degeneration and necrosis of internal organs. In general, the above exposure will show that haemonchosis usually associated with anaemia, cachexia, oedema, haemorrhage, infiltration of eosinophil and mononuclear cells in the abomasal mucosa.
, Tiurma Pasaribu, Tresnawati Purwadaria, Tuti Haryati, Elizabeth Wina, Tri Wardhani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 81-90; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2501

Abstract:
Antibiotics (AGP) have been used as feed additives to promote growth and feed efficiency in poultry production. However, many countries include Indonesia now ban the use of AGP and attempts are made to replace the antibiotic to maintain good performances of broilers. Plant bioactives is one of the alternatives that could replace the AGP. An experiment was conducted in an attempt to replace the AGP in broiler feed with a mixture of some plant bioactives (liquid smoke of cashew nutshell, Phyllanthus niruri, and clove leaves). Eight (8) dietary treatments were formulated to have similar nutrients consist of negative control (NC), positive control (NC+AGP), diets supplemented with liquid plant bioactives in 3 levels and diets supplemented with powder plant bioactives in 3 levels. Each diet was fed to 6 replications of 10 birds each from 1 to 35 days old. The performances and the immune response of the broilers due to the treatments were observed. Results showed that the powder plant bioactives could not improve the performance of broilers. None of the feed additives (AGP or plant bioactives) affect the immune systems of the broilers. However, liquid plant bioactives in low dose improved the performance of broilers better than the AGP and therefore is suitable to replace the antibiotic as feed additives in broiler diet.
, A H Yanti, T R Setyawati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 68-73; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2026

Abstract:
The use of liquid semen for artificial insemination program of Etawah crossbreed goat (PE) is an alternative to replace frozen semen which is constrained by limited and expensive facilities. Production of liquid semen is faster than frozen semen, but the viability of liquid semen which preserved with a standard extender such as tris egg yolk is very short. The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of PE goat semen in egg yolk tris substituted with energy sources such as glucose, galactose, and mannose and to determine the most efficient energy source for semen preservation. This research was conducted from August to September 2018 at the Artificial Insemination Center in Lembang, West Java. This study was designed in a randomized block design (RBD) consist of three experimental groups divided into five groups. Fresh semen of PE goats were preserved using extender which energy source has been modified. Results showed that using glucose in PE goat semen extender produced the best motility among other groups (64.29 ± 9.2%). The highest viability was found in extender with fructose substitution (86.76 ± 2.3%). The longest viability of liquid semen was found in the extender with glucose substitution. It lasted for six days.
, Ms Mohammad, Ha Hassooni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 60-67; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2459

Abstract:
The use of cryoprotectants in vitrification would reduce the critical damages to the embryos, thus increase the survival rates. This research was conducted in the laboratory of reproductive biotechnology at the faculty of Agriculture of Aleppo University. The study aimed to evaluate the viability and survivability of early Syrian Awassi embryos under the influence of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) following vitrification. Embryos were vitrified in three solutions of cryoprotectants (A: DMSO (3 ml), B: EG (3 ml), and C which was composed of a combination of DMSO (1.5 ml) and EG (1.5 ml)). After thawing, embryos that had been vitrified in C solution achieved the highest rates of cleavage (P< 0.01) comparing with A and B solutions for 2-16 cell stage (50.00% Vs 30.77% and 36.36%), morula (9.00% Vs 44.44% and 40.00%) and blastocyst stage embryos (92.86% Vs 58.33% and 50.00%) respectively. Down to the hatching blastocyst stage, 2-16 cell stage vitrified embryos in C solution achieved an encouraging rate comparing with A and B solutions (39.20% Vs23.08% and 22.73% respectively). The rates of arrested embryos decreased significantly (P< 0.05) after thawing across the three solutions especially the morula and blastocyst stage (0.00 and 3.70% respectively) (C solution). No significant differences were observed in the three types of embryos across all stages and solutions despite the large range among these rates. Given the apparent benefit of the participatory effect of cytoprotectants, it is advised to use a mixture of DMSO and EG (1:1) in vitrification of ovine embryos.
Forough Masoumi, , Mokhtar Mokhtari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 91-98; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2467

