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Saliu Mojeed Olanrewaju, Akeju Kemi Funlayo
European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 1, pp 21-26; doi:10.24018/ejsocial.2021.1.3.31

Abstract:
This study verifies the validation of Wagner’s theory and Keynes's hypothesis between three main government expenditure components (Health expenditure, education expenditure, and capital investment expenditure) and economic growth in Nigeria and Angola. The study employs Johansen cointegration and pairwise granger causality as the estimation techniques. Findings revealed no evidence of long-run relationships with government expenditure components of health, education, and capital investment and economic growth. The study equally reveals the validation of Wagner’s theory between growth and expenditure on health in both Nigeria and Angola. Evidence that confirms both Wagner’s theory and Keynes's hypothesis between growth and expenditure on education in Angola and validation of only Keynes hypothesis in Nigeria was found. Also, the study confirms the validation of Keynes's hypothesis between government expenditure on capital investment in both Nigeria and Angola
Thalisson de Brito Dinelli, , , Erika Souza de Melo
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 146-150; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.886

Abstract:
A project is a unique event that has an established deadline and with a purpose to meet a specific need of the team interested in the project. The objective of this work was to identify which method would be the most adequate for the reality of the studied environment and to show the benefits and losses in the adoption of each one of these methods. To achieve this objective, an analysis of 25 projects was carried out between the years of July 2019 and June 2019 to obtain a sufficient database and with these data to carry out a comparative study between three different methods of estimating deadlines in relation to what was actually practiced. The projects were divided into six main stages, the opening of the project, approval of the purchase order, delivery, confirmation of the start of operations, capitalization of assets and closing of the project. The first stage of data collection was to capture the number of days required to complete each stage in each of the 25 projects analyzed and thereby calculate minimum, maximum and average points of execution. With the data obtained from these projects, a simulation was made for the case of using the adapted media, Pert and Pert methodology. The studied environment has as a singularity the occurrence of multiple simultaneous projects and taking place in different stages. After comparative analyzes, it was Pert for presenting a greater balance between the metrics "projects within the deadline" and "variation of project X actual," however, the study also showed a lot of instability in the processes studied, so future studies to understand the discrepancy for the amount of days needed to perform a similar activity on different projects.
Maria Da Conceicao Da Costa Marques
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 137-145; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.855

Abstract:
The entities that operate in the agricultural activity, during the management must make decisions, which depend a lot on the information that is available in the opportune moment. Timely information and reliable accounting records are essential in this process. For the measurement of biological assets at fair value, there must be an active market. The fair value is based on the current location and condition of the asset and will therefore result from its price in the relevant market. There may, however, be advantages and disadvantages in the use of fair value in the measurement of a biological asset, a topic that will develop in this article.
Anastasia C. Handrian, Alvanov Z. Mansoor
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 133-136; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.875

Abstract:
Architecture is arguably one of the most complex and broad subjects, both for academic study and professional practice. Thus, many architecture students and practising architects participate in nonformal architecture-related learning activities. The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented impact on both formal and nonformal education systems worldwide; with the inevitable closure of schools and institutions, the sudden shift to virtual learning becomes mandatory. These drastic digital accelerations have caused the customers’ behaviour to change adaptively - the use of online education service and the market demands in nonformal education show an increasing trend. This paper presents a contextual and relevant business strategy for Klass Academy - a startup company in nonformal educational business - amid the pandemic and post-pandemic scenarios. It will underpin how the company could maintain its competitiveness by first analysing the existing business condition - both externally and internally, using several tools and theories from the literature study: Market Analysis, Porter’s 5 Forces, and Research-Based View Analysis. The findings from conducted analysis determine the proposed business strategy recommendations - with the use of Ansoff matrix as an analysing tool. The formulated strategies in this paper are categorised as Product Development Strategy and Diversification Strategy.
S. E. Haramain, S. O. Yagoub, A. A. Osman
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 41-45; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.199

Abstract:
Background: Microbial contamination continues to be one of the leading risks to food safety. Contaminated leafy green vegetables are the primary cause of infection among children, elderly, and immunocompromised people. The purposes of this work were to isolate and identify of Salmonella spp. in fresh leafy vegetables collected from Jeddah Central Market, Jeddah district, western area, kingdom of Saudi Arabia, estimated of the number and percentage of isolated Salmonella spp and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated Salmonella spp. Methods: Five-hundred samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp, by using standard microbiological and biochemical tests. Further, detection of Salmonella spp. was done by PCR with the primers targeting invA gene, a key factor for entry of Salmonella into epithelial cells. Susceptibility of the isolated Salmonella spp was done toward thirteen different antibiotics. Results: The percentage of isolation of Salmonella spp was 1.2 % (06/500). It was isolated as (0.40%, 02/500) from Basil, (0.20%, 01/500) from Spinach, Rocket, Parsley and Chards. Two isolates (2/6, 33.3%) showed positive Salmonella invA gene (244 bp). All isolated Salmonella showed resistance to Cephalexin (30 µg/disc), Metronidazole (5 µg/disc) and Methicillin (5 µg/disc).
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 39-40; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.203

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to report the presence of dipteran parasitoids in poultry farms in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in two poultry farms in the Midwest Region in Brazilian territory. The pupae were removed and individualized in glass capsules for the emergence of adult dipterans or parasitoids. The specie Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) presented a frequency of 46.4% and showed parasitism of 93.9%. The species Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) presented a frequency of 93.3%. Of the dipterans collected, the most important species was M. domestica for causing public health problems, disturbing people and being a vector of disease-causing agents.
Chizoba K. Ejuama, Benjamin C. Onusiriuka, Victoria Bakare, Thankgod O. Ndibe, Magaji Yakubu, Enemona G. Ademu
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 33-38; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.201

Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-induced fermentation on the antioxidant properties of Roselle calyx aqueous extract and determined the physicochemical changes of the fermented extract. Total phenolics, total flavonoid, ascorbic acid content, total monomeric anthocyanin content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of roselle aqueous extract were investigated before and after fermentation. Roselle calyx aqueous extract was fermented for period of 10 days. During fermentation, the extract was evaluated for pH, alcohol (%), titratable acidity (%) and total soluble solids (oBrix). Total soluble solids and pH significantly decreased at the end of the fermentation whereas titratable acidity and alcohol content significantly increased. Fermentation caused significant reduction in total monomeric anthocyanin content from an initial value of 3518±30.8 to 1075±28.2 CGE/100 g dry extract whereas significant increase was observed in total phenolic content from 195.75±76.01 to 455.5±1.41 mgGAE/100 g dry extract and ascorbic acid content from 1392±101 to 2028±108 mg AAE/100 g dry extract and total flavonoids increased from 193.0±74.25 to 291.5±4.95 mgQE/100 g dry extract but it was not significant. There was also a significant increase in 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of roselle calyx aqueous extract from an initial value of 44.15% to final value of 71.10% after fermentation, leading to an increase in antioxidant activity. Therefore, the quantity of phenolic compounds increased with fermentation process. This study showed that roselle calyx aqueous extract fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a better antioxidant activity.
Agnes Taiwo Hambolu, Ngozi Bibiana Nwabufor, Acharu Faith Tony-Okeme
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 69-76; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.826

