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Natalie Bruiners, , Valentina Guerrini, Hugh Salamon, Ken D. Yamaguchi, Petros C. Karakousis,
Published: 1 December 2020
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 61, pp 1617-1628; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.ra120000895

Abstract:
The rise of drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a major risk to public health. Statins, which inhibit both cholesterol biosynthesis and protein prenylation branches of the mevalonate pathway, increase anti-tubercular antibiotic efficacy in animal models. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used an in vitro macrophage infection model to investigate simvastatin’s anti-tubercular activity by systematically inhibiting each branch of the mevalonate pathway and evaluating the effects of the branch-specific inhibitors on mycobacterial growth. The anti-tubercular activity of simvastatin used at clinically relevant doses specifically targeted the cholesterol biosynthetic branch rather than the prenylation branches of the mevalonate pathway. Using Western blot analysis and AMP/ATP measurements, we found that simvastatin treatment blocked activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through increased intracellular AMP:ATP ratios, and favored nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB). These mechanisms all induce autophagy, which is anti-mycobacterial. The biological effects of simvastatin on the AMPK-mTORC1-TFEB-autophagy axis were reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol to the cells. Our data demonstrate that the anti-tubercular activity of simvastatin requires inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis, reveal novel links between cholesterol homeostasis, the AMPK-mTORC1-TFEB axis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection control, and uncover new anti-tubercular therapy targets.
Steven C. Perry, Chakrapani Kalyanaraman, Benjamin E. Tourdot, William S. Conrad, Oluwayomi Akinkugbe, John Cody Freedman, Michael Holinstat, Matthew P. Jacobson,
Published: 1 July 2020
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 61, pp 1087-1103; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.ra120000777

Abstract:
The two oxylipins 7S,14S-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (-diHDHA) and 7S,17S-diHDHA (resolvin D5 [RvD5]) have been found in macrophages and infectious inflammatory exudates and are believed to function as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Their biosynthesis is thought to proceed through sequential oxidations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by lipoxygenase enzymes, specifically, by human 5-lipoxygenase (h5-LOX) first to 7S-HDHA, followed by h12-LOX to form 7S,14S-diHDHA or h15-LOX-1 to form RvD5. In this work, we determined that oxidation of 7S-HpDHA to 7S,14S-diHDHA is performed with similar kinetics by either h12-LOX or h15-LOX-1. The oxidation at C14 of DHA by h12-LOX was expected, but the non-canonical reaction of h15-LOX-1 to make over 80% 7S,14S-diHDHA was larger than expected. Results of computer modeling suggested that the alcohol on C7 of 7S-HDHA hydrogen bonds with the backbone carbonyl of Ile-399, forcing the hydrogen abstraction from C12 to oxygenate on C14, and not C17. This result raised questions regarding the synthesis of RvD5. Strikingly, we found that h15-LOX-2 oxygenates 7S-HDHA almost exclusively at C17, forming RvD5 with faster kinetics than does h15-LOX-1. The presence of h15-LOX-2 in neutrophils and macrophages suggests that it may have a greater role in biosynthesizing SPMs than previously thought. We also determined that the reactions of h5-LOX with 14S-HpDHA and 17S-HpDHA are kinetically slow compared with DHA, suggesting that these reactions may be minor biosynthetic routes in vivo. Additionally, we show that 7S,14S-diHDHA and RvD5 have anti-aggregation properties with platelets at low micromolar potencies, which could directly regulate clot resolution.
Fabrizio Vacca, Stefania Vossio, Vincent Mercier, , Shem Johnson, Cameron C. Scott, Jonathan Paz Montoya, Marc Moniatte,
Published: 1 April 2019
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 60, pp 832-843; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m089979

Abstract:
In specialized cell types, lysosome-related organelles support regulated secretory pathways, while in non-specialized cells, lysosomes can undergo fusion with the plasma membrane in response to a transient rise in cytosolic calcium. Recent evidence also indicates that lysosome secretion can be controlled transcriptionally and promote clearance in lysosome storage diseases. In addition, evidence is also accumulating that low concentrations of cyclodextrins reduce the cholesterol storage phenotype in cells and animals with the cholesterol storage disease Niemann-Pick type C, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that cyclodextrin triggers the secretion of the endo/lysosomal content in non-specialized cells, and that this mechanism is responsible for the decreased cholesterol overload in Niemann-Pick type C cells. We also find that the secretion of the endo/lysosome content occurs via a mechanism dependent on the endosomal calcium channel MCOLN1, as well as FYCO1, the AP1 adaptor and its partner Gadkin. We conclude that endo-lysosomes in non-specialized cells can acquire secretory functions elicited by cyclodextrin, and that this pathway is responsible for the decrease in cholesterol storage in Niemann-Pick C cells.
, Calvin Pan, Deanna L. Plubell, Patrick M. Hutchins, Chongren Tang, Jake Wimberger, Angela Irwin, Thomas Q. De Aguiar Vallim, Jay W. Heinecke, Aldons J. Lusis
Published: 1 March 2019
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 60, pp 594-608; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m090555

Abstract:
HDLs are nanoparticles with more than 80 associated proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. The potential inverse relation of HDL to coronary artery disease (CAD) and the effects of HDL on myriad other inflammatory conditions warrant a better understanding of the genetic basis of the HDL proteome. We conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of the regulation of the proteome of HDL isolated from a panel of 100 diverse inbred strains of mice (the hybrid mouse diversity panel) and examined protein composition and efflux capacity to identify novel factors that affect the HDL proteome. Genetic analysis revealed widely varied HDL protein levels across the strains. Some of this variation was explained by local cis-acting regulation, termed cis-protein quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Variations in apoA-II and apoC-3 affected the abundance of multiple HDL proteins, indicating a coordinated regulation. We identified modules of covarying proteins and defined a protein-protein interaction network that describes the protein composition of the naturally occurring subspecies of HDL in mice. Sterol efflux capacity varied up to 3-fold across the strains, and HDL proteins displayed distinct correlation patterns with macrophage and ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity and cholesterol exchange, suggesting that subspecies of HDL participate in discrete functions. The baseline and stimulated sterol efflux capacity phenotypes were associated with distinct QTLs with smaller effect size, suggesting a multigenetic regulation. Our results highlight the complexity of HDL particles by revealing the high degree of heterogeneity and intercorrelation, some of which is associated with functional variation, and support the concept that HDL-cholesterol alone is not an accurate measure of HDL’s properties, such as protection against CAD.
Adri M. Galvan,
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 60, pp 71-84; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m087189

Abstract:
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) targets the LDL receptor (LDLR) for degradation, increasing plasma LDL and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. Uptake of secreted PCSK9 is required for its effect on the LDLR, and LDL itself inhibits this uptake, though how it does so remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between LDL, the PCSK9:LDLR interaction, and PCSK9 uptake. We show that LDL inhibits binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR in vitro more impressively than it inhibits PCSK9 uptake in cells. Furthermore, cell-surface heparin-like molecules (HLMs) can partly explain this difference, consistent with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) acting as coreceptors for PCSK9. We also show that HLMs can interact with either PCSK9 or LDL to modulate the inhibitory activity of LDL on PCSK9 uptake, with such inhibition rescued by competition with the entire PCSK9 prodomain, but not its truncated variants. Additionally, we show that the gain-of-function PCSK9 variant, S127R, located in the prodomain near the HSPG binding site, exhibits increased affinity for HLMs, potentially explaining its phenotype. Overall, our findings suggest a model where LDL acts as a negative regulator of PCSK9 function by decreasing its uptake via direct interactions with either the LDLR or HLMs.
Hana Kimura, Kohei Arasaki, Yuki Ohsaki, , Takayuki Ohtomo, Junji Yamada,
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 59, pp 805-819; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m081679