Abstract:
As an organophosphorus, Diazinon (DZN) impairs liver tissue function by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and causing oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of Silybum marianum aqueous extract (SMAE) and L-carnitine (LC) on the stereological and histopathological changes of the liver in DZN-treated male rats were investigated. The rats in this study were placed into 9 groups of 8 each containing control, placebo, and a combination of DZN, SMAE, and LC. The animals received SMAE and chemicals orally for 30 days. At last, the liver tissue of all animals was removed. Then, tissue sections from the liver were provided to study the stereological markers including liver volume and weight, hepatocytes’ volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, connective tissue volume, inflammation rate, and a number of the hepatocytes’ nuclei. Also, the sample tissues were evaluated histopathologically. Treatment with DZN significantly reduced the liver volume and weight, hepatocyte volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, and hepatocyte nucleus number compared to placebo and control but it significantly increased the inflammation and volume of liver’s connective tissue. However, co-administration of SMAE and LC with DZN improved liver volume and weight, hepatocyte volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, connective tissue volume, and hepatocyte nucleus number alone compared to the DZN treatment. Liver inflammation was also significantly decreased compared to the DZN treatment but comparing to the placebo and control groups, it increased significantly. Simultaneous administration of SMAE and LC has protective effects on liver tissue and can reduce DZN-induced liver injury in rats.
Peni Wahyu Prihandini, A Primasari, M Luthfi, J Efendy, D Pamungkas
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 39-47; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2496

Abstract:
Information on the genetic diversity of native and local cattle in Indonesia is vital for the development of breeding and conservation strategies. This study was aimed to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the Indonesian native (Bali) and local [(Donggala, Madura, Sragen, Galekan, Rambon, dan Peranakan Ongole Grade x Bali (POBA)] cattle populations. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples (n= 75). Partial sequences of mtDNA cyt b, 464 bp, were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique (forward primer: L14735 and reverse primer: H15149). Thirty-four reference sequences of Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bos javanicus were included in the phylogenetic analyses. A total of 55 polymorphic sites and 13 haplotypes were observed in the whole breeds. No variable sites of mtDNA cyt b were observed in Galekan (kept in BCRS) and Rambon cattle. Overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.515 ± 0.070 and 0.0184 ± 0.0045, respectively. The highest (0.092) and the lowest (0.000) genetic distances were between Bali and Donggala cattle populations and among Galekan (kept in BCRS), Rambon, and POBA cattle populations, respectively. Both mtDNA network and phylogenetic analyses revealed two major maternal lineages (A and B) of the studied population. Most of the sampled individuals (69.33%, present in haplotype H8-H19) were linked to lineage B, which belonged to the same cluster with Bos javanicus. Overall, most of the Indonesian native and local cattle populations had a considerable genetic diversity and shared a common maternal origin with Bos javanicus.
, F Saputra, A Hafid, Abl Ishak
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 48-59; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2498

Abstract:
Information on non-genetic and genetic factors is required in the selection program. Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP) has been conducting a selection of the growth traits of Sapera goat (50% Saanen, 50% PE). This research was aimed to study non-genetic and genetic effects on growth traits from birth to the age of 120 days old of the 2nd generation (G2) of Sapera goat. Data on body weight and measurement were collected from kids at birth (105 head.) to the age of 120 days old (51 head). The 30 days interval growth data were calculated by linear interpolation. Non-genetic effects were analyzed by General Linear Model for unbalanced data by considering sex, type of birth, the month of kidding, and year of kidding as fixed variables. The genetic component was analyzed by a mixed linear model by considering sire as a random variable. Heritability was estimated by the paternal half-sib method. Non-genetic factors mostly had no significant effect (P> 0.05) on body weight and measurement. The 90 days old and 120 days old males had higher weights than females (P<0.05). Birth type and year of kidding had significant effects (P<0.05) on body weight and some measurements at certain ages. No significant months of kidding effect on the growth traits (P>0.05). Heritability values of body weight (h2 = 0.11-0.19) and body sizes (h2 = 0.03-0.24) were relatively low. Except high heritability values for birth weight and for body weight at 30 days old (h2 = 0.59 and 0.29), and for hip girth at 30 days old and at 60 days old (h2 = 0.13-0.54). The growth traits of G2 Sapera kids were affected by sex and year of kidding and slightly influenced by genetic (sires) factors.
, Sps Budhi, Z Bachruddin
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 74-80; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2066

