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Estrella T. Arroyo
NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture, Volume 3, pp 1-10; doi:10.12928/notion.v3i1.3870

This study explored the concept of “HEROINE” in the context of “Darna,” a Filipino graphic narrative written by Mars Ravelo that was first published on May 13, 1950 by Filipino Komiks. Extracted from the 27 episodes of “Darna” are realities of experience as well as innuendos related to the real character of Darna, the super heroine. Further, the study delved into a deeper meaning of heroine beyond its lexical meaning. As a result, the researcher formulated her own definition of “HEROINE” as “Humaneness and Equanimity in Reimagining Optimistic, Iconic, Novel, and Empowered” persona, which led to the findings that, indeed, Darna has reached her apotheosis as a superheroine. These insights were not fathomed had it not been for the researcher’s focus on close reading, application of Expressive Realism, and “Argustic” reading. Keen eyes are needed to enjoy reading a graphic narrative which is both visual and verbal. The study proved that in Philippine society, Darna is the most accepted, loved and idolized Filipino icon as savior of a devastated and crippled society after World War II. Lastly, it is aimed that this humble analysis will put itself into the realm of a body of Pop Literature and the Humanities.
Nurrahmawati Nurrahmawati, Ida Puspita
NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture, Volume 3, pp 11-17; doi:10.12928/notion.v3i1.3787

This study is aimed to analyze the comparison between women’s representation and resistance in Josephine Chia’s novel Frog under a Coconut Shell from Singapore and The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy from India. By using a comparative literature approach, the research focuses on the differences and similarities in women’s representation and resistance to get gender equality in Singaporean and Indian society. Chia’s novel tells the story of Soon Neo and her daughter, Josephine, who struggles to get their rights as women in the midst of patriarchal Peranakan culture in Singapore, and Roy’s novel tells the story of Ammu and her twins children, Rahel and Estha, who fight against the social rules in India that are discriminative against women and the Untouchable people (Paravan). The research employed a descriptive qualitative analysis method and the theory of liberal feminism. There are similarities in the representation of women who are considered as second class and become the objects both sexually and economically; and restrained by their patriarchal society and culture. The difference of both novels is in the caste system which regulates women's freedom only reflected in The God of Small Things. From the perspective of liberal feminism, the female characters in both novels show resistance in making decision, education, society, and economy. However, resisting inequality in economy is only reflected in Frog under a Coconut Shell while resisting inequality in society is only reflected in The God of Small Things. The direct resistance is demonstrated in verbal and non-verbal ways.
Haris Prasetya Effendie
NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture, Volume 3, pp 30-43; doi:10.12928/notion.v3i1.3689

War and Independence were made by all types of imperialism movement plot. A widely place which contained natural resources, and people as the tribe was victimised to create the movement. Postcolonialism tells the wealth as freed to the motherland. The motherland or kingdom of great nationalism was called and a major attend to the nationalism day to pay the national bitter history with prayer. Kingdom of human life is wealth because the years moment has been calling human to study about political relation, nationalism relation, nationalism knowledge. Case of war and how the wealth is always in upper domination are how the poetry as a literary work to reflect the soul of cultural hope and denotation in the poetry line. Wealthy is a most appropriate statue to know the social life. The nationalism knowledge is freed because the structure of greatness what human must to study is education to speak about wealth after wealthy. Descent aspect was ordered to the identity of nation, but no less to join the political descent to restart the freedom to some nation. The wisdom from any discipline to grow and refresh the freedom identity about nature and humanity. India has the nasionalism history as Indonesia when Rabindranath Tagore also talks about how the country speak about all the day long nationally wealth in his poetry to next their life. The research was a qualitative research to apply the Postcolonialism theory.
Hakeemi Harris Ayedoji
NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture, Volume 3, pp 44-52; doi:10.12928/notion.v3i1.3926

Semiotic comes from Greek word which is semeion (sign). Yet, generally, semiotics is a study which concern about the existence of sign in society. We could find sign everywhere, from the form of words, images, objects, etc. Thus, the object of semiotics could be anything. But, Charles Sanders Pierce explain sign in a different way. According to Pierce’s study, something could be categorized into sign if it could be taken part in the triadic relation. Semiotic study is used in analizing the research. The main data of this research is the #starterpack tweets in Twitter. The data used is focused in the #starterpack tweets with white and black people context from 2019-2020. While the supporting data for this research are from the journals, books, internet sources, and dictionaries. To collect the data, the research used the observation method and use note technique. While, the research used the triadic signs in by Charles Sanders Pierce to analyze the data. From the analizing, the researcher got 40 #starterpack tweets with mostly 4 images in it. Those tweets could be divided to 20 white people #starterpack and 20 black people #starterpack tweets. All the data are analyzed with the triadic signs which are signs, objects, and interpretations. The signs that had been analyzed show objects and interpretations which lead to the gap between white and black people. Those gaps then lead to stereotypes on white and black people. Moreover, the data lead to 6 factors of stereotypes. Those factors are nationatility, personal integrity, curiosity, adaptation, homogeneus neighborhood, and common shared information.
Ina Insani, Tri Rina Budiwati
NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture, Volume 3, pp 53-64; doi:10.12928/notion.v3i1.3789

This research aims to identify and describe the discourse structures and analyze the representation of Satanism found in the lyrics of the selected songs of Alan Walker. The researcher used the Critical Discourse Analysis approach by Teun van Dijk to determine Satanism in these songs. Three elements are used in this analysis, namely the discourse structure, social cognition, and social context. This research found that there are elements of discourse structure, whether explaining the micro-structure, superstructure, or macro-structure, always address Satanism’s idea. The social cognition aspect found that the social condition influences Satanism's notion in the Alan Walker songs in Norway, where Alan Walker lives open to Satanism. It can be seen from the analysis of model and memory. The analysis of model in Alan Walker's song can be influenced by the social conditions around him. The analysis of memory shows how his personal experience affects the songs he produces. The last aspect in this research is the social context which analyse the power and access to know the idea of Satanism in the songs. The analysis of power found that Satanism has a strong dominance in Norway, as seen from several works such as books, films, and music with the theme of Satanism. Then, the analysis of access found that the satanic people managed to control several media in Norway.
Kustinah Kustinah, Sri Haryanti, Suhud Eko Yuwono, Umi Sholihah
NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture, Volume 3, pp 18-29; doi:10.12928/notion.v3i1.3547