Abstract:
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that contain neutral lipids and are surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. How proteins specifically localize to the phospholipid monolayer of the LD surface has been a matter of extensive investigations. In the present study, we show that syntaxin 17 (Stx17), a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein whose expression in the liver is regulated by diet, participates in LD biogenesis by regulating the distribution of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)3, a key enzyme for LD biogenesis that redistributes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to LDs during LD formation. Stx17 interacts with ACSL3, but not with LD formation-unrelated ACSL1 or ACSL4, through its SNARE domain. The interaction occurs at the ER-mitochondria interface and depends on the active site occupancy of ACSL3. Depletion of Stx17 impairs ACSL3 redistribution to nascent LDs. The defect in LD maturation due to Stx17 knockdown can be compensated for by ACSL3 overexpression, suggesting that Stx17 increases the efficiency of ACSL3 redistribution to LDs. Moreover, we show that the interaction between Stx17 and ACSL3 during LD maturation may be regulated by synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa.
Min Young Lee, Jung Min Ryu, Sang Hun Lee, Jae Hong Park,
Published: 1 August 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 2082-2089; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m001545

Abstract:
Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich microdomains of cell membranes that have a variety of roles in cellular processes including receptor-mediated signal transduction. Lipid rafts also occur in embryonic stem (ES) cells, but their role in ES cells is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of lipid rafts in the maintenance of ES cell self-renewal. In the present study, we observed that the presence of lipid rafts/caveolae. The results from sucrose gradient fractionation showed that the expression of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta (LIFRbeta) was decreased by treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Mbeta-CD) but, interestingly, was not affected by caveolin-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, LIF increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Akt, and the expression level of c-Myc, which were attenuated by the pretreatment with Mbeta-CD. However, caveolin-1 siRNA did not influence LIF-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and Akt, and expression of c-Myc. Treatment with Mbeta-CD and caveolin-1 siRNA decreased expression levels of Oct4 protein and Oct4, Sox2, FoxD3, and Rex1 mRNAs in normal culture conditions. Additionally, Mbeta-CD and caveolin-1 siRNA decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and the proliferation index [(S + G2/M)/(G0/G1 + S + G2/M)] of ES cells. We conclude that lipid raft/caveolae structures play important roles in the self-renewal of ES cells.
Jan A. Krikken, Ron T. Gansevoort,
Published: 1 July 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 1982-1990; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m005348

Abstract:
Animal experiments show that the kidney contributes to apolipoprotein (apo)A-I catabolism. We tested relationships of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and apo-I with kidney function in subjects without severe chronic kidney disease. Included was a random sample of the general population (part of the PREVEND cohort). Kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) by two well-established equations and creatinine clearance], HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA-I and insulin resistance (HOMAir) were measured in 2,484 fasting subjects (e-GFR>or=45 ml/min/1.73 m2) without macroalbuminuria, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or the use of anti-hypertensives and/or lipid-lowering agents. HDL-C (r=-0.056 to -0.102, P<0.01 to <0.001) and apo A-I (r=-0.096 to -0.126, P<0.001) were correlated inversely with both GFR estimates and creatinine clearance in univariate analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses also demonstrated inverse relationships of HDL-C and apoA-I with all measures of kidney function even after adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, HOMAir, triglycerides, and urinary albumin excretion (P=0.053 to 0.004). In conclusion, HDL-C and apoA-I are inversely related to e-GFR and creatinine clearance in subjects without severely compromised kidney function, which fits the concept that the kidney contributes to apoA-I regulation in humans. High glomerular filtration rate may be an independent determinant of a pro-atherogenic lipoprotein profile.
Minoru Ito, , Tomoko Hara, Tomohiro Ide, Koji Murakami
Published: 1 July 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 1676-1684; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m002147

Abstract:
Both insulin and the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector (CIDE) family play important roles in apoptosis and lipid droplet formation. However, regulation of the CIDE family by insulin and the contribution of the CIDE family to insulin actions remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether insulin regulates expression of the CIDE family and which subtypes contribute to insulin-induced anti-apoptosis and lipid droplet formation in human adipocytes. Insulin decreased CIDEA and increased CIDEC but not CIDEB mRNA expression. Starvation-induced apoptosis in adipocytes was significantly inhibited when insulin decreased the CIDEA mRNA level. Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CIDEA inhibited starvation-induced apoptosis similarly to insulin and restored insulin deprivation-reduced adipocyte number, whereas CIDEC depletion did not. Lipid droplet size of adipocytes was increased when insulin increased the CIDEC mRNA level. In contrast, insulin-induced enlargement of lipid droplets was markedly abrogated by depletion of CIDEC but not CIDEA. Furthermore, depletion of CIDEC, but not CIDEA, significantly increased glycerol release from adipocytes. These results suggest that CIDEA and CIDEC are novel genes regulated by insulin in human adipocytes and may play key roles in the effects of insulin, such as anti-apoptosis and lipid droplet formation.
Deepa Taneja, Joel Thompson, Patricia Wilson, Katie Brandewie, , Bonnie Mitchell,
Published: 1 June 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 1464-1470; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m002972

Abstract:
Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is not known if reduction of hyperlipidemia is protective against progression of disease. The goal of this study was to determine if reduction of hypercholesterolemia could limit progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic and nondiabetic LDL receptor deficient (LDLR−/−) mice were fed diets containing either no cholesterol (0%) or high cholesterol (0.12%) for 36 weeks. One group each of diabetic and nondiabetic mice were fed the high-cholesterol diet for 26 weeks then changed to the 0% cholesterol diet for the last 10 weeks. Consumption of the high-cholesterol diet exacerbated the development of diabetic nephropathy with elevations in urine albumin excretion, glomerular and renal hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix expansion. Increased glomerular lipid and apolipoprotein B accumulation was found in diabetic mice that consumed the 0.12% cholesterol diet compared with other groups. However, diabetic mice that changed from the high-cholesterol diet to the 0% cholesterol diet for the last 10 weeks had lower urine albumin excretion and mesangial matrix expansion compared with mice that consumed the 0.12% cholesterol diet throughout. This suggests that hyperlipidemia causes continuous renal injury, and that lowering cholesterol levels by dietary means can improve renal function in diabetic LDLR−/− mice.
, Gloria L. Fawcett, Joseph P. Jarvis, Elizabeth A. Norgard, Mihaela Pavlicev, L. Susan Pletscher, Kenneth S. Polonsky, Honggang Ye, Graeme I. Bell, Clay F. Semenkovich
Published: 1 May 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 907-913; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m900128-jlr200

Abstract:
We previously mapped Adip1, an obesity quantitative trait locus (QTL), to the central portion of murine chromosome 1 containing the calpain-10 (Capn10) gene. Human studies have associated calpain-10 (CAPN10) variants with type 2 diabetes and various metabolic traits. We performed a quantitative hybrid complementation test (QHCT) to determine whether differences attributed to Adip1 are the result of variant Capn10 alleles in LG/J and SM/J mice. We crossed LG/J and SM/J to wild-type (C57BL/6J) and Capn10 knockout (Capn10−/−) mice to form four F1 hybrid groups: LG/J by wild-type, LG/J by Capn10−/−, SM/J by wild-type, and SM/J by Capn10−/−. We performed a two-way ANOVA with the experimental strain, tester strain, and their interaction as the factors. Significant interaction indicates a quantitative failure to complement. We found failure to complement for fat, organ, and body weights, and leptin, female free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels. Capn10−/− resulted in heavier weights and higher serum levels in LG/J crosses but not in SM/J crosses. For glucose tolerance and insulin response tests, the Capn10−/− allele resulted in lower glucose levels in crosses with SM/J but had no effect in the LG/J crosses. Differences between the LG/J and SM/J Capn10 alleles are the likely source of some of the QTL effects mapped to Adip1 in the LG/J–by–SM/J cross. Capn10 plays an important role in regulating obesity and diabetes in mice.
, , Elisabeth A. Rosenthal, Gertrud Wolfbauer, Laura McKinstry, Aditya Vaze, John Brunzell, Arno G. Motulsky, Deborah A. Nickerson, Patrick J. Heagerty, et al.
Published: 1 May 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 983-990; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m000125