Abstract:
This focus of this paper is centered on the extent to which rural women entrepreneurs can be used as a vital tool for economic development in the State when availed micro credit. The paper discussed the rate at which the micro savings from microfinance banks influenced rural Women’s entrepreneurial success in Oyo State. Two research questions were raised, two hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level of significant. The study is premised on Gary Becker’s human capital theory of entrepreneurship which stipulates that all human behavior is based on the economics of self-interest of individuals which operate freely within the competitive market, and Dunford Chris classical theory of microfinance. The instrument for data collection was personal interview and questionnaire tagged: Influence of Microfinance Banks on Rural Women’s Entrepreneurial Success in Oyo State. This paper found that, rural women entrepreneurs significantly differ in their responses regarding extent to which micro credits influence their entrepreneurial success based on age grade. Also, the second finding revealed that single women entrepreneurs rated the influence of micro savings on their entrepreneurial success higher than the married women. However, micro savings for entrepreneurial purpose is good for both single and married rural women entrepreneurs for continuity of their businesses during financial crises. The study recommended that government should release fund to microfinance banks with specifications on sex and age so that women will be accessible to grants and loans with low interest in order to reduce poverty in our society especially among women.
Sukardi, Hasyim, Supriyantoro
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 47-54; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.837

Abstract:
Telemedicine is an innovation in providing health services to patients, perceptions of technology vary from one individual to another. The level of technology acceptance is something that needs to be researched because it will affect the use of a technology in the company, this is because the received technology will continue to be used in the company and the rejected technology will be a neglected part. There are the important considered criteria for the acceptance of a technology of this research: the adoption of innovation, organizational measurement, business environment, and communication channels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of technology acceptance, organizational size, business environment on the adoption of telemedicine with the influence of the communication channel. The research method is an explanatory research using a quantitative approach. The population in this study was 156 people. The used data analysis method in this research is a Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The results from the MRA analysis show that technology acceptance is positively and significantly influenced by communication channels on the adoption of telemedicine. In contrast, the measurement of the organization and the business environment did not have a significant effect on the adoption of telemedicine in the health service industry. The implication of hospital management to increase technology acceptance must pay attention to the advantages of using telemedicine, the suitability of existing technology in hospitals to develop telemedicine, the ease of used technology, the results that seen from the use of telemedicine and it can be tested before being applied. Communication needs to be improved by paying attention to the credibility of the communicator, the content and context of telemedicine, the clarity and continuity of information, the used language is easy to understand and the right communication channel is interpersonal.
Fadhilla Sandra Adjie, Alvanov Z. Mansoor, Sony Rustiadi, Ira Fachira
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 124-128; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.873

Abstract:
In seeking differentiation value, Small Medium Enterprises tend to have limitations which hinder their way in developing the business strategy. As an SME that has established its two-year business operation—Kopi Bon is being analyzed and investigated from the perspective of behavioral economics’ Planning Fallacy—as it shows that the planning process is filled with distortion made from judgments as a result of behavioral biases. The study revealed how cognitive biases that involve planning fallacy as a supporting theory influences the company’s decision-making process—where later could be affected to the decision making in terms of operational activities which comprises of the quality of products and services, to the company’s branding. Also, the study reveals how understanding planning fallacy would make improvement towards business strategy to survive within the pandemic of COVID-19.
Nsikan Samuel Udoekong, Bassey Enya Bassey, Anne E. Asuquo, Otobong Donald Akan, Casmir Ifeanyichukwu Cajetan Ifeanyi
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 19-27; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.191

Abstract:
Background: Multi drug resistant bacterial agents that contaminate seafood cause several diseases in humans and are widely documented as a global public health challenge. Methods: This study evaluated the microbiological and antimicrobial resistance genes profiles of bacterial Isolates from shellfish vended at Iko and Douglas Creeks of Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of 540 shellfish (117 clams, 88 oysters, 136 periwinkles) samples were collected from various vendor at the two Creeks were analyzed. The samples were processed using standard microbiological methods to identify bacterial pathogens. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Isolates were screened for antimicrobial resistant genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Overall, a total of 135 bacteria isolates were identified. The most common isolate was Alcaligenes species 53(39.2%) followed by Pseudomonas species 44(32.6%), Providencia species 25(18.5%), Vibrio species 6(4.4%), and Paenalcaligenes species 7(5.2%). The isolates showed varying susceptibilities to Imipenem (36%) and amikacin (28%) but were all resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Fifty-three isolates had a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) of ≥0.9 - 1.0. Most of the bacterial isolates were detected with TEM genes (82.2%), SHV (51.8%,), VIM (50.3%) resistance genes. None of the isolates expressed Veb gene. Only 40.7% of the isolates expressed QnrB gene while none expressed QnrA and QnrS. Conclusion: The detection of these multidrug resistant clinically relevant bacterial species suggests a significant linkage of commonly consumed seafood in the community and environmental spread of MDR bacteria.
Thi Thu Phuong Le, Thi Ha Phuong Phan, Thi Ngoc Quynh Hoang, Thi Phuong Linh Nguyen
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 92-96; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.804

Abstract:
Innovative behavior is becoming increasingly important, especially when the world has witnessed the rapid growth of start-up companies. The purpose of this research is to measure the impact of 10 kinds of personal values on innovative behavior of employees, based on Schwart’s theory of basic values to build the research framework. A total of 455 Vietnamese respondents from different companies participated in this study. The type of this research is a quantitative research and we used SPSS 22.0 to analyze the data used in this study. The result showed that universalism and benevolence positively affected employee’s innovative behavior. Whereas the other values were found to have no significance of innovative behavior in our research.
Hammadi Hamza, Monia Jemni, Ali Bazmi, Tarek Tombari, Kameleddine Naggaz
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 11-18; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.192

Abstract:
Parthenocarpic date fruits are good sources of antioxidant and fibre, which could be changed into valuable by-products. There is no attempt to use it in technological processes and could provide a natural additive to enhance the quality of the product. In this study, fibre concentrate from partenocarpic dates (FCPD) was extracted, dried, and characterized. Two drying techniques, namely oven and freeze drying, were carried out, and then the FCPD were characterized. Thereafter, its ability to substitute flour in muffins was studied. The freeze-drying gave the highest yield of FCPD revealing lignin richness but cellulose and hemicellulose insufficiency. Drying techniques gave similar FCPD WHC and OHC but antioxidant capacity was higher in the case of freeze-dried fibre. Electronic microscopy showed that the more FCPD was introduced in the flour, the more the muffin crumb contained disrupted matrices. This could enhance the muffin freshness by improving the moisture retention. Moreover, although flour substitution by FCPD increased muffin volume and its OHC value, its WHC, moisture, mineral and sugar contents were not affected. Calorific value, phenol content and antioxidant activity were greater in the case of muffins with 5% of freeze-dried FCPD. Sensory analyses showed that fibre-enriched muffins had good scores as the control ones. In this study, we used oasis raw materials with good source of fibres and antioxidant capacity that could be used in the production of high value-added foods. Additionally, the research demonstrated that freeze-dried FCPD flour fortification enhances the physicochemical characteristics of the muffin. The parthenocarpic date fruits is an agricultural residue with interested chemical and functional properties that could be undertaken in food process industries.
Nera Marinda Machdar, Dade Nurdiniah
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 97-103; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.868