It is said that Afro-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United states by writers of African descent. Today, Afro-American literature has become accepted as an integral part of American literature. In broad terms, Afro-American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States. This qualitative study analyzes a short story entitled Gorilla, My Lovewritten by a female Afro-American writer, Toni Cade Bambara. The analysis of the study aims at answering the three problem formulation: (1) states the literariness of the text (2) explains how the literariness of the text play as a means to symbolize a “broader” text (the universe) and (3) writes the proof of mental evidences taken from the text. In analyzing the short story, this study uses Sociology of Literature and Psychology of Literature. The two theories help readers understanding the theme of the short story by reading the explanation about how the narrator of the story set the plot. This study uses narrative as its approach since this is a literary study where a short story is analyzed through its narrative structure. The conclusion of the study provides the proof of its research benefits: giving information to readers about the following: (1) all about Afro-American literature plus its life-experience, family-values, etc. (2) how a literary work can connect its readers to their life and (3) an understanding that a reading-act strengthens the definition that a literary work is as a portrait of human experience.
Suryana Hendrawan
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 111-126; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3593

This study aims to analyze the factors influencing physical evidence on student decisions in choosing the Management Study Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, either simultaneously or partially. This research is explanatory research with a quantitative approach. This study uses multiple analysis tests to find the partial and simultaneous effect between the dependent and independent variables. The validity and reliability used in this study have met the requirements. The results of this study indicate that facility exterior, facility interior, and other tangibles factors influencing the decision to choose the Management Study Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. The result also shows that Physical Evidence Variables are simultaneously influencing the student's decision to choose the Management Study Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan.
Pita Rahmawati, Jawoto Nusantoro, Gustin Padwa Sari
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 42-63; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3234

This research aims to determine whether there are differences in stock prices, stock returns and abnormal returns before and after a stock split in high profile and low profile companies. The research period used in this study was on 2016-2018. The research was analyzed in quantitative method by using a purposive sampling method. Based on the sampling criteria, 40 companies were selected as research samples. Kolmogorov Smirnov One Sample test was used for the normality test. After the normality test was carried out, the data was processed using the two paired-sample difference test. The t-test (paired sample t-test) was used if data were normally distributed but if it was not normally distributed the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test would be used. Hypothesis testing results showed that (1) there are differences in stock prices whether before and after a stock split in high profile companies (2) there are differences in stock prices whether before and after the stock split in low profile companies (3) there are differences in stock returns whether before and after a stock split in the company high profile (4) there is no difference in stock returns whether before and after the stock split in low profile companies (5) there is no difference in abnormal returns whether before and after the stock split in high profile companies (6) there is no difference in abnormal returns whether before and after the stock split in low profile companies (7) there are differences in stock prices after a stock split in high profile companies and low profile (8) there is no difference in stock returns whether before and after the stock split in high profile and low profile companies (9) there is no difference in abnormal stock returns whether before and after a stock split at high profile and low profile companies.
Maulidia Royhana, Titi Dewi Warninda
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 95-110; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3735

This research aims to analyze the influence of United State Economic Policy Uncertainty, Tiongkok Economic Policy Uncertainty, and Japan Economic Policy Uncertainty on the Jakarta Islamic Index. This study used time-series data from January 2001 to December 2019 and Error Correction Model (ECM) to analyze the short-term and long-term effects of United State, Tiongkok and Japan Economic Policy Uncertainty on the Jakarta Islamic Index. The results of this research show that United State EPU and Tiongkok EPU have no short-term and long-term effect on Jakarta Islamic Index. Meanwhile, in the short-term, Japan EPU has a significant influence on the Jakarta Islamic Index but has no long-term influence.
Alhensa Ferninda Jelita, Hasnah Rimiyati
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 22-41; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3734

This study aims to analyze the influence of influencers' credibility on the effectiveness of Instagram social media advertising in shaping consumer buying interest (Study on Instagram followers Ayudia Bing Slamet). The subjects in this study were students using social media Instagram who were in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. This research was conducted with a sample size of 200 respondents who were determined by sampling technique using non probability sampling technique with purposive sampling method and distributing questionnaires to respondents using Google Forms. The analytical tool used is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the AMOS 24 application program. Based on the analysis, it was found that the attractiveness of influencers had a positive effect on consumer attitudes towards advertising, trustworthiness towards influencers had a positive effect on consumer attitudes towards advertising, influencer expertise had a positive effect on consumer attitudes towards advertising, and attitudes towards advertising had a positive effect on buying interest.
Afifatul Maimunah, Handrio Adhi Pradana
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 127-139; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3892

Performance appraisal is acknowledged as one of the most important human resource practices. A performance appraisal system is a critically needed tool for effective human resource management if it is done systematically and effectively. This research examined whether performance appraisal influences employee motivation and employee productivity in This research was conducted in Solo and the samples of this research were 50 employees of This research was conducted in the quantitative method by using questionnaires for collecting the data. The data were analyzed with a linear regression test and normality test by using SPSS 25. The results of this research shows that performance appraisal has positive influences on the employee’s motivation and productivity.
Fitroh Adhilla, Aftoni Sutanto, Agus Siswanto
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 140-153; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3747

Banjarnegara as one of the batik producing centers in the Indonesia, namely in the Susukan District, which borders the Banyumas area. However, Batik Gumelem is not as famous as Batik Pekalongan, Batik Solo, or Batik Banyumas. The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of social identity to positif words of mouth that mediated of consumer brand identification. This research uses a quantitative approach with a survey method. Primary data were obtained through distributing questionnaires to 185 respondents who knew about Batik Gumelem Banjarnegara. Validity testing uses confirmatory factor analysis and all items have factor loading above 0,6. Reliability testing uses cronbach’s alpha and all variables have cronbach’s alpha above 0,6. The data analysis method uses regression with mediating variable. The results showed that social identity has a positive effect on positive word of mouth, social identity has a positive effect on consumer brand identification, and consumer brand identification has a positive effect on positive word of mouth. Consumer brand identification as role as mediating variable. This shows that Batik Gumelem is perceived to have the power to be able to create an identity for consumers and lead to behavior to disseminate information about Batik Gumelem to others.
Andira Ramadha Arundita, Didik Subiyanto, Ignatius Soni Kurniawan
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 1-21; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3194