Abstract:
Methane is one of the gases produced by ruminants during feed fermentation in the rumen. This experiment was aimed to investigate the production of monacolin K in rice bran fermented by Monascus purpureus mold and the influence of the supplementation of fermented rice bran using Monascus purpureus mold on elephant grass basal diet on fermentation products and methane production in an in vitro gas production method. The study consisted of two experiments. The first experiment analysis of monacolin K production in fermented rice bran using Monascus purpureus. Fermentation is done by the addition of Monascus purpureus at levels 0, 4, 8, and 12% (v/w) of substrate (rice bran) with 3 replications. Monacolin K in the substrate was analyzed using HPLC. The second experiment was the evaluation of supplementation of fermented rice bran to elephant grass basal diet using in vitro gas production. The treatment diet evaluated were Pennisetum purpureum (control), Pennisetum purpureum:rice bran (1:1 ratio), and Pennisetum purpureum:rice bran fermented. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Results from the first experiment shows that rice bran with the highest monacolin K content was in rice bran fermented at 12% by Monascus purpureus. Result from the second experiment showed that supplementation of fermented rice bran to Pennisetum purpureum basal diet did not affect rumen ammonia concentration, VFA, protein microbial production, and dry matter and organic matter digestibility. However, methane production (CH4) was reduced (P<0.05) by 50%, and the protozoal population was decreased (P<0.05) by 80%. It is concluded that supplementation of fermented rice brands containing monacolin K was able to reduce methane production and the protozoa population without affecting feed fermentation.
Fitra Aji Pamungkas, B P Purwanto, W Manalu, A Yani, R G Sianturi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 25-36; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i1.2243

Abstract:
Assessment on reproduction physiological parameters of ruminant caused by thermal stress usually uses invasive methods. However, these methods are less accurate because they are subjective, require a significant time and resources, and there are problems in animal welfare. Infrared thermography is one alternative solution that can be used. Infrared thermography is a modern, non-invasive, non-destructive, and safe technique to visualize thermal profile and surface temperature. This paper describes the application of infrared thermography in monitoring reproduction physiology status of ruminant. This method does not require physical contact and allows direct visualisation of temperature distribution so that it can be used as a reference in understanding and evaluating several parameters in livestock.
Yuli Retnani, N N Barkah, A Saenab, Taryati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 37-50; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i1.2473

Abstract:
Feed is one of the important factor that affect livestock productivity, so the availability of good quality feed is a requirement for livestock development in an area. In the tropical area, providing forage as a crucial feed for ruminants was hampered by fluctuating seasons. Likewise, the availability of agricultural waste as an alternative source of feed material experiences the same constraints, easily damaged, and bulky (voluminous). Therefore, feed processing technology is needed so that it is become durable, easily stored, and easily provided for livestock. One way to overcome this is to utilize technology for making wafers. Information regarding technology for making animal feed wafers in Indonesia is still limited. This paper reviews a number of studies that discuss the development of wafer processing technology, types of wafers, the main components of wafer compilers, wafer manufacturing processes, reactions that occur during wafer manufacturing, nutrient quality of various wafers, and the results of research on the use of wafers for feed livestock. Wafers are feeds that are processed using heat and pressure, so that a solid, compact, and high density product is formed. Feed wafer technology is a modification of cube and block feed. Wafers are divided into feed wafers, feed supplement wafers, and complete feed wafers. Feed wafers can be used instead of concentrates. Feed supplement wafers are high in energy and protein. Complete feed wafers contain energy, protein, fiber, and complete minerals that have been adapted to the daily nutritional needs of livestock. Feed wafer processing technology can be one of the strategies to provide feed with a constant composition of nutrients throughout the season and increase production and feed efficiency.
NiLuh Putu Indi Dharmayanti, Diana Nurjanah
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 1-14; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i1.2469