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze (a) the effect of deferred tax assets on accrual earnings management; (b) the effect of deferred tax expenses on accrual earnings management; (c) the role of transfer pricing as a moderator variable to strengthen the effect of deferred tax assets on accrual earnings management; and (d) the role of transfer pricing as a moderator variable to strengthen the effect of deferred tax expenses on accrual earnings management. The samples consist of 160 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The study utilizes the financial statements from 2012 to 2018. This study presents that (a) deferred tax assets influence accrual earnings management; b) deferred tax expenses affect accrual earnings management; c) transfer pricing does not strengthen the effect of deferred tax assets on accrual earnings management; and d) transfer pricing does not strengthen the effect of deferred tax expenses on accrual earnings management. This study contributes to accounting studies, tax authorities and regulators, and accounting policy makers. Firstly, this research contributes to the development of accounting studies on the role of transfer pricing as a moderator of the effect of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities on earnings management. Secondly, the results of this study can make a consideration for tax authorities and regulators in addressing company management actions to minimize the amount of tax paid by utilizing policies according to PSAK. It is worth considering how to sanction companies that deliberately reduce the amount of tax that should be paid. It is necessary to conduct tax investigation by the Directorate General of taxes on companies that are indicated to have practiced accrual earnings management with the aim of reducing the tax burden. Thirdly, accounting policy makers need to consider how management reduces the tax that should be paid through accounting policies that are allowed under PSAK and transfer pricing mechanism.
D. Francisca Kalavathi
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 28-32; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.198

Abstract:
Intracellular enzymes of Oscillatoria boryana BDU 92181 exhibited mineralizing activity on melanoidin, a recalcitrant pigment present in the distillery wastewater. Melanoidin decolourization was postulated to be due to the production of hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen released by the cyanobacterium during photosynthesis. The present study was aimed to find out the efficacy of the marine cyanobacterium O. boryana BDU 92181 in producing H2O2 and enzymes involved in hydrogen peroxide production with a view to utilize its potential for decolorization of melanoidin pigment in the distillery effluent. The enzymes involved in the melanoidin degradation have not so far been attempted with cyanobacteria. The results obtained in the present work suggested the activity of the glucose oxidase and Manganese peroxidase enzymes in a marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria boryana BDU 92181 and whose activity was found to be enhanced in the presence of melanoidin.
T. Venugopalan
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 34-41; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.852

Abstract:
This research paper empirically examines the economic, environmental, and social sustainability of Goa tourism from the perspective of the local community. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted among the local community across Goa, the model tourist destination of India. This research has used descriptive statistics for examining the environmental, economic, and social sustainability of tourist destinations of Goa. The factor analysis has been used for identifying the factors that determine the sustainability of Goa tourism from the perspective of the local community. The research findings prove that tourism development is ensuring the environmental and economic sustainability of tourist destinations of Goa. However, the findings on social sustainability indicators prove that tourism is exerting huge pressure on Goa’s society. The factor analysis discloses that the factors such as resource exploitation, resource management, socio-economic empowerment, economic and governance systems, destination empowerment, poverty eradication, and tourism governance, influence the sustainability of tourism in Goa.
Gamal S. Alhawbani, Nadia A. M. Ali, Abdel-Nasser M. Hammouda
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 9-16; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.819

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to test the effect of the Service Recovery Strategies on the Satisfaction with the Recovery, as well as testing the effect of Service Recovery Strategies on Distributive Justice. The study also aimed to identify the effect of Distributive Justice on the Satisfaction with the Recovery, as well as the test of the mediation role of Distributive Justice in the relationship between Service Recovery Strategies and the Satisfaction with the Recovery. The study was applied to a sample of (354) customers of the Internet companies in Egypt. Data analyzed using the SPSS program Data, as well as the AMOS program to test the quality of compatibility between data collected and theoretical data, and the Structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses of the study. The results of the study showed that, there is a positive significant effect of some Service Recovery strategies and Distributive Justice on the Satisfaction with the Recovery. Also, there is a positive significant effect of some Service Recovery strategies on Distributive Justice. The study also found that the Distributive Justice mediated in the relationship between the Service Recovery Strategies and the Satisfaction with the Recovery. Based on these results was presented a set of recommendations, as well as suggest some future studies relevant to the subject of the study.
Pratiwi Triasti, Charles Bohlen Purba
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 55-60; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.842

Abstract:
This study aims to measure the effect of training and work engagement on the performance of Mercu Buana University educational staff with work discipline as a mediating variable. This research is a type of quantitative research. The analysis in this study used SEM where the data processing uses the Partial Least Square (PLS) version 3.2.7 program. The number of respondents who were sampled in this study were 80 educational staff at Mercu Buana University. The results of the analysis show that there are differences in results between direct and indirect effects, where the direct effect on the training variable shows a positive and significant effect on performance og educational staff, while the direct effect shows that training has no effect on performance if it is mediated by work discipline, besides the direct influence of the variable. work engagement on performance has no effect, while the indirect effect mediated by work discipline shows the results of work engagement have a positive and significant effect on the performance of Mercu Buana University educational staff.
Fakrul Ahmed
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 42-46; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.839

Abstract:
The study tries to focus on the efficiency of the capital market through investigating the randomness of return series of Dhaka Stock Exchange of Bangladesh. Due to COVID-19 pandemic the worldwide capital market faces higher volatility than before. The study finds the week form of efficiency level of Bangladesh capital market. Special focus on Run test, Auto correlation test, predictability of tock return using ARIMA model the weekend effect anomaly and momentum strategy investing. The study found that the hypothesis of randomness of the stock returns are rejected for stock price index changes by using random walk tests, normality of return distributions, runs test and at different lags using ARIMA and the momentum tests which assert Dhaka Stock Exchange is not efficient even in the weak form.
Desia Indriastuti, Anas Hidayat
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 92-98; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.864

Abstract:
This research aims to analyze service experience and trust on satisfaction, analyze service experience and trust on loyalty as well as to analyze the effect of satisfaction on loyalty. This research was conducted by taking credit customers from Bank Rakyat Indonesia in Yogyakarta, a special big city in Indonesia. This research has utilized a purposive sampling technique. The number of samples as respondents in the study were 250 people. The calculation technique used in this study is the AMOS Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that there are significant influence of Service Experience and Trust on Satisfaction; and also, there are significant influence of Service Experience, Trust and Satisfaction on Loyalty. Based on direct and direct effects analysis among independent variables, Customer Satisfaction is found as a significant role of mediating, since total effects of Service Experiences and Trust toward Customer loyalty are bigger results than their direct effects.
G. Nowo Nekou, A.-M. Sontsa-Donhoung, Hawaou, M. Bahdjolbe, R. Tobolbaï, D. Nwaga
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 1-6; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.184