The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the effect of the relationship between organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with organizational commitment as a mediating variable. This research was conducted in the Regional Financial Institutions and Assets of Sleman Regency. The sample in this study were all employees of the Regional Financial Institutions and Assets of Sleman Regency. Data collection by distributing questionnaires using a Likert scale to measure indicators. The technique used in this research is descriptive analysis. The results of this study indicate that organizational culture has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment, organizational culture has a positive and significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational commitment acts as mediation affect organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).
Zulanda Pratiwi, Adhi Prakosa
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 74-94; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3851

This study aims to determine the effect of social media, tourism events, and service facilities on revisiting interest in Gumuk Pasir Parangkusumo Sandboarding. The research was conducted on visitors to the Parangkusumo Gumuk Pasir Sandboarding. This research is a quantitative research. The sample used in this study amounted to 100 respondents. This study used purposive sampling technique and data analysis with multiple linear regression. Hypothesis testing using the T test and F test with the help of the application program SPSS version 16.0. The results of the multiple linear regression indicate that social media has a positive and significant effect on revisiting interest. Tourism events have a positive and significant effect on revisiting interest. Service facilities have a positive and significant effect on revisiting interest. Based on the results of the F test, it shows that social media, tourism events, and service facilities simultaneously have a significant effect on revisiting interest.
Rachmaniar Myrianda Dwiputri, Najmudin Najmudin
Jurnal Fokus Manajemen Bisnis, Volume 11, pp 64-73; doi:10.12928/fokus.v11i1.3757

The purpose of this paper is to determine the firm’s characteristics and capital structure of SMEs registered in Indonesia. This study use panel data analysis for twenty-five firms over three years (2016-2018). The samples of this study were 25 Indonesian SMEs registered in the Pefindo25 index. The capital structure determinants are expressed as a function of size, tangible assets, current ratio, return on asset, and growth. This study used a pooled fixed effect to estimate the relationship between the variables. The result shows that the capital structure of registered SMEs in Indonesia is negatively affected by size, current ratio, return on asset, and growth. Registered SMEs in Indonesia have a capital structure that is in line with POT predictions.
Ayad Hameed Mousa, Sundus Hameed Mousa, Mustafa Aljshamee, Intedhar Shakir Nasir
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 421-431; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16068

Electronic banking (e-banking) is a form of banking in which funds are transferred through an exchange of electronic signals along to the traditional banking process as the exchange of cash, checks, or other types of paper documents. Moreover, the general tendencies of the Iraqi government in line with other countries to adopt e-banking and provide e-services to customers. However, the determinants of e-banking services need to investigate to determine the variables affecting the rate of such adoption. Thus, the main aim of this study is to identify the determinants of e-banking services in Iraq. Hence, this study gives an investigation using the technology acceptance model (TAM) by selecting a sample for many Iraqi banks' customers and staff to determine the determinants of user acceptance of e-banking. A preliminary study was conducted to empirically determine the user acceptance determinants of e-banking. For data collection, a quantitative method was used represented by the questionnaire. The selected sample for the investigation is 200 (customers and staff). Several methods have used for data analysis such as hierarchical regression, one-way ANOVA, descriptive statistics, t-test as well as structural equation modeling (SEM). The obtained outcomes show there are several determinants of e-banking services in Iraq that have determined in this study. Moreover, this study confirms the overcoming of those determinants will give a highly positive impact on e-banking services.
Komang Candra Brata, Aryo Pinandito, Nurizal Dwi Priandani, Mahardeka Tri Ananta
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 397-405; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18323

Using a mobile application that is featured with local public transit information can greatly improve user action, as well as assisting travelers to have a better experience while taking public transit services. Crowd environment inside a public transit is one of the most frequent causes that lead difficulties to passengers when they engaging their mobile devices to access their apps or in some conditions. Finding crucial information such as stops points and remaining time to interchanges point when switching to another line becomes more difficult in those conditions especially for foreigners who new in a particular region. This study presents the combination of a mental model and a usability approach to construct a user journey map that led to new insights on user's experiences and challenges when utilizing their mobile local transit application. This valuable information is a part of the elicitation process to propose an alternative interaction method to enhance the usability and travel experience of the public transit app. The experimental results indicate that in contrast to the existing mobile transit app, the proposed interface with the utilization of a wearable device could considerably enhance user action when trying to reach the desired location in terms of total time and performance. It implies that the proposed solution, which works through the mental model and user journey is able to intuitively enhance the public transit app usability.
Silpa Kesav Velagaleti, Nayanathara K. S., Madhavi B. K.
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 547-555; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18318

In wireless implantable systems (WIS) low power consumption and linearity are the most prominent performance metrics in data acquisition systems. successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) is used for data processing in WIS. In this research work, a 10-bit low power high linear SAR-ADC has been designed for WIS. The proposed SAR-ADC architecture is designed using the sample and hold (S/H) circuit consisting of a bootstrap circuit with a dummy switch. This SAR-ADC has a dynamic latch comparator, a split capacitance digital to analog converter (SC-DAC) with mismatch calibration, and a SAR using D-flipflop. This architecture is designed in 45 nm CMOS technology. This ADC reduces non-linearity errors and improve the output voltage swing due to the usage of a clock booster and dummy switch in the sample and hold. The calculated outcomes of the proposed SAR ADC display that with on-chip calibration an ENOB of 9.38 (bits), spurious free distortion ratio (SFDR) of 58.621 dB, and ± 0.2 LSB DNL and ± 0.4LSB INL after calibration.
Muhammad Anwarul Azim, Mohammad Khairul Islam, Marufur Rahman, Farah Jahan
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 463-470; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16488

Our society is getting more and more technology dependent day by day. Nevertheless, agriculture is imperative for our survival. Rice is one of the primary food grains. It provides sustenance to almost fifty percent of the world population and promotes huge amount of employments. Hence, proper mitigation of rice plant diseases is of paramount importance. A model to detect three rice leaf diseases, namely bacterial leaf blight, brown spot, and leaf smut is proposed in this paper. Backgrounds of the images are removed by saturation threshold while disease affected areas are segmented using hue threshold. Distinctive features from color, shape, and texture domain are extracted from affected areas. These features can robustly describe local and global statistics of such images. Trying a couple of classification algorithms, extreme gradient boosting decision tree ensemble is incorporated in this model for its superior performance. Our model achieves 86.58% accuracy on rice leaf diseases dataset from UCI, which is higher than previous works on the same dataset. Class-wise accuracy of the model is also consistent among the classes.
Raad Ahmed Hadi, Loay Edwar George, Zainab Jawad Ahmed
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 507-514; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18320