Abstract:
Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) belongs to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein gene family. Expression of PLTP has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of PLTP region tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the prediction of both carotid artery disease (CAAD) and PLTP activity. CAAD effects were evaluated in 442 Caucasian male subjects with severe CAAD and 497 vascular disease-free controls. SNP prediction of PLTP transfer activity was evaluated in both a subsample of 87 subjects enriched for an allele of interest and in a confirmation sample of 210 Caucasian males and females. Hemoglobin A1c or insulin level predicted 11-14% of age- and sex-adjusted PLTP activity. PLTP SNPs that predicted approximately 11-30% of adjusted PLTP activity variance were identified in the two cohorts. For rs6065904, the allele that was associated with CAAD was also associated with elevated PLTP activity in both cohorts. SNPs associated with PLTP activity also predicted variation in LDL-cholesterol and LDL-B level only in the replication cohort. These results demonstrate that PLTP activity is strongly influenced by PLTP region polymorphisms and metabolic factors.
Jeffrey R. Simard, Tova Meshulam, Biju K. Pillai, Michael T. Kirber, Kellen Brunaldi, Su Xu, Paul F. Pilch, James A. Hamilton
Published: 1 May 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 914-922; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m900251-jlr200

Abstract:
Ectopic expression of caveolin-1 in HEK293 cells enhances FA sequestration in membranes as measured by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (1). We hypothesized that sequestration of FA is due to the enrichment of caveolin in the cytosolic leaflet and its ability to facilitate the formation of lipid rafts to buffer high FA levels. Here we show that ec­topic expression of caveolin-3 also results in enhanced FA sequestration. To further discriminate the effect that caveolins have on transmembrane FA movement and distribution, we labeled the outer membrane leaflet with fluorescein-phosphatidylethanolamine (FPE), whose emission is quenched by the presence of FA anions. Real-time measurements made with FPE and control experiments with positively charged fatty amines support our hypothesis that caveolins promote localization of FA anions through interactions with basic amino acid residues (lysines and arginines) present at the C termini of caveolins-1 and -3.
Joshua J. Riegelhaupt, Marc P. Waase, Jeanne Garbarino, Daniel E. Cruz,
Published: 1 May 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 1134-1143; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m003095

Abstract:
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)D4 is a member of the StAR related lipid transfer family. Homology comes from the approximately 210 amino acid lipid binding domain implicated in intracellular transport, cell signaling, and lipid metabolism. StARD4 was identified as a gene downregulated 2-fold by dietary cholesterol (Soccio, R. E., R. M. Adams, K. N. Maxwell, and J. L. Breslow. 2005. Differential gene regulation of StarD4 and StarD5 cholesterol transfer proteins. Activation of StarD4 by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and StarD5 by endoplasmic reticulum stress. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 19410-19418). A mouse knockout was created to investigate StARD4's functionality and role in lipid metabolism. Homozygous knockout mice exhibited normal Mendelian mating genetics, but weighed less than wild-type littermates, an effect not accounted for by energy metabolism or food intake. Body composition as analyzed by DEXA scan showed no significant difference. No significant alterations in plasma or liver lipid content were observed on a chow diet, but female knockout mice showed a decrease in gallbladder bile cholesterol and phospholipid concentration. When challenged with a 0.2% lova-statin diet, StARD4 homozygous mice exhibited no changes. However, when challenged with a 0.5% cholesterol diet, female StARD4 homozygous mice showed a moderate decrease in total cholesterol, LDL, and cholesterol ester concentrations. Microarray analysis of liver RNA found few changes. However, NPC1's expression, a gene not on the microarray, was decreased approximately 2.5-fold in knockouts. These observations suggest that StARD4's role can largely be compensated for by other intracellular cholesterol transporters.
Hyejung Park, Christopher A. Haynes, , Michael Kulik, Stephen Dalton, Kelley Moremen,
Published: 1 March 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 480-489; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m000984

Abstract:
Ceramides (Cers) are important in embryogenesis, but no comprehensive analysis of gene expression for Cer metabolism nor the Cer amounts and subspecies has been conducted with an often used model: mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) versus embroid bodies (EBs). Measuring the mRNA levels by quantitative RT-PCR and the amounts of the respective metabolites by LC-ESI/MS/MS, notable differences between R1 mESCs and EBs were: EBs have higher mRNAs for CerS1 and CerS3, which synthesize C18- and C≥24-carbons dihydroceramides (DH)Cer, respectively; EBs have higher CerS2 (for C24:0- and C24:1-); and EBs have lower CerS5 + CerS6 (for C16-). In agreement with these findings, EBs have (DH)Cer with higher proportions of C18-, C24- and C26- and less C16-fatty acids, and longer (DH)Cer are also seen in monohexosylCers and sphingomyelins. EBs had higher mRNAs for fatty acyl-CoA elongases that produce C18-, C24-, and C26-fatty acyl-CoAs (Elovl3 and Elovl6), and higher amounts of these cosubstrates for CerS. Thus, these studies have found generally good agreement between genomic and metabolomic data in defining that conversion of mESCs to EBs is accompanied by a large number of changes in gene expression and subspecies distributions for both sphingolipids and fatty acyl-CoAs.
Thuc T. Le, Holli M. Duren, Mikhail N. Slipchenko, ,
Published: 1 March 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 672-677; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.d000638

Abstract:
The ubiquity of lipids in biological structures and functions suggests that lipid metabolisms are highly regulated. However, current invasive techniques for lipid studies prevent characterization of the dynamic interactions between various lipid metabolism pathways. Here, we describe a noninvasive approach to study lipid metabolisms using a multifunctional coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope. Using living Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, we report label-free visualization of coexisting neutral and autofluorescent lipid species. We find that the relative expression level of neutral and autofluorescent lipid species can be used to assay the genotype-phenotype relationship of mutant C. elegans with deletions in the genes encoding lipid synthesis transcription factors, LDL receptors, transforming growth factor beta receptors, lipid desaturation enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, by coupling CARS with fingerprint confocal Raman analysis, we analyze the unsaturation level of lipids in wild-type and mutant C. elegans. Our study shows that complex genotype-phenotype relationships between lipid storage, peroxidation, and desaturation can be rapidly and quantitatively analyzed in a single living C. elegans.
Manuel Roqueta-Rivera, Chad K. Stroud, Wanda M. Haschek, Sandeep J. Akare, Mariangela Segre, Richard S. Brush, Martin-Paul Agbaga, Robert E. Anderson, , Manabu T. Nakamura
Published: 28 February 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 360-367; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m001180

Abstract:
Delta-6 desaturase-null mice ((-/-)) are unable to synthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs): arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n6-docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6). The (-/-) males exhibit infertility and arrest of spermatogenesis at late spermiogenesis. To determine which HUFA is essential for spermiogenesis, a diet supplemented with either 0.2% (w/w) AA or DHA was fed to wild-type ((+/+)) and (-/-) males at weaning until 16 weeks of age (n = 3-5). A breeding success rate of DHA-supplemented (-/-) was comparable to (+/+). DHA-fed (-/-) showed normal sperm counts and spermiogenesis. Dietary AA was less effective in restoring fertility, sperm count, and spermiogenesis than DHA. Testis fatty acid analysis showed restored DHA in DHA-fed (-/-), but DPAn6 remained depleted. In AA-fed (-/-), AA was restored at the (+/+) level, and 22:4n6, an AA elongated product, accumulated in testis. Cholesta-3,5-diene was present in testis of (+/+) and DHA-fed (-/-), whereas it diminished in (-/-) and AA-fed (-/-), suggesting impaired sterol metabolism in these groups. Expression of spermiogenesis marker genes was largely normal in all groups. In conclusion, DHA was capable of restoring all observed impairment in male reproduction, whereas 22:4n6 formed from dietary AA may act as an inferior substitute for DHA.
Brittany D.M. Hodges,
Published: 1 February 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 262-273; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r003582

Abstract:
Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) are cellular structures composed of a neutral lipid core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer of amphipathic lipids and a variety of proteins. CLDs have classically been regarded as cellular energy storage structures. However, recent proteomic studies reveal that, although many of the proteins found to associate with CLDs are connected to lipid metabolism, storage, and homeostasis, there are also proteins with no obvious connection to the classical function and typically associated with other cellular compartments. Such proteins are termed refugee proteins, and their presence suggests that CLDs may serve an expanded role as a dynamic protein storage site, providing a novel mechanism for the regulation of protein function and transport.
Sha Huang, Lisa Henry, Yiu Kee Ho, ,
Published: 1 February 2010
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 51, pp 297-308; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m000422