Abstract:
This work aims to assess the leek-arbuscular fungus symbiosis response to the effect of cutting and light exposure on the one hand, and the impact of seedling density on this symbiosis on the other hand. Allium Porrum was grown in a container in two different trials. Four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus hoi, Scutellospora gregaria, Rhizophagus intraradices and Gigaspora margarita were used to constitute the mycorrhizal inoculum. After 150 days of growth and inoculation, a series of cuts were made on the aerial part (0% = zero cut, 50% = half cut, 100% = whole cut). Plants that had undergone these treatments were placed in shade and sun for 30 days. The leek density per bag was varied by the order of 1, 2, 3 and 4 plant (s) by the pocket density test. Results showed that for 0% of cut in the shade, the vesicle occurrence decreases from 83.33% to 52.22%, and from 90% to 25.5% for 50% of cut in the shade. On the other hand, there is a significant increase in intra-root spores for a complete cut compared to other levels of cuts. For extra-root sporulation, under light, cuts have a negative and weak effect (from -11 to -3%) while in the absence of light, cuts have significant positive effects (from +16 to +61%). Regarding seedling density, the best root colonization (90%) and biomass production (14 g) are obtained with three plants per pot, but it is rather with a density of two plants per pot that extra-root sporulation is higher (153 spores/g). Variation in light, cut level and density significantly affects the development of mycorrhizal fungi.
Nguyen Thi Oanh, Phung Tran My Hanh, Nguyen Thi Dung
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 129-132; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.840

Abstract:
The Industrial Revolution 4.0 has much effectiveness both positive and negative sides on labours in Thai Nguyen province; is one of the political, economic and educational centers of the Northern mountainous midland in developing countries like Vietnam. This paper examines the influencing of Industry 4.0 on labours in Industry enterprises by using secondary data. The results show that in the Industrial Revolution 4.0, labour in Thai Nguyen’s Industry enterprises had many new job opportunities, the chance improving their qualifications, skills. But the labours had many challenges such as increasing in inequality between groups of labour at different levels.
Y. T. Szeto
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 46-49; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.204

Abstract:
Comet assay was performed on five racing horses (age, mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 0.5 years old) and five retired horses (10.2 ± 4.1 years old). DNA damage of whole blood samples were tested with or without UV irradiation. Three specimens were taken from each horse and one month apart for each specimen to test for reproducibility. Result showed that racing horses had statistically significant lower baseline and UV induced DNA damage in leucocytes than retired horses. Positive associations were also seen between age and baseline DNA damage or UV induced DNA damage from Spearman correlation analysis.
Alireza Miremadi, Omidreza Ghanadiof
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 111-117; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.867

Abstract:
This research highlighted the most essential factors that have influenced CRM from the customers’ side. To execute this research, the researcher has reviewed literature, design a questionnaire, and distributed 430 questionnaires among the respondents in main different cities. Furthermore, the results were analyzed through SPSS and SEM Software. This research’s comprehensive CRM models try to evaluate the association of Physical Environment Quality, Products & Services, Quality of Virtual Environment, and Quality of Electronic Banking Service as an indicator of External Customer Relationship (ECR). Moreover, this study has tried to measure the influence of Trust, Satisfaction, Commitment, and Loyalty in CRM and emphasizes the fact that CRM, ECRM, and Brand management are vital concepts systems that could enhance an organization’s revenue and increase the volume of valuable customers for the banking industry.
Dymas Widisatria, Lenny Christina Nawangsari
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 118-123; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.876

Abstract:
This research was conducted aiming to reveal how much the influence of Green Transformational Leadership and Motivation on Sustainable Corporate Performance with Organizational Citizenship Behavior for The Environment (OCBE) as a mediating variable. The method of data collection in this research used a questionnaire method by taking a saturated sample of 40 employees at PT Karya Mandiri Sukses Sentosa. Data analysis used descriptive statistics using SPSS and analysis method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with variance-based multivariate statistical techniques using PLS. The results showed that: 1) There was a positive and significant influence on green transformational leadership on sustainable corporate performance, 2) There was a positive and significant influence motivation on sustainable corporate performance, 3) There was a positive and significant influence OCBE on sustainable corporate performance, 4) There was a positive and significant influence on Green Transformational leadership towards OCBE, 5) There was a positive and significant influence motivation on OCBE, 6) OCBE mediates the influence of green transformational leadership on sustainable corporate performance, 7) OCBE mediates the influence of motivation on sustainable corporate performance.
Amar Kumar Chaudhary, Swati Raja
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 151-154; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.881

Abstract:
The present study aims to acknowledge the pre-eminent relationship between the liquidity and profitability which performs a key role in corporate finance. The liquidity management performs an indispensable role as deficient liquidity and surplus liquidity both affects the functioning, profitability, and growth of any organization. The present study analysis is on Tata Pigments Ltd for a period from 2013-14 to 2018-19. The empirical and analytical study applies descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression to test the hypothesis of the study. The findings suggest that there is no significant relationship between the liquidity and profitability. The liquidity indicators do not affect the profitability ratios.
A. M. Esan, Z. Khan, R. Kiran, T. O. Omolekan, K. A. Aremu, H. R. Y. Adeyemi
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 50-56; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.168

Abstract:
Meloidogyne incognita is a plant pathogen causing root-knot nematodes disease in many crops worldwide. Due to the environmental threat on the use of chemical fumigants, there is a need for a biological control method using microbial antagonists on root-knot nematodes disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to screen and evaluate the biocontrol potential of P. fluorescens strains against root-knot nematodes. The effectiveness of six P. fluorescens strains viz., Pf1, Pf2, Pf3, Pf4, Pf5and Pf6 were tested in vitro and also in pots experiment for their inhibitory activities and biocontrol potential against root-knot nematodes disease caused by Meloidogyne incognita on okra plant. Treatments of the nematode with 1.0-6.0% concentrations of 108 CFU/mL of Pf4 and Pf5 strains caused 70.0-95.0% inhibition on nematode egg-hatch and 2nd stage juveniles activity. Pf3, Pf4 and Pf5showed a decrease in the number of roots galling with increased root and shoot dry weights of stressed okra plant. Moreover, there was 25.99-36.43%, 37.76-79.145% and 42.62-62.37%, 69.83-98.09% increase in shoot length and leaf areas after 15th and 30th day respectively of P. fluorescens inoculation. The inoculated okra plants exhibited higher photosynthetic pigments, higher antioxidant enzymes activity and mineral contents than the nematode treated groups. Higher mineral contents were observed in the roots than the leaves of the okra plant subjected to the nematode infection. The bacteria strains especially Pf4 and Pf3 have considerable potential to reduce the menace of the nematodes in the treated okra plant. Therefore, the strains can be used for crop management against root-knot nematodes disease.
Radia Purbayati, Kurnia Fajar Afgani, Agil Krisna Rivanda
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 84-91; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.856

Abstract:
Indonesia is a country with the largest Muslim population in the world with a Muslim population reaching 87% of the total population. This is an opportunity for Islamic Banks to be able to grow and develop as a bank with the concept of a profit-sharing bank. It is appropriate for all operational activities, including pricing stipulations for Islamic banking products, to be free from the element of interest (interest rate free). However, in practice, there are still pricing stipulations in Islamic banking products that benchmark interest rates. This study aims to review the pricing determination of Islamic banking products in Indonesia. The method used in this research proposal is a literature review. The literature review produced several alternative purposed for the Islamic Pricing Benchmarking method as a benchmark that can be used by Islamic banking in determining the pricing of its products.
Sandra Vianey Mata
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 77-83; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.659