The human ear biometric recognition plays an important role in the forensics specialty and has significant impact for biometrician scientists and researchers. Actually, many ear recognition researches showed promised results, but some issues such as manual detection process, efficiency and robustness aren’t attained a certain level of maturity. Therefore, the enhancement developing approaches still continuous to achieve limited successes. We propose an efficient, reliable and simple automatic human ear detection approach. This approach implement two stages: preprocessing and ear landmarks detection. We utilized the image contrast, Laplace filter and Gaussian blurring techniques to made enhancement on all images (increasing the contrast, reduce the noisy and smoothing processes). After that, we highlighted the ear edges by using the Sobel edge detector and determining the only white pixels of ear edges by applying the image substation method. The improvement focused on using the modified adaptive search window (ASW) to detect the ear region. Furthermore, our approach is tested on Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi standard ear biometric public dataset. Experimental results presented a well average detection rate 96% for 493 image samples from 125 persons and computational time almost ≈ 0.485 seconds which is evaluated with other previous works.
Shahir Fleyeh Nawaf, Mohammad Omar Salih, Younis Nather Younis
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 540-546; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16102

In this paper, the effect of the ambient temperature on photovoltaic (PV) modules for different angles of inclinations and different intensities of the solar radiation on the surface of PV module is considered using empirical correlations for natural convection. The analysis used an analytical model based on the energy balance equilibrium between PV module and the environment. It has been shown that in real conditions of exploitation, the value of the solar conversion coefficient of the solar energy to be determined by the manufacturer, valid for the standard test conditions (STC) for PV module (25 °C -1000 W/m2). The results obtained indicates that in the case a smaller number of PV modules corresponding to the required number for average household. The proposed procedure can be applied in the techno-economic analysis for PV system with uniaxial monitoring of the sun position as well as static PV systems.
Ajiboye A. T., Opadiji J. F., Yusuf A. O., Popoola J. O.
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 575-582; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.17427

The MQ-series gas sensors are attractive candidates in the area of gas concentration sensing due to their high sensitivity and low cost. Even though the sensor circuit sensitivity and sensor power dissipation level both depend on load resistance, the process of the load resistance selection has not been well researched, hence the need for this study. The derivation of model equations for determining the sensor circuit sensitivity and sensor power dissipation is presented. The derived equations were used to investigate a typical scenario of MQ-6 gas sensor under the influence of liquified petroleum gas (LPG). The variation of sensitivity with load resistance and that of power dissipation with sensor resistance were parametrically investigated. The load resistance that yields maximum sensor circuit sensitivity with the maximum sensor power dissipation less than the set threshold is the candidate resistance for the sensor circuit. The 20 kΩ load resistance recommended for MQ-6 in the datasheet was authenticated in this study, yielding the maximum possible sensor circuit sensitivity and tolerable sensor power dissipation of 0.195 mV/ppm and 3.125×10−4 W, respectively.
Alwi M. Bamhdi, Iram Abrar, Faheem Masoodi
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 664-671; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18325

Of late, Network Security Research is taking center stage given the vulnerability of computing ecosystem with networking systems increasingly falling to hackers. On the network security canvas, Intrusion detection system (IDS) is an essential tool used for timely detection of cyber-attacks. A designated set of reliable safety has been put in place to check any severe damage to the network and the user base. Machine learning (ML) is being frequently used to detect intrusion owing to their understanding of intrusion detection systems in minimizing security threats. However, several single classifiers have their limitation and pose challenges to the development of effective IDS. In this backdrop, an ensemble approach has been proposed in current work to tackle the issues of single classifiers and accordingly, a highly scalable and constructive majority voting-based ensemble model was proposed which can be employed in real-time for successfully scrutinizing the network traffic to proactively warn about the possibility of attacks. By taking into consideration the properties of existing machine learning algorithms, an effective model was developed and accordingly, an accuracy of 99%, 97.2%, 97.2%, and 93.2% were obtained for DoS, Probe, R2L, and U2R attacks and thus, the proposed model is effective for identifying intrusion.
Huu Phuc Dang, Phung Ton That, Nguyen Doan Quoc Anh
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 623-630; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16357

The two elements that are most favorable in the quality evaluation for phosphor-converted LEDs (pcLEDs) these days are the chromatic homogeneity and the lumen output. In this study, a thorough research on enhancing color uniformity and luminous flux of pcLEDs that have a high correlated color temperature (CCT) of 8500K is carried out. The scattering enhancement particles (SEPs): CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2 are used to accomplish the goal by adding them to a yellow phosphor compounding Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, and comparing their characteristics afterwards. LightTools program is used to build an optical simulation and Mie-scattering theory helps to examine the achieved results. Specifically, the parameters included in SEPs’ scattering calculation are the scattering coefficients, the anisotropic scattering, the reduced scattering, and the scattering amplitudes at 455 nm and 595 nm. The outcomes presented that compared to other SEPs, TiO2 particles can yield the highest chromatic homogeneity. However, the lumen output reduces considerably as TiO2 concentration greatly increases while it can be bettered when using SiO2 particles with any particle size. For CaCO3 particles, the color deviation of 620 K CCT can be reduced with 30% concentration, leading to the recommendation of using CaCO3 to promote the CCT homogeneity and luminescence efficiency.
Arwa Hamed Salih Hamdany, Raid Rafi Omar-Nima, Lubab H. Albak
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 438-443; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16134

Cuneiform language is an old language that was invented by the people of Sumerian nation. It is an essential language for many archeologists. Especially who are interested in studying and investigating the old nations of Iraq. Dealing with this type of language usually requires specialist to translate its symbols, which are basically forms of nail shapes. This study presents a new approach to translate the cuneiform writing by employing artificial neural network (ANN) technique. Effectively, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network has been adapted for translating the Sumerian cuneiform symbol images to their corresponding English letters. This work has been successfully established and it attained 100%.
Utsav Kumar Malviya
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 556-563; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.14991