Abstract:
Coronavirus is a non-segmented, positive-stranded RNA virus with four main structural proteins, namely Spike (S), Membrane (M), Envelope (E), and Nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Coronavirus can cause diseases in the respiratory and digestive tract, as well as in central nervous system of animals and humans. There are four genera in the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily, including Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus. Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus are commonly found in mammals, while Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus are found to infect birds and mammals. Until 2018, zoonoses coronaviruses consisted of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Coronavirus became worldwide concern after it was identified as the cause of the pneumonia outbreak occurred at the end of 2019 in China. The coronavirus is associated with the fish market in Wuhan, then the disease is called COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Diseases-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2. Virus SARS-CoV-2 has infected >1.6 million people around the world and until the end of March 2020, it caused more than 99.000 deaths including 3.512 cases with the total number of deaths to 306 in Indonesia. This paper discusses Coronavirus and scientific information related to Coronaviruses in which several variants are zoonoses.
Indrawati Sendow, Atik Ratnawati, Nlp I Dharmayanti, Muharam Saepulloh
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 15-24; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i1.2479

Abstract:
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious disease in pigs that caused by the double-stranded DNA virus of the Asfarviridae family. The disease is characterized by haemorrhages in the ears, back and legs. This virus causes death in pigs and has a large economic impact. However, ASF is not a zoonotic disease, hence it has no an impact on human health. This paper will discuss about ASF disease, route of transmision, how to diagnose, and handling of ASF. This disease has spread throughout Asia in a relatively short time in 2019, and this exotic disease has been reported entering Indonesia at the end of 2019. There is no effective prevention and control of the disease. Several vaccines have been developed but are still considered ineffective while commercial vaccines are not yet available. Safety and effectiveness of vaccines are still being considered because ASF virus is very unique and different from other DNA viruses,. Therefore, prevention of ASF infection should be done by conducting strict biosecurity, applying regulations on the movement of pigs and pig products to the region or country.
Rijanto Hutasoit, R Rosartio, S Elisier, J Sirait, Antonius, H Syawal
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 51-60; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i1.2489

Abstract:
The integration of livestock with plantations is one of efforts to support livestock agribusiness. The large potential land area can be used for the development of cattle. However, the low production, nutrient content and digestibility of natural grasses in the plantation are still an obstacle to increase cattle productivity. Therefore, the development of shade tolerant of forages is one of the strategies to improve the quality and production of forages in the plantation area. This paper aims to review the role of Stenotaphrum secundatum as a shade tolerant forage in oil palm plantations in supporting cattle productivity. Biomass production of Stenotaphrum secundatum obtained was relatively high at 42,209 kg DM/ha/yr in oil palm plantations aged 3.5 years, estimated to be able to accommodate cattle of 11.8 AU/ha. With a moderate composition of nutrition, it can improve cattle growth performance with an average body condition score of 3.8. The livestock integration system by developing S. secundatum in the oil palm plantation area has a positive effect because it can reduce fertilizer and weeding costs of 4 million IDR/ha/yr. The average production of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) reaching 19.5 tons/ha/yr. It can be concluded that the role of S. secundatum in oil palm plantations can support cattle productivity and increase palm oil production.
Simon Petrus Ginting, Andi Tarigan, Kiston Simanuhuruk
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 26-33; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2196