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is the development of a first and second generation in a manufacturing company in southern Guanajuato. For the development of the first generation BSC, a strategy was identified based on the company´s vision, which consists of making deliveries in the shortest time possible. Strategic objectives were determined in each of the four perspectives: financial, customers, internal processes, and learning and growth. The perspective is highlighted: Financial and Internal Processes, with the strategic objectives: “Reduce the number of returns so as not to reduce the utility of the company” and “Reduce the percentage of failures un the design of the boxes to deliver quality products to the customers”. The goals and indicators were established, as well as at least four initiatives that will help us in the fulfillment of each of the objectives. Subsequently, 3 strategic objectives are identified for each of the perspectives, these objectives are connected through a cause-effect relationship. The main one being: “Increase the speed of delivery of orders to generate reliability in customers”. Once the objectives have been identified, the series of activities to be carried out to meet these goals are described, and with this the second generation BSC is developed. Finally, a management tool is obtained that allow the company to comply with the proposed strategy.
Oswald Rudahigwa, Gustave M. Tombola
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 61-68; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.828

Abstract:
Trade facilitation is any process involved in the reduction in trading costs associated with enforcement, regulation, and administration of trade policies. This process intended to lower the related transaction costs for firms in global commerce thereby enabling continued growth in cross border trade in goods and service. Trade facilitation is a diverse and challenging subject with potential benefits for both private business people and governments at national, regional and international levels. Governments initiated a trade facilitation reform programme following complaints about widespread corruption and poor administrative practices. The reform programme included the implementation of single-point clearance and mechanism, the introduction of risk assessment procedures and the publication of customs nights and responsibilities in export clearance. The empirical literature indicates that, none of the study has been conducted in Rwanda to assess how the EAC custom union procedures improved the trade facilitation in Rwanda. To conduct this kind of study is very important because it helped to describe the extent at which cargo clearance procedures, tariff charges and other institution factors influence the trade facilitation in Rwanda. Rwanda is a land-locked country, facing tremendous difficulties in accessing major markets in the regional as well as in the rest of the world. These difficulties emanated from high transport costs owing to the fact that she has no direct access to the sea. Rwanda has been continually showing deficit in export and imports compared to other neighbouring partner states in EAC. Since there is no data about the procedures and systems applied by the individual partner around the boarders/Customs in Rwanda, the study therefore intended to analyze the influence of customs union on trade facilitation for Rwanda resulted from regional integration signed by the East Africa community. The results from the survey show that 0.83% strongly disagreed, 2.51% disagreed, 0.83% was not sure, and 42.3% agreed that they appreciate the cargo clearance procedures at the customs and 53.53% strongly agreed. The results from the survey revealed that majority of the respondents appreciate the cargo clearance procedures. The results further revealed that, the few cases where there is delay in the clearance originates mainly on the description on the rules of the origin. This is because to some products it becomes hard to determine the proportion of imported material in the mixture of the manufactured products. The results from the survey revealed that before EAC, each country used different clearance documents with different way of clearing the goods and description of the goods, but ever since the establishment of the EAC, all countries use the documents and same description of the goods. This helps in simplifying the clearance procedures of the goods since every trader knows what is required. The Partner States agree to simplify their trade documentation and procedures in order to facilitate trade in goods within the Community. The results from the survey revealed that the level of bureaucracy in the clearance of goods is low as evidenced by the majority of the respondents. This helps in reducing the time traders spends at customs during clearing and hence enhancing trade within the member state.
Yim Tong Szeto, Ho Yan Yeung
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 7-10; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.3.151

Abstract:
It has been suggested that diabetes is the disease associated with increased oxidative stress and might reflect with increased cellular DNA damage. To investigate the association between hyperglycaemic state and NDA damage of human white blood cells. The basal and UV-induced leucocytic DNA damages of 80 individuals, including 41 diabetic, 19 pre-diabetic patients and 20 normal subjects, were measured by comet assay. The HbA1c and fasting glucose levels were correlated to the DNA damage to detect the potential association. The leucocytic DNA damage was visualized under light microscope with Giemsa stain. The degree of DNA lesion was quantified by visual scoring. The diabetic patients showed the highest basal and UV induced DNA damage, while lowest scores were seen in healthy subjects. The DNA damages among diabetic, pre-diabetic patient and healthy subjects were significantly different from each other. There were significant positive correlations between the basal and UV-induced leucocytic DNA damages with HbA1c as well as fasting glucose levels. DNA damage as a marker of oxidative stress was seen in diabetic and pre-diabetic patients. The damage was positively correlated to the hyperglycaemic state of patient.
Rao Tahir Anees, Petra Heidler, Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere, Nordiana Ahmad Nordin
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.849

Abstract:
This study seeks to determine the impact of job stress and workload on turnover intention along with the mediation role of job satisfaction. A total of 140 academics and management personnel participated in this study’s survey. A partial least square structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. The results show that job stress and workload have a positive effect on turnover intention, while job satisfaction mediates the relationship between job stress, workload, and turnover intention. Future research could adapt and adopt the herein used methodology and research topic to other countries or in other industries.
Benja Angles Juanpere
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 26-33; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.848

Abstract:
This paper analyses the Judgement of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) of 7 August 2018, case C-475/17, on the request for a preliminary ruling made by the Estonia Supreme Court on the compatibility between the municipal sales tax, which said country’s legislation allows municipalities to establish, and value added tax (VAT), which is Community-wide in scope. Pursuant to its interpretation of the VAT Directive, the CJEU concluded that this municipal tax is compatible with VAT and therefore endorses its levying. Based on an analysis of said Judgement, this paper assesses its potential transference into domestic Spanish legislation, be this within the current legal framework or as a possible new tax type within a future reform of the local finance system.
Muhammad Tayyab Ul Hassan, Syed Hassan Jamil
European Journal of Business and Management Research, Volume 6, pp 17-25; doi:10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.847

Abstract:
This study investigates the influence of herd behavior on the Pakistan stock exchange indexes KSE-100 and KSE-30 during bullish and bearish markets. Using the daily market return from 2007 to 2020. We implement the method of main herding measures, Cross-sectional absolute deviation, and Cross-sectional standard deviation, to explore the influence of herd behavior in the emerging market of Pakistan. The results indicate the presence of market-wide herd behavior: (a) along with the different direction of market positive and negative return, (b) when trading volume high, (c) when stock market highly volatile, and (d) during and the post-financial crisis. Moreover, Investors don’t herd when low trading volume and low volatility. Our study fills the gap in the literature and contributes to academic relevance by exploring the influence of herd behavior among both bull and bear periods in markets of Pakistan, it also examines the possible asymmetric effects of herding related to the market with high-low trading volume and market volatility.
Adem Bilgin, Günay Erpul
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 29-40; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.3.141