A radix-10 multiplication is the foremost frequent operations employed by several monetary business and user-oriented applications, decimal multiplier using in state of art digital systems are significantly good but can be upgraded with time delay and area optimization. This work is proposed a more area and time delay optimized new design of overloaded decimal digit set (ODDS) architecture-based radix-10 multiplier for signed numbers. Binary coded decimal (BCD) to binary followed by binary multiplication and finally binary to BCD conversion are 3 major modules employed in radix-10 multiplication. This paperwork presents a replacement technique for binary coded decimal (BCD) to binary and vice-versa convertors in radix-10 multiplication. A novel addition tree structure called as partial shifter adder (PSA) tree-based approach has been developed for BCD to binary conversion, and it is used to add partially generated products. To meet our major concern i.e. speed, we need particular high-speed multiplication, hence the proposed PSA based radix-10 multiplier is using vertical cross binary multiplication and concurrent shifter-based addition method. The design has been tested on 45nm technology-based Zynq-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices with a 6-input lookup table (LUTs). A combinational implementation maps quite well into the slice structure of the Xilinx Zynq-7 families field programmable gate array. The synthesis results for a Zynq-7 device indicate that our design outperforms in terms of the area and time delay.
Huu Phuc Dang, Phung Ton That, Dao Huy Tuan
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 603-607; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16855

The usage of BaSO4 nanoparticles on WLEDs luminous flux and color uniformity improvements have been analyzed and demonstrated in this manuscript. The mixture of BaSO4 and silicone placed on the yellow phosphor layer benefits the internal light scattering and thus enhances the angular correlated color temperature (CCT) homogeneity. Specifically, the blue-light intensity at large angles tend to increase and results in light intensity discrepancy, which can be corrected with added BaSO4. In addition to this, the BaSO4-silicone composite modifies the refractive index of the air-phosphor layer interface to an appropriate value, and thus, the luminous efficiency increases. The results show that the CCT deviations is reduced by 580 K, from 1000 K to 420 K, within the angle range from -700 to +700 with BaSO4 in the phosphor structure. The increase in luminous flux is also recorded by 2.25%, in comparison with that of the non-BaSO4 traditional structure, at the 120-mA driving current. Hence, integrating BaSO4 nanoparticles into the remote phosphor structure can contributes to the enhancement of both lumen output and CCT uniformity.
D. Jasmine David, V. Jegathesan, T. Jemima Jebaseeli
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 414-420; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16135

Wireless mesh networks have numerous advantages in terms of connectivity as well as reliability. Traditionally the nodes in wireless mesh networks are equipped with single radio, but the limitations are lower throughput and limited use of the available wireless channel. In order to overcome this, the recent advances in wireless mesh networks are based on multi-channel multi-radio approach. Channel assignment is a technique that selects the best channel for a node or to the entire network just to increase the network capacity. To maximize the throughput and the capacity of the network, multiple channels with multiple radios were introduced in these networks. In the proposed system, algorithms are developed to improve throughput, minimise delay, reduce average energy consumption and increase the residual energy for multi radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks. In literature, the existing channel assignment algorithms fail to consider both interflow and intra flow interferences. The limitations are inaccurate bandwidth estimation, throughput degradation under heavy traffic and unwanted energy consumption during low traffic and increase in delay. In order to improve the performance of the network distributed optimal congestion control and channel assignment algorithm (DOCCA) is proposed. In this algorithm, if congestion is identified, the information is given to previous node. According to the congestion level, the node adjusts itself to minimise congestion.
Mohsin Hasan Hussein, Akeel Abdulkareem Alsakaa, Haydar A. Marhoon
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 471-478; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18149

Recommender systems suffer a set of drawbacks such as sparsity. Social relations provide a useful source to overcome the sparsity problem. Previous studies have utilized social relations or rating feedback sources. However, they ignored integrating these sources. In this paper, the limitations of previous studies are overcome by exploiting four sources of information, namely: explicit social relationships, implicit social relationships, users’ ratings, and implicit feedback information. Firstly, implicit social relationships are extracted through the source allocation index algorithm to establish new relations among users. Secondly, the similarity method is applied to find the similarity between each pair of users who have explicit or implicit social relations. Then, users’ ratings and implicit rating feedback sources are extracted via a user-item matrix. Furthermore, all sources are integrated into the singular value decomposition plus (SVD++) method. Finally, missing predictions are computed. The proposed method is implemented on three real-world datasets: Last.Fm, FilmTrust, and Ciao. Experimental results reveal that the proposed model is superior to other studies such as SVD, SVD++, EU-SVD++, SocReg, and EISR in terms of accuracy, where the improvement of the proposed method is about 0.03% for MAE and 0.01% for RMSE when dimension value (d) = 10.
Ahmed M. Alkababji, Omar H. Mohammed
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 523-530; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18322

Automatic identity recognition of ear images represents an active area of interest within the biometric community. The human ear is a perfect source of data for passive person identification. Ear images can be captured from a distance and in a covert manner; this makes ear recognition technology an attractive choice for security applications and surveillance in addition to related application domains. Differing from other biometric modalities, the human ear is neither affected by expressions like faces are nor do need closer touching like fingerprints do. In this paper, a deep learning object detector called faster region based convolutional neural networks (Faster R-CNN) is used for ear detection. A convolutional neural network (CNN) is used as feature extraction. principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic algorithm are used for feature reduction and selection respectively and a fully connected artificial neural network as a matcher. The testing proved the accuracy of 97.8% percentage of success with acceptable speed and it confirmed the accuracy and robustness of the proposed system.
Minh-Sang Van Nguyen, Tu-Trinh Nguyen, Dinh-Thuan Do
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 499-506; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16181

The internet of things (IoT) in 5G and beyond wireless systems is interesting topic since IoT network will be platform to develop applications in the future. IoT will open a door for smart services and new wireless architecture. In this study, we consider multiple access technique applied in two-way cooperative scheme, namely two-way non-orthogonal multiple access (TW-NOMA). We derive expressions of outage probability for considered system using amplify-and-forward (AF) relay protocol, and we show that fixed power allocation factors and target rates are main impacts on performance of AF TW-NOMA. We finally extend many scenarios to evaluate performance of two-user model and outage probability in a two-user scenario are numerically verified. It is confirmed that simulation results show that AF TW-NOMA provides better data rates and user fairness.
Eltahir Idris Eltahir Mohamed, Elfatih A. A. Elsheikh, A. Awad Babiker, Islam Md. Rafiqul, Mohamad Hadi Habaebi, Aisha H. Abdulla, Elessaid Saad
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 364-371; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18148