Abstract:
The LDL receptor (LDL-R) mediates cholesterol metabolism in humans by binding and internalizing cholesterol transported by LDL. Several different molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the binding of LDL to LDL-R at neutral plasma pH and for its release at acidic endosomal pH. The crystal structure of LDL-R at acidic pH shows that the receptor folds back on itself in a closed form, obscuring parts of the ligand binding domain with the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-precursor homology domain. We have used a structure-based site-directed mutagenesis approach to examine 12 residues in the extracellular domain of LDL-R for their effect on LDL binding and release. Our studies show that the interface between the ligand binding domain and the EGF-precursor homology domain seen at acidic pH buries residues mediating both LDL binding and release. Our results are consistent with an alternative model of LDL-R whereby multiple modules of the extracellular domain interact with LDL at neutral pH, concurrently positioning key residues so that at acidic pH the LDL-R:LDL interactions become unfavorable, triggering release. After LDL release, the closed form of LDL-R may target its return to the cell surface.
, Dennis L. Sprecher, Max C. Walker, Frank L. Tobin
Published: 1 November 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 2222-2234; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m900015-jlr200

Abstract:
Because cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition is a potential HDL-raising therapy, interest has been raised in the mechanisms and consequences of CETP activity. To explore these mechanisms and the dynamics of CETP in vitro, a mechanistic mathematical model was developed based upon the shuttle mechanism for lipid transfer. Model parameters were estimated from eight published experimental datasets, and the resulting model captures observed dynamics of CETP in vitro. Simulations suggest the shuttle mechanism yields behaviors consistent with experimental observations. Three key findings predicted from model simulations are: 1) net CE transfer activity from HDL to VLDL and LDL can be significantly altered by changing the balance of homoexchange versus heteroexchange of neutral lipids via CETP; 2) lipemia-induced increases in CETP activity are more likely caused by increases in lipoprotein particle size than particle number; and 3) the inhibition mechanisms of the CETP inhibitors torcetrapib and JTT-705 are significantly more potent than a classic competitive inhibition mechanism with the irreversible binding mechanism having the most robust response. In summary, the model provides a plausible representation of CETP activity in vitro, corroborates strong evidence for the shuttle hypothesis, and provides new insights into the consequences of CETP activity and inhibition on lipoproteins.
, Dale S. Cornett, Satu M. Puolitaival, Stephen B. Milne, David S. Myers, , H. Alex Brown, Sudhansu K. Dey,
Published: 1 November 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 2290-2298; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m900100-jlr200

Abstract:
Molecular events involved in successful embryo implantation are not well understood. In this study, we used MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of phospholipid species associated with mouse embryo implantation. Molecular images showing phospholipid distribution within implantation sites changed markedly between distinct cellular areas during days 4-8 of pregnancy. For example, by day 8, linoleate- and docosahexaenoate-containing phospholipids localized to regions destined to undergo cell death, whereas oleate-containing phospholipids localized to angiogenic regions. Arachidonate-containing phospholipids showed different segregation patterns depending on the lipid class, revealing a strong correlation of phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols with cytosolic phospholipase A(2alpha) and cyclooxygenase-2 during embryo implantation. LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to validate MALDI IMS phospholipid distribution patterns. Overall, molecular images revealed the dynamic complexity of lipid distributions in early pregnancy, signifying the importance of complex interplay of lipid molecules in uterine biology and implantation.
, Astrid E. van der Velde, Karin Van Den Oever, Johannes H.M. Levels, Stephane Huet, Ronald P.J. Oude Elferink, , Albert K. Groen
Published: 1 October 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 2046-2054; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800579-jlr200

Abstract:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARdelta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobiliary cholesterol secretion, nor by reduced cholesterol absorption. To test the hypothesis that PPARdelta activation leads to stimulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE), we quantified it by intestine perfusions in FVB mice treated with PPARdelta agonist GW610742. To exclude the effects on cholesterol absorption, mice were also treated with cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe or ezetimibe/GW610742. GW601742 treatment had little effect on plasma lipid levels but stimulated both fecal neutral sterol excretion ( approximately 200%) and TICE ( approximately 100%). GW610742 decreased intestinal Npc1l1 expression but had no effect on Abcg5/Abcg8. Interestingly, expression of Rab9 and LIMPII, encoding proteins involved in intracellular cholesterol trafficking, was increased upon PPARdelta activation. Although treatment with ezetimibe alone had no effect on TICE, it reduced the effect of GW610742 on TICE. These data show that activation of PPARdelta stimulates fecal cholesterol excretion in mice, primarily by the two-fold increase in TICE, indicating that this pathway provides an interesting target for the development of drugs aiming at the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Guanghu Wang, Kannan Krishnamurthy,
Published: 1 October 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 2103-2110; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m900097-jlr200

Abstract:
The primary cilium is an important sensory organelle, the regulation of which is not fully understood. We found that in polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, the sphingolipid ceramide is specifically distributed to a cis-Golgi compartment at the base of the primary cilium. This compartment immunostained for the centrosome marker γ-tubulin, the Rho type GTPase cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42), and atypical protein kinase Cζ/λ (aPKC), a kinase activated by ceramide and associated with a polarity protein complex consisting of partitioning defective (Par)6 and Cdc42. Inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis with Fumonisin B1 prevented codistribution of aPKC and Cdc42 in the centrosomal/pericentriolar compartment and severely impaired ciliogenesis. Cilium formation and codistribution of aPKC and Cdc42 were restored by incubation with N-acetyl or N-palmitoyl sphingosine (C2 or C16 ceramide), or the ceramide analog N-oleoyl serinol (S18). Cilium formation was also restored by the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor indirubin-3-monoxime, suggesting that regulation of ciliogenesis depends on the inhibition of GSK-3β by ceramide-activated aPKC. Consistently, inhibition of aPKC with a pseudosubstrate inhibitor prevented restoration of ciliogenesis by C2 ceramide or S18. Our data show for the first time that ceramide is required for primary cilium formation.—Wang, G., K. Krishnamurthy, and E. Bieberich. Regulation of primary cilia formation by ceramide.
, Gustavo O. Castaño, , Tomas Fernández Gianotti, María Soledad Rosselli,
Published: 1 October 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 2111-2116; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.p900013-jlr200

Abstract:
We explored the role of the adiponutrin (PNPLA3) nonsynonymous-rs738409 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in genetic susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and whether this SNP contributes to the severity of histological disease. Two hundred sixty-six individuals were evaluated in a case-control association study, which included 172 patients with features of NAFLD and 94 control subjects. The rs738409 G allele was significantly associated with NAFLD (P < 0.001; OR 2.8 95%, CI 1.5-5.2), independent of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index. When we tested the hypothesis of a relation between the SNP and the histological spectrum of NAFLD, a significant association was observed [chi2 19.9, degree of freedom (df): 2, P < 5 x 10(-5), adjusted for HOMA and BMI]. The degree of liver steatosis, as evaluated by liver biopsy, was significantly associated with the rs738409 G allele. Patients with CC genotype showed a lower steatosis score (14.9% +/- 3.9) in comparison with the CG genotype (26.3% +/- 3.5) and GG genotype (33.3% +/- 4.0) (P < 0.005). The proportion of the total variation attributed to rs738409 genotypes was 5.3% (beta 0.23 +/- 0.07; P < 0.002). Our data suggest that the rs738409 G allele is associated not only with fat accumulation in the liver but also with liver injury, possibly triggered by lipotoxicity.
, Bernard Zinman, Graham F. Maguire, Mary Mamakeesick, Stewart B. Harris, Robert A. Hegele, Ravi Retnakaran, Anthony J. G. Hanley
Published: 1 June 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 1216-1222; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.p800070-jlr200