Abstract:
Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) on the planet, daily processing billions of tons of wastewater and producing masses of sludge accordingly, act like artificial biogeochemical cycles themselves by producing material flow and creating microbial life cycles that normally do not exist in nature, a case with unknown cumulative long-term effects on the planet and human organisms. This study identifies WWTPs as a general Earth system problem with sub-problems to be challenged by new engineering techniques with an integrated natural science perspective. In order to challenge these problems, first the overall ecological role of WWTPs is clarified. Second a literature review (a) on the contents of the end products of wastewater engineering (b) on the effects of utilization of sewage sludge as fertilizer (c) on the utilization of sewage sludge as cement and construction material is provided. Current legal and practical situation in Turkey and EU is very briefly compared. Then, the design of the circular economic eco-bog system, which is a conceptual model of a new technology both to challenge these problems as much as possible and to act as an integrated industrial production system, is introduced. The new system is based on an innovative algaculture and ecomimicry of the evolution of wetland ecosystems from lake to terrestrial ecosystems. Algaculture and artificial bog components of the system use desulphurised fuel gases from both biogas component of the system and also concrete production component of the system. Desulphurization is to avoid H2S production in eco-bog unlike the natural bog ecosystems, and produce sulphurous fertilizers, and produce bog ecosystem services. Since, the fuel gas utilization from the biogas produced by archaebacteria is already net carbon zero, all system makes negative emission, namely sequestration. The CO2 to be released is fixed as biocarbon in algae in agriculture component, and then as organic and inorganic carbon after the sedimentation during accelerated evolution of eco-bog by creating hypoxia, acidification, and eutrophication conditions in artificial lake ecosystem. This sedimentation is mixed with sewage sludge ash for production of cement to have a higher quality concrete. Microbial biofertilizer and organic fertilizers are also produced from the algaculture component of the system, and industrial lichen from bog ecosystem. The system is inspired from lake death mechanisms of the nature, rather than lake health mechanisms in order to capture carbon and nitrogen in lithosphere and biosphere rather than releasing them to atmosphere as fuel gases, imitating natural bogs which are important carbon reservoirs. Finally, a new theorization of the issue is postulated as a way forward to reach SDGs, circular economy and bioeconomy targets of EU Green Deal as well as targets of RIO Conventions and Paris Agreement, not based on water quality arguments but based on mass and energy arguments, as well as arguments for ecologic health and preventive medical treatment for public health, and arguments for integrated industrial production in a holistic manner.
A. Sfarti
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 13-15; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.3.79

Abstract:
In the current paper we present a generalization of the transforms from the frame co-moving with an accelerated particle for uniformly accelerated motion into an inertial frame of reference. The motivation is that the real life applications include accelerating and rotating frames with arbitrary orientations more often than the idealized case of inertial frames; our daily experiments happen in Earth-bound laboratories. We use the transforms in order to generalize the Thomas-Wigner rotation to the case of uniformly accelerated boosts.
Shahrukh Khan, Hina Nauman, Sania Saher, Hafiza Arifa Imtiaz, Amina Bibi, Hajrah Sajid, Tayyab Mumtaz Khan, Madeeha Mumtaz, Somia Bibi
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 55-58; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.878

Abstract:
Obesity has become a pandemic problem and it is infamous for causing both physical and psychological disorders. Even though obesity is influenced by many factors which include fast food, menopause, socioeconomic status, and genetics, however, gender has paramount importance as a factor that affects obesity when we do not consider other factors. Thus, our current research study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and influence of gender on it. Our current cross-sectional descriptive study was finished in almost 6 months from August 2020 to January 2021 among general population of Pak Aran Society Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 183 people were recruited in study in accordance to set criteria of exclusion and inclusion. Only those people whose age was from above 20 years to below 61 years, and who had no physical or mental illness and were willing to participate were enrolled in study. Data collection was done through one self-structured proforma and WHO Classification of Weight Status established on BMI. SPSS version 25 was applied to perform data analysis. Various statistical tests like Chi-square test, Independent Sample t-test, and One-Way ANOVA test were used to evaluate the study variables and their relationship. Overall, our current study indicates high prevalence (19.10%) of obesity among all participants, nevertheless, mean of BMI value was higher among women (26.26 SD of ±3.70) as compared to men (25.06 with SD of ±4.27) which shows that women had higher risk of development of obesity than men. However, relationship between obesity and gender was statistically insignificant (p=0.262). The difference of BMI mean value between women and men was significant statistically (p=0.046). Significance difference was also observed in BMI mean value of across four grades of weight status (p=0.0001). In summary, in general, prevalence of obesity is higher among women than among men which means female gender raises the obesity incidence among women.
Oladotun A. Ojo, Musibau A. Ibrahim, Peter A. Oluwafisoye
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 46-49; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.777

Abstract:
The amount of absorbed X-ray dose by a particular human at a single exposure can have some effect on DNA. There is therefore the need to apply the correct range of dose to patients during X-ray. X-ray films from exposed adult patients were collected for use at a hospital. Each of the film’s optical densities was measured at various spots on the film and averaged as the mean. An estimated range of absorbed dose for the films was found to be between 0.83 mGy to 8.86 mGy. The results were compared with the 1.2 mGy value, which is the absorbed dose that should not be exceeded during an exposure, so that the DNA is not altered. The doses above this value are capable of doing harm to the human DNA. As a result, that ionizing radiation of low dose values can produce an effect on human DNA, hence this occurrence may be checked with a research work of this nature.
A. Al-Khaled, H. Abutayyem
European Journal of Dental and Oral Health, Volume 2, pp 1-8; doi:10.24018/ejdent.2021.2.3.50

Abstract:
This literature review aims to discuss augmented reality systems and provide an update on the most recent technological developments and applications in the dental field. The studies that met the inclusion criteria in the last 20 years, from 2000 to 5 May 2020, in the PubMed database were included. The search resulted in n=72 articles, in which n=40 included and n=32 excluded. AR systems are still being tested as there are still some limitations that limit the adoption of this technology in the dental sector. Several studies have resulted in a device appropriate for clinical use, yet no regular clinical application was recorded.
Donatus I. Bayem, Henry O. Osuagwu, Chimezie F. Ugwu
European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Volume 5, pp 14-22; doi:10.24018/ejece.2021.5.3.323

Abstract:
A Web portal aggregates an array of information for a target audience and affords a variety of services including search engines, directories, news, e-mail, and chat rooms, and they have evolved to provide a customized gateway to Web information. Also, a high level of personalization and customization has been possible. The portal concept could further be established to function as a classy Web interface that can serves as sustenance for variety of the task performance. The aggregate information Web portal will serve as portals for the information needs of users on the web. The Web based portal enable marketing of users broadly across a wide variety of interests. Most of the popular usage of the Web based aggregate information portal probably refers to the visual and user interface (UI) design of a Web site. It is a crucial aspect since the visitor is often more impressed with looks of website and easy to use rather than about the technologies and techniques that are used behind the scenes, or the operating system that runs on the web server. In other words, it just does not matter what technologies that is involved in creating, when the site is hard to use and easy to forget. This paper explores the factors that must be painstaking during the design and development of a Web based aggregate information portal. Design as a word in the context of a Web application can mean many things. A working Web based aggregate information portal, kaseremulticoncept was developed to support the various users’ task performances. A number of technologies was studied and implemented in this research, which includes multi-tier architecture, server and client side scripting techniques and technologies such as PHP programming languages and relational databases such as MySQL, Structured Query language (SQL) and XAMPP Server.
Hashiru Isiaka Muhammad, Kabir Ibrahim Musa, Mustapha Lawal Abdulrahman, Abdullahi Abubakar, Kabiru Umar, Abdulhakeem Ishola
European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Volume 5, pp 9-13; doi:10.24018/ejece.2021.5.3.321