Abstract:
Lactating goats are prone to negative energy status due to increased body fat reserve mobilization to support the high energy requirement of milk production. The study was aimed to investigate the responses of the lactating goat on diets provided in total-mixed ration differing in the energy sources. The experiment was conducted using a total of 35 does having 2-3 parities and an average bodyweight of 30.3±4.48 kg and BCS of 2.5 ± 0.05 on a scale basis of 1 to 5. Animals were allocated to one of five dietary treatments (seven animals/treatment) formulated to be iso-nitrogen dan iso-calory in a total mixed ration. Cassava meal was used as the source of glucogenic energy and bergafat as the main source of lipogenic energy. There were no DM intake differences (P>0.05) between the glucogenic diet (1.49% and 2.28% fat), but significant increases (P0.05) and ranged from 37 to 43 mg/dl and 39 to 51 mg/dl, respectively. Numerically, however, the blood glucose and urea level linearly increased as the diet becoming more lipogenic due to the increased feed intake. It is concluded that lactating goats offered diets with lipogenic energy sources (7.5% fat content) presented in pelleted total mixed-ration during the entire lactation period had a higher dry matter and nutrient intakes, body weight gain and body condition score compared to those fed diets with glucogenic energy source.
, Ahmad Baidlowi, Achmad Fauzi, Ida Tjahajati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 19-25; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2079

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the combination of mix culture bacteria (EM4®:E) and fungi (Trichoderma viridae:TV) on physical quality and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of peanut hull-based feed supplements. Basal feed was divided into four treatments, which were: P0 (BF); P1 (E:25%+TV:75%); P2 (E:50%+TV:50%),; and P3 (E:75%+TV:25%); and each treatment had three replications. Feeds were fermented facultative anaerobically for nine days. The observed parameters were physical qualities (color, odor, fungi appearance and pH), and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters (rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content). Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA design, and the significance of differences were tested using Kruskall-Wallis test for the physical qualities data and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) test for in vitro rumen fermentation parameters. Results showed that the combination of E and TV at different level did not affect odor and the fungi appearance parameters (P≥0.05), however, it significantly affected P≤0.05) color change from blackish (1.64) in P0 to brownish in P1, P2 and P3 of 2.44; 2.69; and 2.80, respectively. The pH also decreased significantly (P≤0.05) by 10.67%. Treatment also did not affect the rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content (P≥0.05). It is concluded that the combination of the EM4® 25%: Trichoderma viridae 75% on peanut-hull based feed supplement fermentation gives the best result on color and pH fermented feed product without affecting the rumen fermentation process.
Ibrahim Abu El- Naser
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 1-10; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2069

Abstract:
This study was done to determine the direct and maternal genetic and phenotypic trends for productive traits such as first lactation milk yield (FLMY, kg), first lactation period (FLP, d) and first lactation daily milk (FLDM, kg), and reproductive traits such as age at first calving (AFC, mo), First days open (FDO, d) and first calving interval (FCI, d). Data were collected over consecutive 25 years (1991 to 2015) of 1104 first lactation of 135 sires and 482 dams maintained at Mahallet Mousa farms of Animal Production Research Institute. Data were analyzed by Animal model to determine genetic parameters for studied traits. Means of FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI were 1546.5kg, 189d, 7.9kg, 37.9mo, 120.8d and 428d, respectively. The direct heritability (h2a) for same traits were 0.25, 0.18, 0.24, 0.45, 0.18 and 0.19, respectively. Corresponding maternal heritability (h2m) for mentioned traits was 0.12, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25, 0.12 and 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations (rg) among studied traits were varied between -0.19 to 0.38. Accuracy of predicted breeding value varied between 69 to 94, 0.37 to 94 and 42 to 91% for FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI of sires, cows and dams, respectively that revealed the genetic improvement could be actualized through each of cows or sires or dams. Additive and maternal genetic, permanent environmental and phenotypic trends were not significant for all studied traits. It indicated that it is important to set up a plan to improve genetic and environmental conditions thus, increasing productivity and realization of high profitability.
Marziyeh Naimi, , Sirous Naeimi, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 11-18; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2161