Abstract:
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been reported to be associated with proteinuria in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma cystatin C is more accurate than creatinine for identifying stage 3 kidney disease in T2DM. We tested the hypothesis that PON1 and cystatin C would be associated in T2DM subjects from an Aboriginal Canadian community, who are at high risk for the development of nephropathy. PON1 A(-162)G and PON2 Ala148Gly genotypes, cystatin C, HbA1c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), waist circumference (waist), and duration of diabetes were included in the regression analysis with loge (ln) of PON1 mass as the dependent variable. A regression model including PON2 Ala148Gly genotype, HDLC, and ln cystatin C explained 25.8% of the variance in PON1 mass. Conversely, waist, age, ln HbA1c, ln duration of diabetes, and ln PON1 mass, but not PON2 genotype, explained 38% of the variance in cystatin C. Subjects with cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The lower mass of PON1, an anti-inflammatory HDL-associated enzyme, in T2DM with cystatin C-eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 may contribute to their increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
Karsten Gehrig, Craig C. Morton,
Published: 31 May 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 966-976; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800632-jlr200

Abstract:
CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha (CCTalpha), the rate-limiting enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis, is activated by translocation to nuclear membranes. However, CCTalpha is cytoplasmic in cells with increased capacity for PtdCho synthesis and following acute activation, suggesting that nuclear export is linked to activation. The objective of this study was to identify which CCTalpha domains were involved in nuclear export in response to the lipid activators farnesol (FOH) and oleate. Imaging of CCT-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutants expressed in CCTalpha-deficient CHO58 cells showed that FOH-mediated translocation to nuclear membranes and export to the cytoplasm required the membrane binding amphipathic helix (domain M). Nuclear export was reduced by a mutation that mimics constitutive phosphorylation of the CCT phosphorylation (P) domain. However, domain M alone was sufficient to promote translocation to the nuclear envelope and export of a nuclear-localized GFP construct in FOH- or oleate-treated CHO58 cells. In the context of acute activation with lipid mediators, nuclear export of CCT-GFP mutants correlated with in vitro activity but not PtdCho synthesis. This study describes a nuclear export pathway that is dependent on membrane interaction of an amphipathic helix, thus linking lipid-dependent activation to the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of CCTalpha.
Published: 1 May 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 781-786; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r900005-jlr200

Abstract:
There is intense interest in comprehensive proteomic approaches for analyzing integral membrane proteins and lipoproteins. Key features of mass spectrometric analysis center on enriching biological material for proteins of interest, efficiently digesting them, extracting the resulting peptides, and using fractionation methods to comprehensively sample proteins or peptides by tandem mass spectrometry. However, lipid-associated proteins are generally rich in hydrophobic domains and are often low in abundance. These features, together with the associated lipid, make their mass spectrometric analysis technically challenging. In this article, we review analytical strategies for successful proteomic analysis of lipid-associated proteins.
Published: 1 May 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 832-845; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800402-jlr200

Abstract:
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) increase in patients affected by type-2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Likewise, insulin resistance, an impaired responsiveness of target tissues to insulin, is associated with those pathological conditions. To investigate a possible causal relationship between oxLDL and the onset of insulin resistance, we evaluated the response to insulin of 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with oxLDL. We observed that oxLDL inhibited glucose uptake (-40%) through reduced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) recruitment to the plasma membrane (-70%), without affecting GLUT4 gene expression. These findings were associated to the impairment of insulin signaling. Specifically, in oxLDL-treated cells insulin receptor (IR) substrate-1 (IRS-1) was highly degraded likely because of the enhanced Ser(307)phosphorylation. This process was largely mediated by the activation of the inhibitor of kappaB-kinase beta (IKKbeta) and the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, the activation of IKKbeta positively regulated the nuclear content of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), by inactivating the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha). The activated NF-kappaB further impaired per se GLUT4 functionality. Specific inhibitors of IKKbeta, JNK, and NF-kappaB restored insulin sensitivity in adipocytes treated with oxLDL. These data provide the first evidence that oxLDL, by activating serine/threonine kinases, impaired adipocyte response to insulin affecting pathways involved in the recruitment of GLUT4 to plasma membranes (PM). This suggests that oxLDL might participate in the development of insulin resistance.
, Xiaosong Wang, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Aihong Zhang, Allison Cox, Susan Sheehan,
Published: 31 January 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 116-125; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800411-jlr200

Abstract:
To evaluate the effect of genetic background on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels in Soat1−/− mice, we backcrossed sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (Soat1)−/− mice, originally reported to have elevated HDL levels, to C57BL/6 mice and constructed a congenic strain with only a small region (3.3Mb) of 129 alleles, specifically excluding the nearby apolipoprotein A-II (Apoa2) gene from 129. HDL levels in these Soat1−/− mice were no different from C57BL/6, indicating that the passenger gene Apoa2 caused the previously reported elevation of HDL in these Soat1−/− mice. Because many knockouts are made in strain 129 and then subsequently backcrossed into C57BL/6, it is important to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that differ between 129 and C57BL/6 so that one can guard against effects ascribed to a knockout but really caused by a passenger gene from 129. To provide such data, we generated 528 F2 progeny from an intercross of 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6 and measured HDL concentrations in F2 animals first fed chow and then atherogenic diet. A genome wide scan using 508 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified 19 QTL, 2 of which were male specific and 2 were female specific. Using comparative genomics and haplotype analysis, we narrowed QTL on chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 17, and 18 to 0.5, 6.3, 2.6, 1.1, and 0.6 Mb, respectively. These data will serve as a reference for any effort to test the impact of candidate genes on HDL using a knockout strategy.
Marijn C. Meuwese, Hans L. Mooij, Max Nieuwdorp, Bart van Lith, Roos Marck, Hans Vink, John J. P. Kastelein, Erik S. G. Stroes
Published: 1 January 2009
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 50, pp 148-153; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.p800025-jlr200

Abstract:
The endothelial glycocalyx has been shown to serve as a protective barrier between the flowing blood and the vessel wall in experimental models. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with glycocalyx perturbation in humans, and if so, whether statin treatment can restore this. We measured systemic glycocalyx volume (VG) in 13 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) after cessation of lipid-lowering therapy for a minimum of 4 weeks and 8 weeks after initiating rosuvastatin therapy. Normocholesterolemic subjects were used as controls. VG was estimated by subtracting the intravascular distribution volume of a glycocalyx permeable tracer (dextran 40) from that of a glycocalyx impermeable tracer (labeled erythrocytes). VG in untreated FH patients [LDL 225 ± 57 mg/dl (mean ± SD)] was significantly reduced compared with controls (LDL 93 ± 24 mg/dl) (VG 0.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6, respectively, P < 0.001). After normalization of LDL levels (95 ± 33 mg/dl) upon 8 weeks of statin treatment, VG recovered only partially (VG 1.1 ± 0.4 L, P = 0.04). The endothelial glycocalyx is profoundly reduced in FH patients, which may contribute to increased atherogenic vulnerability. This perturbation is partially restored upon short-term statin therapy.
Mayumi Ishikawa, Yuko Iwasaki, Shigeru Yatoh, Toyonori Kato, Shin Kumadaki, Noriyuki Inoue, Takashi Yamamoto, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yoshimi Nakagawa, , et al.
Published: 1 December 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 2524-2534; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800238-jlr200

Abstract:
To determine the role of cholesterol synthesis in pancreatic β-cells, a transgenic model of in vivo activation of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) specifically in β-cells (TgRIP-SREBP-2) was developed and analyzed. Expression of nuclear human SREBP-2 in β-cells resulted in severe diabetes as evidenced by greater than 5-fold elevations in glycohemoglobin compared with C57BL/6 controls. Diabetes in TgRIP-SREBP-2 mice was primarily due to defects in glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretion as determined by glucose tolerance test. Isolated islets of TgSREBP-2 mice were fewer in number, smaller, deformed, and had decreased insulin content. SREBP-2-expressing islets also contained increased esterified cholesterol and unchanged triglycerides with reduced ATP levels. Consistently, these islets exhibited elevated expression of HMG-CoA synthase and reductase and LDL receptor, with suppression of endogenous SREBPs. Genes involved in β-cell differentiation, such as PDX1 and BETA2, were suppressed, explaining loss of β-cell mass, whereas IRS2 expression was not affected. These phenotypes were dependent on the transgene expression. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of SREBP-2 in β-cells caused severe diabetes by loss of β-cell mass with accumulation of cholesterol, providing a new lipotoxic model and a potential link of disturbed cholesterol metabolism to impairment of β-cell function.
Vinciane Grimard, Julia Massier, Doris Richter, , , Eugenio Fava, Albin Hermetter, Christoph Thiele
Published: 1 November 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 2427-2440; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800168-jlr200