Several models were proposed to predict the attenuation of microwave signals due to sand and dust storms. Those models were developed based on theoretical assumptions like Rayleigh approximation, Mie equations or numerical methods. This paper presents a comparison between attenuation predicted by three different theoretical models with measured attenuation at 14 GHz. Dielectric constant of dust particles is one of the important parameter in prediction models. This constant is estimated from measured dust samples and is utilized for predictions. All models are found largely underestimating the measurement. Humidity is also monitored and has been observed higher during dust storm. Hence dielectric constants are re-estimated with relative humidity conditions using available conversion model. The prediction has a great impact of humidity and predicted attenuations are found much higher in humid than dry dust condition. However, all models underestimate the measurement even considering 100% of relative humidity. Hence it is recommended to investigate the models by considering humidity and other environmental factors that change during dust storm.
Basma M. K. Younis, Ahmed Kh. Younis
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 672-682; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18158

Digital images are suffering from the stair-step effect because they are built from small pixels. This effect termes aliasing and the method uses to decrease so-called anti-aliasing. This paper offers a hardware accelerator of an anti-aliasing algorithm using HLS (high level synthesis) along straight-line segments or edges. These straight-line segments are smoothed by modifying the intensity of the pixel. The hardware implementation of two different architectures which is based on Zynq FPGA are presented in this work. The first architecture is built from one core while the second architecture is built from multi-core and uses a parallel technique to speed up the algorithm by dividing line segments into sub-segments and drawing them after smoothing instantaneously to formulate the main line. This parallel usage leads to a very fast execution of Wu's algorithm which is represented one-tenth hardware runtime for one core only. Also, the optimized resource utilization and power consumption for different cores have been compared, through single-core design which utilizes 8% and consumes 1.6 W, while utilized resources using 10 cores are 77% with a power consumption of 2 W.
Ismail Sh. B. Hburi, Hasan Al Fahad, Ogoz Bayat, Nibras Hazim Abbas Sarray Atab
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 564-574; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16346

In wind energy conversation systems (WECS), power quality and energy conversion efficiency are crucial aims of control algorithms. These two points are self-contradictory and difficult to trade off where enhancing the efficiency of conversion may also enhance instability of output signal as well. In current work, we submit a wind turbines control scheme to ensure regular power and achieve variable load requests in battery based variable speed PMGS system. In the submitted scheme, model predictive control (MPC) is joint with fuzzy logic to achieve the advantages of these two diverse approaches. The suggested controller could enhance the power reliability performance of the wind turbine. According to obtained results, the proposed topology overcomes the traditional proportional/integral (PI) model by achieving profits in the context of step-overshoot response and the measure of total harmonic-distortion of nearly 1.1 percent and 1.13 percent, respectively.
W. S. W. Daud, N. Ahmad, G. Malkawi
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 583-598; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18023

Matrix equations have its own important in the field of control system engineering particularly in the stability analysis of linear control systems and the reduction of nonlinear control system models. There are certain conditions where the classical matrix equation are not well equipped to handle the uncertainty problems such as during the process of stability analysis and reduction in control system engineering. In this study, an algorithm is developed for solving fully fuzzy matrix equation particularly for ~ A ~X ~B 􀀀 ~X = ~ C, where the coefficients of the equation are in near-zero fuzzy numbers. By modifying the existing fuzzy multiplication arithmetic operators, the proposed algorithm exceeds the positive restriction to allow the near-zero fuzzy numbers as the coefficients. Besides that, a new fuzzy subtraction arithmetic operator has also been proposed as the existing operator failed to satisfy the both sides of the nearzero fully fuzzy matrix equation. Subsequently, Kronecker product and V ec-operator are adapted with the modified fuzzy arithmetic operator in order to transform the fully fuzzy matrix equation to a fully fuzzy linear system. On top of that, a new associated linear system is developed to obtain the final solution. A numerical example and the verification of the solution are presented to demonstrate the proposed algorithm.
Mohammad Tariq Yaseen, Abdalem A. Rasheed
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 683-689; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18146

The plasmonic material properties of aluminum allow active plasmon resonances extending from the blue color in the visible range to the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. Whereas Al is usually avoided for applications of plasmonics due to its losses in the infrared spectrum region. In this work, the study of the scatter and absorption of disk nanoantennas (DNAs) using various types of materials Au, Ag, and Al is accomplished by using the CST microwave studio suite simulation. The results showed that Al can offer good plasmonic properties when DNA radius is 25 nm to 125 nm at 20 nm height and working wavelengths longer than 800 nm in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Al produces negative plasmonic features around 800 nm wavelength due to the interband transition in the imaginary part of epsilon. For Au and Ag, the plasmonic characteristics rapidly decayed when the DNA radius was higher than 60 nm, but in contrast, Al offers good plasmonic features at these large dimensions of DNAs. This extended response of Al in UV, visible, and NIR, incorporated with its low cost, natural abundance, low native oxide, and amenability to industrial processes, could make Al an extremely promising plasmonic metal candidate for energy applications.
Arwa H. Salih Hamdany, Aseel Thamar Ebrahem, Ahmed M. Alkababji
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 432-437; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16572

Earprint has interestingly been considered for recognition systems. It refers to the shape of ear, where each person has a unique shape of earprint. It is a strong biometric pattern and it can effectively be used for authentications. In this paper, an efficient deep learning (DL) model for earprint recognition is designed. This model is named the deep earprint learning (DEL). It is a deep network that carefully designed for segmented and normalized ear patterns. IIT Delhi ear database (IITDED) version 1.0 has been exploited in this study. The best obtaining accuracy of 94% is recorded for the proposed DEL.
Pakpoom Mookdarsanit, Lawankorn Mookdarsanit
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 479-490; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18321