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new face detection scheme using deep learning and achieving state-of-the-art recognition performance using real-world datasets. We designed and implemented a face recognition system using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Faster R Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R CNN). In particular, we improve the state-of-the-art Faster RCNN framework by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique and Faster R CNN to detect and recognise faces in a face database. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract features and dimensionality reduction from the face database, while the Faster R Convolutional Neural Network algorithm was used to identify patterns in the dataset via training the neural network. The three real-world datasets used in our experiment are ORL, Yale, and California face dataset. When implemented on the ORL face dataset, the algorithm achieved average recognition accuracy of 99%, with a recognition time of 147.72 seconds for 10 runs, and the recognition time/image was 0.3 sec/image on 400 images. The Yale face dataset achieved average recognition accuracy of 99.24% with a recognition time of 63.45 seconds for 10 runs, and the recognition time/image was 0.53 sec/image on 120 images. Finally, on California Face Database (CFD), it achieved average recognition accuracy of 99.52% with a recognition time of 226.05 seconds for 10 runs, and the recognition time/image was 0.27 sec/image on 827 images. On the CFD dataset, however, the proposed approach has excellent classification performance when the recall ratio is high. The proposed method achieves a higher recall and accuracy ratio than the Faster RCNN without PCA method. For the F-score, the proposed method achieved 0.98, which is significantly higher than the 0.95 achieved by the Faster-RCNN. This demonstrates the superiority of our model performance-wise as against state-of-the-art, both in terms of accuracy and fast recognition. Therefore our model is more efficient when compared to the latest researches done in the area of facial recognition.
H.M. Khaleduzzaman, Nafisa Jabin Mishu
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 22-24; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.836

Abstract:
Vaccine is an important means to prevent COVID-19. It is a new modality of treatment for COVID-19 so many more to know about it especially in case of Bangladeshi people. Total 18.1% volunteers out of 1160 participated were noticed various side effects. These effects have been found within two months of observation following first dosage of vaccination against COVID-19. Fortunately, most of the side effects were mild and within 48 hours of vaccination. Its effectiveness is still questionable. To prove effectiveness, safety, side effects and additional benefit needs further study.
Shaikh Shamim Hasan, Sidhyartha Roy, Soumitra Saha, Muhammad Ziaul Hoque
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 14-20; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.287

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the farmers’ perception on vermicompost as waste management practice and economic return at the Baliadangi and Sadar upazila of Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh. Utilizing the survey method and pretested interview schedule, data were collected by face-to-face interview from proportionate randomly selected 115 respondents. The findings of the study exhibited that on an average the respondents were 40 years of age with 4 members in their family and about 90% of them were educated either primary, secondary, or tertiary level. The respondents’ average family annual income was about 2870 USD and they earned an additional income of about 115 USD annually from vermicompost. Out of all the respondents 70% and 86% of them participated agricultural and vermicompost related training, respectively. Participation of different training programs helped the respondents to improve their knowledge on vermicomposting and vermiculture which was exhibited by their 88% moderate to better knowledge. Furthermore, 79% respondents exhibited moderately to highly favorable perception towards vermicompost as waste management practice and economic contribution. In addition, out of the selected attributes, five attributes, namely, respondents’ family size, family annual income, income from vermicompost, training received on vermicompost and knowledge of the respondents on vermicompost had significant contribution on the perception of vermicompost. As a whole, the findings of the study offer new empirical evidence on the farmers level perception to vermicompost as waste management practice which may be utilized by the policy makers to develop future policy to adopt and disseminate of the vermiculture technique to the general farmers of the country.
V. Ayodele Ijaware
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 7-13; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.282

Abstract:
Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) over the years play great role when integrated in the right way to study changes taken place on the planet. Most times, these changes are natural and beyond human interaction but often times too, the changes are occasioned by human factor in the search for development and daily survival. In achieving this, the forest is made to suffer unnecessarily thereby reducing its health status through excessive forest resources depletion. This study focusses on the monitoring of forest resource health in Akure forest reserve between 1972 and 2013 using Landsat MSS of 11/11/1972, Landsat TM of 17/12/1986, Landsat ETM+ of 03/01/2002, and Landsat ETM+ of 02/02/2013 downloaded from USGS website. Minimum Mahalanobis distance supervised classification was used to categorize land use pattern in the study area while ILWIS 3.2 Academic GIS was deployed to perform NDVI image classification analysis with a precision of 0.01m to determine the health status of the forest reserve. The analysis revealed that the total annual rate of depletion for 41 years stood at 2.46% while forest health status diminished during the study period as NDVI value ranged between -0.04to +0.44 (1972) to -1.0to +1.0 in 2013. The study recommends that open areas which are not homogeneous forest (shrub/grass land) detected in this study should be re-planted with varieties of tree species without delay to allow carbon sequestration for overall human benefits.
Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh, Pavel Rony Mbou Tadzo, Placide Deurnaye, Gabriel Djongnang, Zachee Ambang
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.231

Abstract:
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) trees are threatened by my many fungal diseases, among which pestaliotiopsis occupies an important place in terms of damage created in Cameroon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of neem seed (AENS) on the development of Pestalotia heterocornis, the causative agent of pestalotiopsis of cashew. Isolates of P. heterocornis were obtained from diseased cashew leaves collected in the orchads. The concentrations of AENS were C1 = 500 μg/ml, C2 = 50 μg/ml and C3 = 5 μg/ml. Mancozeb 80 WP (Mz) was used as positive control. Effect of Mancobeb 80WP on the growth and spore germination of isolates were performed. The effect of AENS on the plants was evaluated in vivo. Four (4) isolates of P. heterocornis were used. AENS C1 concentration reduced the growth of all isolates. The percentage of inhibition was ranged from 45 to 90 % with the other concentrations. AENS did not inhibited spore germination (0.0 %). But Mz totally inhibited conidia germination of all isolates. In vivo, AENS protected plants against P. heterocornis. AENS can be integrated in management of cashew plants against P. heterocornis.
Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo, Adrian E. Iglesias Reyes, Gustavo Ruiz Lang, Jorge Saltijeral Oaxaca, Juan Eulogio Guerra Liera, Edmundo Abel Villa Mancera, Ma De Lourdes Juárez Mosqueda, Armando Gómez Vázquez, Pedro Sánchez Aparicio, Carlos J. Bedolla Cedeño, et al.
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 21-33; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.184

Abstract:
At the beginning of the 1980s, a series of very profound changes were initiated in the milk cow nutrition approaches, as a consequence of the highest levels of production per cow that were reached by the productive systems of the northern hemisphere. Nutrition is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues. The nutrients are fundamental for the animals to carry out their different productive functions. When we consider the aspects that touch the field of nutrition of ruminants, we understand the importance of this group of animals of zootechnical interest, which are able to process plant components that are not consumed by other mammals, the structural carbohydrates (fiber). Ruminant comes from the word "rumen", which is the largest of the compartments in the stomach of four compartments of a bovine, sheep or goat. This structure is where microbial fermentation takes place. The ruminants, through evolutionary processes, developed life relationships with microorganisms which enabled them to use fiber as food, that is, they developed in some way their "food factory". They eat the forage to be transformed by the rumen's microbiota into substances that are the source of energy for the animal and for the microbial synthesis, the microbial cells are an excellent source of proteins for the animal. However, the processes that make the ruminal microbiota are, in a certain way, inefficient. Grass degradation produces volatile fatty acids, microbial protein and gases. Within these gases, some are environmental pollutants such as CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Millions of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi live in the rumen and degrade parts of the plant rich in energy, making them digestible to the animal host. After the forage has been digested in the rumen and degraded to smaller parts, it can pass through the reticulum and omasum, which function as colanders that trap large pieces of material preventing them from reaching the abomasum, or "true stomach", where digestion continues. The nutritional concern for ruminants focuses on energy (ie, carbohydrates), protein, minerals, vitamins, and water. The energy (carbohydrates) is responsible for the functions of growth and maintenance of the animal, and the generation of heat. The protein makes the tissue grow and performs other vital functions. Other nutrients and minerals such as vitamin A and E, calcium, phosphorus, and selenium can be fed to "free choice" as a mineral supplement. Dairy cows of high productive potential (9000-12000 / liters / lactation) currently represent a real challenge for nutrition. For many years, there has been evidence of the impact of nutrition on the reproductive behavior of the bovine female. The main factor that affects reproduction is the undernourishment due to the scarcity and quality of the food. Subsequent research has shown that nutritional effects are exerted through complex interrelations between various aspects such as: content and use of body reserves, distribution of nutrients between different systems and organs and prioritization of the use of nutrients for various functions in addition to reproduction.
Ahmed Zafer Alshabab, Monsour Heba Almakrami, Faisal Hassan Almilaq, Ibrahim Saleh Alhareth, Zahid Hossain, Khaled Mashoor Hyderah, Abdulrahman Ahmed Aseri, Sultan Mohammed Alanazi, Mohammad Abdo Abdulrazzaq
European Journal of Dental and Oral Health, Volume 2, pp 1-10; doi:10.24018/ejdent.2021.2.3.54