Abstract:
Lipid homeostasis is essential for proper function of cells and organisms. To unravel new regulators of this system, we developed a screening procedure, combining RNA interference in HeLa cells and TLC, which enabled us to monitor modifications of lipid composition resulting from short, interfering RNA knock-downs. We applied this technique to the analysis of 600 human kinases. Despite the occurrence of off-target effects, we identified JNK2 as a new player in triglyceride (TG) homeostasis and lipid droplet metabolism and, more specifically, in the regulation of lipolysis. Similar control of the level of TGs and lipid droplets was observed for its Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog, Sty1, suggesting an evolutionary conserved function of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the regulation of lipid storage in eukaryotic cells.
Douglas W. Petcoff, William L. Holland,
Published: 1 November 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 2365-2378; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800159-jlr200

Abstract:
Critical developmental periods, such as fertilization, involve metabolic activation, membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg or plasma membrane-cortical granule merger, and production and hydrolysis of phospholipids. However, there has been no large-scale quantification of phospholipid changes during fertilization. Using an enzymatic assay, traditional FA analysis by TLC and gas chromatography, along with a new method of phospholipid measurement involving HPLC separation and evaporative light-scattering detection, we report lipid levels in eggs, sperm, and during fertilization in Xenopus laevis. Sperm were found to contain different amounts of phospholipids as compared with eggs. During fertilization, total phosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylserine decreased, and ceramide increased, whereas there was no change in phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylethanolamine. FA analysis of phospholipids found numerous changes during fertilization. Because there is an increase in sn-1,2-diacylglycerol at fertilization, the FAs associated with this increase and the source of the increase in this neutral lipid were examined. Finally, activation of phospholipase C, phospholipase D, phospholipase A2, autotoxin, and sphingomyelinase at fertilization is discussed.
, Sundari Doraiswamy, Earl H. Harrison
Published: 1 August 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1715-1724; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700580-jlr200

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which carotenoids [xanthophylls vs. β-carotene(β-C)] are taken up by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was used. When ARPE-19 cells were fully differentiated (7–9 weeks), the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) were taken up by cells to an extent 2-fold higher than β-C (P < 0.05). At 9 weeks, cellular uptakes were 1.6, 2.5, and 3.2%, respectively, for β-C, LUT, and ZEA. Similar extents were observed when carotenoids were delivered in either Tween 40 or “chylomicrons” produced by Caco-2 cells. Differentiated ARPE-19 cells did not exhibit any detectable β-C 15,15′-oxygenase activity or convert exogenous β-C into vitamin A. When using specific antibodies against the lipid transporters cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), cellular uptake of β-C and ZEA were significantly decreased (40–60%) with anti-SR-BI but not with anti-CD36. Small interfering RNA transfection for SR-BI led to marked knockdown of SR-BI protein expression (∼90%), which resulted in decreased β-C and ZEA uptakes by 51% and 87%, respectively. Thus, the present data show that RPE cells preferentially take up xanthophylls versus the carotene by a process that appears to be entirely SR-BI-dependent for ZEA and partly so for β-C. This mechanism may explain, in part, the preferential accumulation of xanthophylls in the macula of the retina.
, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Jin Szatkiewicz, Yuan Shen,
Published: 1 July 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1500-1510; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800053-jlr200

Abstract:
To identify the genes controlling plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TGs), FFAs, and glucose, we carried out a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of the closely related mouse strains New Zealand Black (NZB/B1NJ) and New Zealand White (NZW/LacJ), which share 63% of their genomes. The NZB × NZW F2 progeny were genotyped and phenotyped to detect QTL, and then comparative genomics, bioinformatics, and sequencing were used to narrow the QTL and reduce the number of candidate genes. Triglyceride concentrations were linked to loci on chromosomes (Chr) 4, 7, 8, 10, and 18. FFA concentrations were affected by a significant locus on Chr 4, a suggestive locus on Chr 16, and two interacting loci on Chr 2 and 15. Plasma glucose concentrations were affected by QTL on Chr 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 15, 17, and 18. Comparative genomics narrowed the QTL by 31% to 86%; haplotype analysis was usually able to further narrow it by 80%. We suggest several candidate genes: Gba2 on Chr 4, Irs2 on Chr 8, and Ppargc1b on Chr 18 for TG; A2bp1 on Chr 16 for FFA; and G6pc2 on Chr 2 and Timp3 on Chr 10 for glucose.
, Tatu Miettinen, Helena Gylling, , Jyri Lommi, Heikki Turto, Kalervo Werkkala, Markku Kupari, Petri T. Kovanen
Published: 1 July 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1511-1518; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800058-jlr200

Abstract:
The pathogenesis of aortic valve stenosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of LDL-derived cholesterol in the diseased valves. Since LDL particles also contain plant sterols, we investigated whether plant sterols accumulate in aortic valve lesions. Serum samples were collected from 82 patients with severe AS and from 12 control subjects. Aortic valves were obtained from a subpopulation of 21 AS patients undergoing valve surgery and from 10 controls. Serum and valvular total cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Noncholesterol sterols, including both cholesterol precursors and sterols reflecting cholesterol absorption, were detected in serum samples and aortic valves. The higher the ratios to cholesterol of the cholesterol precursors and absorption markers in serum, the higher their ratios in the stenotic aortic valves (r = 0.74, P < 0.001 for lathosterol and r = 0.88, P < 0.001 for campesterol). The valvular ratio to cholesterol of lathosterol correlated negatively with the aortic valve area (r = −0.47, P = 0.045), suggesting attenuation of cholesterol synthesis with increasing severity of AS. The higher the absorption of cholesterol, the higher the plant sterol contents in stenotic aortic valves. These findings suggest that local accumulation of plant sterols and cholesterol precursors may participate in the pathobiology of aortic valve disease.
, Sammy W. M. Shiu, Ying Wong, , Richard Bucala
Published: 1 July 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1438-1444; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700551-jlr200

Abstract:
The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) can be proteolytically cleaved and released as soluble forms (sLOX-1). We have determined serums LOX-1 in type 2 diabetes and evaluated the effect of glucose and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on sLOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial cells were incubated with glucose or AGEs, and sLOX-1 in cell medium was measured. Serum sLOX-1 was measured in 219 diabetic patients and 187 controls by ELISA. The effect of lowering glucose and AGEs on sLOX-1 was determined in 38 poorly controlled diabetic patients after improvement in glycemic control. Incubation of endothelial cells with AGE-BSA led to a dose-dependent increase in sLOX-1, whereas the effect of glucose on sLOX-1 was less marked. Serum sLOX-1 was 9% higher in diabetic patients compared with controls (P < 0.01). In the poorly controlled patients, serum sLOX-1 decreased by 12.5% after improvement in glycemic control (P < 0.05). The magnitude of reduction in sLOX-1 correlated with the improvement in hemoglobin A1c and AGEs but not with the reduction in oxidized LDL.XXX sLOX-1 level is increased in type 2 diabetes. Both glucose and AGEs are important determinants of LOX-1 expression, and lowering glucose and AGEs leads to a reduction in sLOX-1.
, Gusheng Wu
Published: 1 June 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1176-1186; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r800009-jlr200