Rice is a staple food for around 3.5 billion people in eastern, southern and south-east Asia. Prior to being rice, the rice-grain (grain) is previously husked and/or milled by the milling machine. Relevantly, the grain quality depends on its pureness of particular grain specie (without the mixing between different grain species). For the demand of grain purity inspection by an image, many researchers have proposed the grain classification (sometimes with localization) methods based on convolutional neural network (CNN). However, those papers are necessary to have a large number of labeling that was too expensive to be manually collected. In this paper, the image augmentation (rotation, brightness adjustment and horizontal flipping) is appiled to generate more number of grain images from the less data. From the results, image augmentation improves the performance in CNN and bag-of-words model. For the future moving forward, the grain recognition can be easily done by less number of images.
Aulia Aulia, Eka Putra Waldi, Darwison Darwison, Dwi Gustiono, Novizon Novizon, M. Heru Setiawan, M. A. Hafizi
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 631-637; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16417

The dielectric properties of low-density polyethylene natural rubber (LDPE-NR) biopolymeric insulating materials can be improved by adding the silica nanoparticles in a certain percentage of weight (w%). In the present study, four types of bio-nano polymeric samples were prepared. To each sample, the nanosilica particles with wt% 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6%. As one characteristic of dielectric, the partial discharge (PD) characteristics, each sample has been tested for 1 hour under AC high voltage field, and the pulses were counted for each sample and grouped into positive and negative pulses. The PD pattern was also plotted based on X-Y axes, namely Φ-q-n pattern. It was found that the number of positive and negative partial discharge (PD) pulses for each silica sample after 60 minutes of testing varied for all samples. It is also found that samples with a higher percentage of nanosilica had fewer PD pulses. The PD pattern in lower w% of silica was identified in the 90 degrees mostly in containing This indicates that w% of nanosilica particles can improve the PD resistance or the insulation quality of LDPE-NR insulation materials.
Meryam Telmem, Youssef Ghanou
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 515-522; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16793

In this paper, we present an approach based on convolutional neural networks to build an automatic speech recognition system for the Amazigh language. This system is built with TensorFlow and uses mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) to extract features. In order to test the effect of the speaker's gender and age on the accuracy of the model, the system was trained and tested on several datasets. The first experiment the dataset consists of 9240 audio files. The second experiment the dataset consists of 9240 audio files distributed between females and males’ speakers. The last experiment 3 the dataset consists of 13860 audio files distributed between age 9-15, age 16-30, and age 30+. The result shows that the model trained on a dataset of adult speaker’s age +30 categories generates the best accuracy with 93.9%.
My Hanh Nguyen Thi, Phung Ton That, Hoang Van Ngoc
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 616-622; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16706

If remote phosphor structures are put into comparison with conformal phosphor or in-cup phosphor, their luminous flux are better, but the color quality is not as elevated. This leads to an obvious need of a practical solution to enhance color quality. Therefore, many studies were carried out to achieve this purpose, and so is ours. We proposed using two layers of phosphor in WLEDs to achieve better rendering ability and chromatic performance. The identical WLEDs with different color temperatures, 5600 K-8500 K, were used and reported in this paper. Our research consists of two parts, which are placing a layer of red phosphor SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+on the yellow YAG:Ce3+ phosphor layer at first, and then specifying an appropriate SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ concentration to reach the highest color performance. It is shown that with the contribution of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+,the color rendering index (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS) are increased. This can be explained by the increased amount of red light components in the WLEDs when the concentration of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ was greater. However, excessive SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ will cause the reduction in the flux, which has been proven by the application of Mie scattering and the Lambert-Beer law. Therefore, the conclusion will present an optimal amount of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ to obtain high color quality while minimizing the light loss.
Ayom Widipaminto, Yohanes Fridolin Hestrio, Yuvita Dian Safitri, Donna Monica, Dedi Irawadi, Rokhmatuloh Rokhmatuloh, Djoko Triyono, Erna Sri Adiningsih
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 690-704; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18155

The current urban environment is very dynamic and always changes both physically and socio-economically very quickly. Monitoring urban areas is one of the most relevant issues related to evaluating human impacts on environmental change. Nowadays remote sensing technology is increasingly being used in a variety of applications including mapping and modeling of urban areas. The purpose of this paper is to classify the Pleiades data for the identification of roof materials. This classification is based on data from satellite image spectroscopy results with very high resolution. Spectroscopy is a technique for obtaining spectrum or wavelengths at each position from various spatial data so that images can be recognized based on their respective spectral wavelengths. The outcome of this study is that high-resolution remote sensing data can be used to identify roof material and can map further in the context of monitoring urban areas. The overall value of accuracy and Kappa Coefficient on the method that we use is equal to 92.92% and 0.9069.
M. M. Hasan Mahfuz, Shazzadul Islam, Islam Md. Rafiqul, Mohamed Hadi Habaebi, Nazmus Sakib
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 357-363; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18147

Recently lower frequency band 4.5−5.5 GHz is proposed by the ASEAN countries for 5G cellular application and therefore, it is essential of designing an ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna for the particular band-notched characteristics. In this article, a compact tuning fork shape ultra-wideband (UWB) patch antenna with a variable band-notched characteristic has been proposed for 5G cellular application. The UWB antenna has been achieved by using a tuning fork shape with a simple partial ground plane. A pair of ring shape slits (RSS) on the ground plane has been added to achieve the band-notched characteristic. The proposed antenna has achieved a large −10 dB bandwidth of 7.8 GHz (2.9−11 GHz) and the VSWR value is less than 2 for the entire bandwidth excepted for notched frequency bands of lower 5G bands (4.5−5.5 GHz). Moreover, the antenna has a peak radiation efficiency of more than 87% for UWB and less than 27% for the notched frequency band. The notched-band is shifted with the change in the position of RSS’s within the vertical axis and thus, the variable band-notched characteristics have been achieved. Besides, the proposed antenna is compact with the dimension of 45×34 mm2 that makes it suitable for the lower band of 5G application.
My Hanh Nguyen Thi, Phung Ton That
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 599-602; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16755