Abstract:
Background: The common periodontal diseases are of public health concern, with 20-50 percent of the global population affected by gingivitis and or periodontitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the common periodontal diseases occurring among the patients who attended the College of Dentistry hospital of Najran University. And also, to determine the correlation among the age groups, nationalities and risk factors related to periodontal diseases. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based descriptive type study was performed, providing 352 records of male patients suffering from various types of periodontal diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and the American Academy of Periodontology (CDC-AAP) classification was used for periodontal diagnosis. Patients were grouped by age as group A (6-20 years), group B (21-40 years), group C (41-60 years) and group D (above 60 years). Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression model were adapted for data analyses. Results: Out of 352 patients, 217 (61%) and 135 (39%) patients suffered from gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively. Mean age of the patients was 32.81 ± 15.96 (range 6-97) years. Sixty-nine (19.6%), 200 (56.8%), 60 (17.0%) and 23 (6.5%) patients of Group A, B, C and D suffered from different forms of periodontal diseases, respectively. Eighty three percent patients were of Saudis and Yemenis and the rest were of Egyptian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Indian, Sudanese, Jordanian, Syrian, Chadian, Ghanaian and Tunisian nationalities. Highest number of patients suffered from moderate generalized gingivitis 142 (40.3%) and moderate localized periodontitis 57 (16.2%). Majority had plaque & calculus 290 (82.4%) and the rests had diabetes mellitus, smoking and tobacco chewing habit, asthma, hypertension and heart disease. Correlations among periodontal disease, age group and risk factor were found significant (p <0.05) though between the nationality and risk factor was found not significant (p 0.999). Conclusions: Significant relationships were observed among periodontal diseases and age, nationality and risk factors. This small study of Najran may reflect the periodontal status in a population of Saudi Arabia. Further broad scale study would be conclusive establishing such relationship in Saudi Arabian population.
Dafni Eleftherou, Aristidis Arhakis, Sotiria Davidopoulou
European Journal of Dental and Oral Health, Volume 2, pp 9-17; doi:10.24018/ejdent.2021.2.3.53

Abstract:
Aim: This literature review aims to update the evidence for orofacial manifestations and current treatment recommendations for children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Background: Sickle cell disease is a frequent hemoglobinopathy and a life-threatening genetic disorder. The lifelong condition is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive crisis that may occur in a variable range of clinical presentations in different regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Review results: This review explored the most common orofacial alterations of pediatric patients with SCD. Dental caries is a common finding in SCD pediatric patients, especially in those who are socio-economically vulnerable. Moreover, malocclusions occur in high prevalence in SCD pediatric patients. Other oral health complications seen in SCD patients include periodontal inflammation, bone changes, infections, mental nerve neuropathy, facial overgrowth, delayed tooth eruption, dental anomalies, pulp necrosis, soft tissue alterations and salivary changes. Dental infections may trigger a vaso-occlusive crisis leading the patient to a higher probability on arriving in hospital emergency departments and in need for further hospital admission to deal with the correlated complications. Thus, preventive dental care and non-invasive dental procedures are the principal focus in SCD patients in order to avoid possible subsequent complications. Conclusion: The review showed that in pediatric patients with SCD the risk for orofacial manifestations and complications depends not only on the presence of SCD but also on other confounding factors such as oral hygiene, diet habits and social conditions. Moreover, more well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the real link between SCD disease and its impact on stomatognathic health.
Ali Yakout Dogheim, Khaled Mohamed Noaman, Khadiga Youssef Kawana, Walaa Mohamed Al Samolly
European Journal of Dental and Oral Health, Volume 2, pp 11-16; doi:10.24018/ejdent.2021.2.3.55

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare histologically the repair response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed dogs' teeth with: Dycal, UltraBlend Plus and TheraCal LC: at different time intervals (1 week, 1 month and 3 months) Materials and methods: A total of 54 permanent teeth of six healthy male mongrel dogs were used, divided into three groups (n=18) according to pulp capping material used. Group I: Dycal, Group II: UltraBlend Plus and Group III: TheraCal LC. All cavities were restored with Riva LC Resine Modified Glass Ionomer. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to storage time (n=6). Control samples (3 teeth) were added representing normal untouched teeth. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, processed to paraffin blocks. Serial sections of 5 microns thickness were prepared and stained with H&E then examined under light microscope for histologic examination and were evaluated histologically for pulp tissue organization and reparative tissue formation following scoring system used by Nowicka et al. Results: As regards calcific barrier, all three materials, by the end of third month showed: continuity (score 3) with irregular dentin bridge formation, the morphology showed mostly irregular hard tissue and the tubules were mild in most specimens. Conclusion: Theracal is superior to Dycal and UBP for pulp capping of mechanically exposed human teeth, it can be used as an effective direct pulp capping material. There was no statistically significant difference between the three capping agents by end of third evaluation period as regards calcific barrier and odontoblastic layer.
F. Hadid, O. Oulghoul, H. Benjelloun, O. Benhommad, A. Raji, Y. Rochdi
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 46-48; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.852

Abstract:
Primitive tuberculosis of the nasopharynx is rare. Clinical symptoms and paraclinical examinations are often confusing. Pseudotumour forms are frequent, which poses a problem of differential diagnosis with cavum cancer. We reported two cases of nasopharyngeal tuberculosis, followed up in the ear, nose and throat department of the Arrazi Hospital of the Mohammed VI University Hospital in Marrakesh. The first case concerned a 22-year-old female patient admitted to hospital for an etiological assessment of a right spinal adenopathy evolving in a context of altered general condition with weight loss, anorexia, and night sweats. The second case was a 14-year-old patient with a fistulised right spinal adenopathy with nasal obstruction and homolateral deafness. Nasofibroscopy in both patients showed a burgeoning tumour on the right posterolateral wall. A biopsy of the cavum was indicated. The histological study of the biopsies revealed an epithelial-giganto-cellular granuloma with caseous necrosis. This allowed to make the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tuberculosis, and an antibacillary treatment was instituted. The evolution was favorable.
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