Abstract:
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and carcinogenic compound produced in cooking process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) gene expression level and ovarian histopathological changes in AA-treated rats. Thirty-six female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups including control, positive control (+VE Con), negative control (-VE Con), experimental 1 (Exp1), experimental 2 (Exp2) and experimental 3 (Exp3). Twenty eight days after the treatment, ERK gene expression level was measured by real-time PCR method and ovarian histopathological changes were evaluated. The ERK gene expression level was significantly decreased in the +VE Con, Exp1 and Exp2 groups as compared to the control group (p˂0.05), but not in the -VE Con and Exp3 groups (p˃0.05). Histologically, the +VE Con group showed a significant decrease in the number of primary, secondary and Graafian follicles as well as corpus luteum as compared to the control group (p˂0.05), but not in the negative, Exp2 and Exp3 groups (p˃0.05). In the Exp1 group, the number of primary and secondary follicles as well as corpus luteum significantly decreased (p˂0.05), however, the numbers of Graafian follicle and the corpus luteum were significantly increased as compared to the +VE Con group (p˂0.05). The AA was supposed to increase the apoptosis and folliculogenesis degradation in the rat ovarian tissue by decreasing ERK gene expression. Administration of NAC ameliorated the deleterious effects of AA in a dose-dependent manner and improve folliculogenesis by reducing apoptosis level. Thus, the NAC supplement could be helpful in ameliorating animal fertility.
, Citra Dewi Yulia Chistie
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 34-38; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2053

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate performance and quality of broiler duck carcasses fed with Morinda citrifolia and Arthrospira plattensis. A total of 168 two-week-old broiler duck with an initial average body weight of 463 ± 29.38 g and a diversity of 6.35 % were randomly allotted to 7 experimental groups with 4 replications each with 6 bird per replication. Treatments were T0 (basal diet as a control), T1 (basal diet + 0.2% of Morinda citrifolia powder (MP)), T2 (basal diet + 0.5% of Arthrospira plattensis powde(AP)) , T3 (basal diet + 0.2% of MP+ 0.5% of AP), T4 (basal diet + 0.4% of MP + 0.5% of AP), T5 (basal diet + 0.2% of MP + 0.1% of AP), T6 (basal diet 0.4% of MP + 0.1% of AP). Variables measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and visceral organ. Data were analyzed for variance based on a Completely Randomize Design and continued with Duncan’s multiple Range Test for differences. Result showed that the treatments did not affect (P>0.05) on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The treatments also did not affect (P>0.05) carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and visceral organ. The diet did not significantly improve performance and quality of broiler duck carcasses.
Indri Mareta, Gilbert Nathaniel, Turrini Yudiarti, Endang Widiastuti, Hanny Indrat Wahyuni, Sugiharto Sugiharto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 182-190; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2515

Abstract:
This study was aimed to evaluate effect of a mixture of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste (Mysis sp.) on the growth performance, blood profile, selected intestinal bacterial number and pH value of broiler digestive tract. The mixture of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste were incubated for 4 days and were then used in the experiment. For in vivo experiment, 40 day-old Lohmann broiler chicks were distributed randomly to two treatment groups, i.e., control (T1) and chickens given the mixture of 10% A. bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste in drinking water (T2). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At day 42, 2 birds from each pen (8 chicks per treatment group) were taken for blood and digesta collection. Internal organ weight and carcass traits were determined thereafter. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower (P<0.05) on treatment group than control. Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of treatment group were higher (P<0.05) than that of control. Total cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in treatment group than that in control. Total cecum coliform was lower (P<0.05) in treatment group than that in control. The pH values of the small intestinal segments (jejunum, ileum, cecum) was lower (P<0.05) in treatment group than that in control group. In conclusion, administration of the blends of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste into drinking water improved FCR, increased hemoglobin and MCV values, decreased gut pH and cecal coliform of broiler chickens.
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