TiO2 nanoparticle and silicon composite has powerful effect of scattering, thus it is famous in enhancing the scattered light in light-emitting diode (LED) packages. To accomplish higher lighting performance in LED devices, a thin encapsulation layer of TiO2 with high concentration and silicon glue is introduced to complement the main encapsulation one. After conducting experiments, the results present that in the case of the main encapsulation including only silicone, the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of COB LEDs increases to 65%. On the other hand, when there is the additional layer of TiO2 and silicone, the improvement of LEE depends on the concentration of TiO2. As this nanoparticle concentration decreases from 0.12 to 0.035 g/cm3, the LEE can be enhanced from 6% to 24%. Moreover, at the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of approximately 8500 K, the layer of TiO2/silicone composite can help to accomplish the reduction of the angular correlated color temperature (CCT) deviation, from 900 to 470 K, within −90° to 90° viewing angle range.
Mohamed A. Abdulhamed, Hadeel I. Mustafa, Zainab I. Othman
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 444-453; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16738

The problem of unemployment is one of the most important problems faced by most countries of the world, and it is one of the intractable problems in developing countries, and in Iraq unemployment occupies great importance due to its high rates. This problem in itself is a serious condition, because it results from mismanagement and the structure of the economy, and despite its great importance, it has not been carefully monitored. There are studies and strategies that deal with the analysis and study of those causes that lead to this problem, such as traditional statistical methods, various mathematical and statistical methods, in this research proposed a method uses machine learning methods to find the factors that affect the causes of this problem, as well as the multiple linear regression method.
My Hanh Nguyen Thi, Phung Ton That
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 608-615; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16519

The most popular method used in the production of phosphor-converted LEDs (pc-LEDs) is dispensing phosphor freely. However, this method is inferior in generating good angular correlated color temperature (CCT) homogeneity. Thus, in this article, a diffuser-loaded encapsulation is proposed as a potential solution for better CCT uniformity. The paper provides a detailed investigation on how melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin and CaCO3 loaded encapsulations impact the uniformity of CCT, as well as the lumen efficacy of pc-LEDs. The results demonstrate that between MF resin and CaCO3 loaded encapsulations, the MF resin yields a higher light diffusion efficiency while the CaCO3 maintains greater lumen efficacy. The photon scattering development is the key force behind the enhancement of the angular CCT uniformity in pc-LEDs’ output when using the loaded encapsulations of MF resin and CaCO3 particles. Since this package utilized mineral, it has reasonable cost and is quite easy to control while still being effective in enhancing the angular CCT homogeneity of pc-LEDs. Diffusers with 1% concentration of MF resin or 10% concentration of CaCO3 are determined as an optimal solution for reducing the variance of angular CCT and increasing the lumen output.
Muhammad Nizam Kamarudin, Nabilah Shaharudin, Noor Haqkimi Abd Rahman, Mohd Hendra Hairi, Sahazati Md. Rozali, Tole Sutikno
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 638-644; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16118

Power system stability is the capability of power systems to maintain load magnitude within specified limits under steady state conditions in electrical power transmission. In modern days, the electrical power systems have grown in terms of complexity due to increasing interconnected power line exchange. For that, an inherent of controllers were essential to correct the deviation in the presence of external disturbances. This paper hence aims to review the basic concepts of power system stability in load frequency control. Various control techniques were analyzed and presented. Power system stability can be classified in terms of method to improve power system stability, which are rotor angle stability, frequency stability and voltage stability. It is found that each method has different purpose and focus on solving different types of problem occurred. It is hoped that this study can contribute to clarify the different types of power system stability in terms of where it occurs, and which is the best method based on different situation.
Rozniza Ali, Muhamad Munawarar Yusro, Muhammad Suzuri Hitam, Mhd Ikhwanuddin Abdullah
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 406-413; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.16724

Recently, the mud-crab farming can help the rural population economically. However, the existing parasite in the mud-crabs could interfere the long live of the mud-crabs. Unfortunately, the parasite has been identified to live in hundreds of mud-crabs, particularly it happened in Terengganu Coastal Water, Malaysia. This study investigates the initial identification of the parasite features based on their classes by using machine learning techniques. In this case, we employed five classifiers i.e logistic regression (LR), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB), support vector machine (SVM), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). We compared these five classfiers to best performance of classification of the parasites. The classification process involving three stages. First, classify the parasites into two classes (normal and abnormal) regardless of their ventral types. Second, classified sexuality (female or male) and maturity (mature or immature). Finally, we compared the five classifiers to identify the species of the parasite. The experimental results showed that GNB and LDA are the most effective classifiers for carrying out the initial classification of the rhizocephalan parasite within the mud crab genus Scylla.
Mahmood F. Mosleh, Riam M. Zaal, Eyad I. Abbas
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 454-462; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.18324

The huge ubiquitous deployment of wireless technologies and the pervasive availability of smart devices, indoor localization has become one of the most interesting topics in numerous location-based services. Where several methods have been adopted to estimate and localize the mobile and user location. The earliest and most interesting method was based on received signal strength (RSS) measurement. However, such method has showed weakness in handling the accurate estimation results. Recently, researchers start gather several different methods to achieve the advantages of each method and achieve higher accurate estimation. Hence, in this paper a hybrid localization algorithm has been designed and proposed based on the use of both RSS and angle-of-arrival (AoA). The algorithm has been tested in a three-dimensional indoor building; we are taking the effects of different building materials. The results were obtained depending on the measurement of RSS and AoA gathered from each received point and by using two AP devices for more accuracy in positioning coordination, the type of the transmitters is directional.
Aws Naser Jaber, Kohbalan Moorthy, Logenthiran Machap, Safaai Deris
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), Volume 19, pp 491-498; doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v19i2.15948

The detection of genetic mutations has attracted global attention. several methods have proposed to detect diseases such as cancers and tumours. One of them is microarrays, which is a type of representation for gene expression that is helpful in diagnosis. To unleash the full potential of microarrays, machine-learning algorithms and gene selection methods can be implemented to facilitate processing on microarrays and to overcome other potential challenges. One of these challenges involves high dimensional data that are redundant, irrelevant, and noisy. To alleviate this problem, this representation should be simplified. For example, the feature selection process can be implemented by reducing the number of features adopted in clustering and classification. A subset of genes can be selected from a pool of gene expression data recorded on DNA micro-arrays. This paper reviews existing classification techniques and gene selection methods. The effectiveness of emerging techniques, such as the swarm intelligence technique in feature selection and classification in microarrays, are reported as well. These emerging techniques can be used in detecting cancer. The swarm intelligence technique can be combined with other statistical methods for attaining better results.
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