Abstract:
Sphingolipids are most prominently expressed in the plasma membrane, but recent studies have pointed to important signaling and regulatory roles in the nucleus. The most abundant nuclear sphingolipid is sphingomyelin (SM), which occurs in the nuclear envelope (NE) as well as intranuclear sites. The major metabolic product of SM is ceramide, which is generated by nuclear sphingomyelinase and triggers apoptosis and other metabolic changes. Ceramide is further hydrolyzed to free fatty acid and sphingosine, the latter undergoing conversion to sphingosine phosphate by action of a specific nuclear kinase. Gangliosides are another type of sphingolipid found in the nucleus, members of the a-series of gangliotetraose gangliosides (GM1, GD1a) occurring in the NE and endonuclear compartments. GM1 in the inner membrane of the NE is tightly associated with a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger whose activity it potentiates, thereby contributing to regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis in the nucleus. This was shown to exert a cytoprotective role as absence or inactivation of this nuclear complex rendered cells vulnerable to apoptosis. This was demonstrated in the greatly enhanced kainite-induced seizure activity in knockout mice lacking gangliotetraose gangliosides. The pathology included apoptotic destruction of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Ca2+ homeostasis was restored in these animals with LIGA-20, a membrane-permeant derivative of GM1 that entered the NE and activated the nuclear Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Some evidence suggests the presence of uncharged glycosphingolipids in the nucleus.
, Michael C. Mahaney, , , Jeffrey Rogers, John L. VandeBerg, David L. Rainwater
Published: 1 June 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1295-1302; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m800020-jlr200

Abstract:
Both lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, a biomarker of inflammation, and concentration of its primary associated lipoprotein, LDL, are correlated with adverse coronary outcomes. We previously reported a quantitative trait locus (QTL) corresponding to HSA2p24.3–p23.2 with pleiotropic effects on Lp-PLA2 activity and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in baboons fed a basal diet. Here, our goal was to locate pleiotropic QTLs influencing both traits in the same baboons fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat (HCHF) diet, and to assess whether shared genetic effects on these traits differ between diets. We assayed Lp-PLA2 activity and LDL-C concentration in 683 baboons fed the HCHF diet. We used a bivariate maximum likelihood-based variance components approach in whole-genome linkage screens to locate a QTL [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 3.13, genome-wide P = 0.019] corresponding to HSA19q12–q13.2 with pleiotropic effects on Lp-PLA2 activity and LDL-C levels in the HCHF diet. We additionally found significant evidence of genetic variance in response to diet for Lp-PLA2 activity (P = 0.0017) and for LDL-C concentration (P = 0.00001), revealing a contribution of genotype-by-diet interaction to covariation in these two traits. We conclude that the pleiotropic QTLs detected at 2p24.3–p23.2 and 19q12–q13.2 on the basal and HCHF diets, respectively, exert diet-specific effects on covariation in Lp-PLA2 activity and LDL-C concentration.
Lihui Ou, Yue Wu, Clement Ip, Xiaojing Meng, Yung-Chun Hsu,
Published: 31 May 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 985-994; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700465-jlr200

Abstract:
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits rat mammary carcinogenesis, in part by inducing apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells. The current study focused on the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced. In TM4t mammary tumor cells, trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12)-CLA induced proapoptotic C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) concurrent with the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Knockdown of CHOP attenuated t10,c12-CLA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, t10,c12-CLA induced the cleavage of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident caspase-12, and a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated t10,c12-CLA-induced apoptosis. Using electron microscopy, we observed that t10,c12-CLA treatment resulted in marked dilatation of the ER lumen. Together, these data suggest that t10,c12-CLA induces apoptosis through ER stress. To further explore the ER stress pathway, we examined the expression of the following upstream ER stress signature markers in response to CLA treatment: X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA (unspliced and spliced), phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and BiP proteins. We found that t10,c12-CLA induced the expression and splicing of XBP1 mRNA as well as the phosphorylation of eIF2α. In contrast, ATF4 was induced modestly, but not significantly, and BiP was not altered. In summary, our data demonstrate that apoptosis induced by t10,c12-CLA is mediated, at least in part, through an atypical ER stress response that culminates in the induction of CHOP and the cleavage of caspase-12.
Nabil Matmati,
Published: 1 May 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 922-928; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r800004-jlr200

Abstract:
Sphingolipid biosynthesis and breakdown in yeast share many homologies in their pathways with higher eukaryotes (Dickson, R. C. 1998. Sphingolipid functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: comparison to mammals. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67: 27–48). In mammals, ceramide can be generated through hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by sphingomyelinase (SMase). To date, as many as five SMases have been identified molecularly, separated into three main groups: acid, alkaline, and neutral SMases (nSMases) (Marchesini, N., and Y. Hannun. 2004. Acid and neutral sphingomyelinases: roles and mechanisms of regulation. Biochem. Cell Biol. 82: 27–44). nSMase in mammals is represented by its homolog, inositol phosphosphingolipase C, codified by ISC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and by CSS1 (Can't Stop Synthesizing cell wall) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp). Yeasts do not have sphingomyelin but instead have inositol phosphosphingolipids, which may function as orthologs of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we will describe findings related to the function of ISC1, its localization, mechanisms, and its roles in cell response to different types of stresses. These studies serve as a foundation for the elucidation of the properties and functions of the extended family of nSMases.
Published: 1 May 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 909-921; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r800003-jlr200

Abstract:
Our understanding of sphingolipid metabolism and functions in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has progressed substantially in the past 2 years. Yeast sphingolipids contain a C26-acyl moiety, all of the genes necessary to make these long-chain fatty acids have been identified, and a mechanism for how chain length is determined has been proposed. Advances in understanding how the de novo synthesis of ceramide and complex sphingolipids is regulated have been made, and they demonstrate that the Target Of Rapamycin Complex 2 (TORC2) controls ceramide synthase activity. Other work shows that TORC2 regulates the level of complex sphingolipids in a pathway using the Slm1 and Slm2 proteins to control the protein phosphatase calcineurin, which regulates the breakdown of complex sphingolipids. The activity of Slm1 and Slm2 has also been shown to be regulated during heat stress by phosphoinositides and TORC2, along with sphingoid long-chain bases and the Pkh1 and Pkh2 protein kinases, to control the actin cytoskeleton, the trafficking of nutrient transporters, and cell viability. Together, these results provide the first molecular insights into understanding previous genetic interaction data that indicated a connection between sphingolipids and the TORC2 and phosphoinositide signaling networks. This new knowledge provides a foundation for greatly advancing our understanding of sphingolipid biology in yeast.
Sarita Hebbar, Esther Lee, Manoj Manna, Steffen Steinert, Goparaju Sravan Kumar, Markus Wenk, , Rachel Kraut
Published: 1 May 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 1077-1089; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700543-jlr200

Abstract:
We have designed a tagged probe [sphingolipid binding domain (SBD)] to facilitate the tracking of intracellular movements of sphingolipids in living neuronal cells. SBD is a small peptide consisting of the SBD of the amyloid precursor protein. It can be conjugated to a fluorophore of choice and exogenously applied to cells, thus allowing for in vivo imaging. Here, we present evidence to describe the characteristics of the SBD association with the plasma membrane. Our experiments demonstrate that SBD binds to isolated raft fractions from human neuroblastomas and insect neuronal cells. In protein-lipid overlay experiments, SBD interacts with a subset of glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin, consistent with its raft association in neurons. We also provide evidence that SBD is taken up by neuronal cells in a cholesterol- and sphingolipid-dependent manner via detergent-resistant microdomains. Furthermore, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to assay the mobility of SBD in live cells, we show that SBD's behavior at the plasma membrane is similar to that of the previously described raft marker cholera toxin B, displaying both a fast and a slow component. Our data suggest that fluorescently tagged SBD can be used to investigate the dynamic nature of glycosphingolipid-rich detergent-resistant microdomains that are cholesterol-dependent.
, Leslie A. Knaub, , , , Robert H. Eckel
Published: 30 April 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 870-879; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700519-jlr200

Abstract:
LPL is an enzyme involved in the breakdown and uptake of lipoprotein triglycerides. In the present study, we examined how the transgenic (Tg) overexpression of human LPL in mouse skeletal muscle affected tolerance to cold temperatures, cold-induced thermogenesis, and fuel utilization during this response. Tg mice and their nontransgenic controls were placed in an environmental chamber and housed in metabolic chambers that monitored oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production with calorimetry. When exposed to 4°C, an attenuation in the decline in body temperature in Tg mice was accompanied by an increased metabolic rate (15%; P < 0.001) and a reduction in respiratory quotient (P < 0.05). Activity levels, the expression of uncoupling proteins in brown fat and muscle, and lean mass failed to explain the enhanced cold tolerance and thermogenesis in Tg mice. The more oxidative type IIa fibers were favored over the more glycolytic type IIb fibers (P < 0.001) in the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles of Tg mice. These data suggest that Tg overexpression of LPL in skeletal muscle increases cold tolerance by enhancing the capacity for fat oxidation, producing an avian-like phenotype in which skeletal muscle contributes significantly to the thermogenic response to cold temperatures.
Cyrille Botté, Nadia Saïdani, Ricardo Mondragon, Mónica Mondragón, Giorgis Isaac, Ernest Mui, Rima McLeod, Jean-François Dubremetz, Henri Vial, , et al.
Published: 1 April 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 746-762; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700476-jlr200

Abstract:
Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular parasite characterized by unique extracellular and intracellular membrane compartments. The lipid composition of subcellular membranes has not been determined, limiting our understanding of lipid homeostasis, control, and trafficking, a series of processes involved in pathogenesis. In addition to a mitochondrion, Toxoplasma contains a plastid called the apicoplast. The occurrence of a plastid raised the question of the presence of chloroplast galactolipids. Using three independent rabbit and rat antibodies against digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from plant chloroplasts, we detected a class of Toxoplasma lipids harboring a digalactolipid-like epitope (DGLE). Immunolabeling characterization supports the notion that the DGLE polar head is similar to that of DGDG. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that dihexosyl lipids having various hydrophobic moieties (ceramide, diacylglycerol, and acylalkylglycerol) might react with anti-DGDG, but we cannot exclude the possibility that more complex dihexosyl-terminated lipids might also be immunolabeled. DGLE localization was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy and confirmed by subcellular fractionation. No immunolabeling of the apicoplast could be observed. DGLE was scattered in pellicle membrane domains in extracellular tachyzoites and was relocalized to the anterior tip of the cell upon invasion in an actin-dependent manner, providing insights on a possible role in pathogenetic processes. DGLE was detected in other Apicomplexa (i.e., Neospora, Plasmodium, Babesia, and Cryptosporidium).
, Joy S. Frank, Giuliano A. Mottino, Ashkan Hakhamian, Ajay Narasimha, Andrew D. Watson, Babak Yekta, Mohamad Navab, Srinivasa T. Reddy, G.M. Anantharamaiah, et al.
Published: 1 January 2008
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 49, pp 192-205; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700433-jlr200

Abstract:
Whereas antibipolar drug administration to rats reduces brain arachidonic acid turnover, excessive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling is thought to contribute to bipolar disorder symptoms and may increase arachidonic acid turnover in rat brain phospholipids. To determine whether chronic NMDA would increase brain arachidonic acid turnover, rats were daily administered NMDA (25 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle for 21 days. In unanesthetized rats, on day 21, [1-14C]arachidonic acid was infused intravenously and arterial blood plasma was sampled until the animal was euthanized at 5 min and its microwaved brain was subjected to chemical and radiotracer analysis. Using equations from our in vivo fatty acid model, we found that compared with controls, chronic NMDA increased the net rate of incorporation of plasma unesterified arachidonic acid into brain phospholipids (25–34%) as well as the turnover of arachidonic acid within brain phospholipids (35–58%). These changes were absent at 3 h after a single NMDA injection. The changes, opposite to those after chronic administration of antimanic drugs to rats, suggest that excessive NMDA signaling via arachidonic acid may be a model of upregulated arachidonic acid turnover in brain phospholipids.
Toshiaki Houjou, Jun Hayakawa, , Yuko Tashima, Yusuke Maeda, Taroh Kinoshita, Ryo Taguchi
Published: 1 July 2007
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 48, pp 1599-1606; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m700095-jlr200

Abstract:
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a major lipidation in posttranslational modification. GPI anchor precursors are biosynthesized from endogenous phosphatidylinositols (PIs) and attached to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Endogenous PIs are characterized by domination of diacyl species and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chain, such as 18:0-20:4, at the sn-2 position. In contrast, the features of mammalian glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are domination of alkyl/acyl PI species and the presence of saturated fatty acyl chains at the sn-2 position, the latter being consistent with association with lipid rafts. Recent studies showed that saturated fatty acyl chain at sn-2 is introduced by fatty acid remodeling that occurs in GPI-APs. To gain insight into the former feature, we analyzed the molecular species of several different GPI precursors derived from various mammalian mutant cell lines. Here, we show that the PI species profile greatly changed in the precursor glucosamine (GlcN)-acyl-PI and became very similar to that of GPI-APs before fatty acid remodeling. They had alkyl (or alkenyl)/acyl types with unsaturated acyl chain as the major PI species. Therefore, a specific feature of the PI moieties of mature GPI-APs, domination of alkyl (or alkenyl)/acyl type species over diacyl types, is established at the stage of GlcN-acyl-PI.
Bingzhong Xue, Jong-Seop Rim, Jessica C. Hogan, Ann A. Coulter, Robert A. Koza, Leslie P. Kozak
Published: 1 January 2007
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 48, pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m600287-jlr200

Abstract:
Cold exposure induces brown adipocytes in retroperitoneal fat (RP) of adult A/J mice but not in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. In contrast, induction of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 gene (Ucp1) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) shows no strain dependence. We now show that unlike iBAT, in which Ucp1 was expressed in the fetus and continued throughout life, in RP, Ucp1 was transiently expressed between 10 and 30 days of age and then disappeared. Similar to the lack of genetic variation in the expression of Ucp1 in iBAT during cold induction of adult mice, no genetic variation in Ucp1 expression in iBAT was detected during development. In contrast, UCP1-positive multilocular adipocytes, together with corresponding increases in Ucp1 expression, appeared in RP at 10 days of age in A/J and B6 mice, but with much higher expression in A/J mice. At 20 days of age, brown adipocytes represent the major adipocyte present in RP of A/J mice. The disappearance of brown adipocytes by 30 days of age suggested that tissue remodeling occurred in RP. Genetic variability in Ucp1 expression could not be explained by variation in the expression of selective transcription factors and signaling molecules of adipogenesis. In summary, the existence of genetic variability between A/J and B6 mice during the development of brown adipocyte expression in RP, but not in iBAT, suggests that developmental mechanisms for the brown adipocyte differentiation program are different in these adipose tissues.
Christopher S. Carlson, Patrick J. Heagerty, Thomas S. Hatsukami, Rebecca J. Richter, Jane Ranchalis, Julieann Lewis, Tamara J. Bacus, Laura A. McKinstry, Gerard D. Schellenberg, Mark Rieder, et al.
Published: 1 May 2006
Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 47, pp 1014-1024; https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m500517-jlr200

Abstract:
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity is consistently predictive of vascular disease, although the genotype at four functional PON1 polymorphisms is not. To address this inconsistency, we investigated the role of all common PON1 genetic variability, as measured by tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs), in predicting PON1 activity for phenylacetate hydrolysis, LDL susceptibility to oxidation ex vivo, plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels, and carotid artery disease (CAAD) status. The biological goal was to establish whether additional common genetic variation beyond consideration of the four known functional SNPs improves prediction of these phenotypes. PON2 and PON3 tagSNPs were secondarily evaluated. Expanded analysis of an additional 26 tagSNPs found evidence of previously undescribed common PON1 polymorphisms that affect PON1 activity independently of the four known functional SNPs. PON1 activity was not significantly correlated with LDL oxidative susceptibility, but genotypes at the PON1-108 promoter polymorphism and several other PON1 SNPs were. Neither PON1 activity nor PON1 genotype was significantly correlated with plasma Hcy levels. This study revealed previously undetected common functional PON1 polymorphisms that explain 4% of PON1 activity and a high rate of recombination in PON1, but the sum of the common PON1 locus variation does not explain the relationship between PON1 activity and CAAD.
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