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Abdeslam Et-Touys, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Hajiba Fellah, Meryem Mniouil, Houria El Boury, Nadia Dakka, ,
Published: 27 November 2017
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Volume 7, pp 826-840; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtd.7.2017D7-215

Subaika Mahmood, Toseef Fatima, Hina Zulfaqar, Romana Saher, Muhammad Rafiq, Abdul Rehman, , Muhammad Ashfaq, Murtaza Hasan
Published: 30 August 2017
Journal of Coastal Life Medicine pp 409-416; https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.5.2017J7-75

Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi, Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah
Published: 25 April 2017
Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, Volume 5, pp 141-148; https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.5.2017J6-226

Mubashir Hussain, , Abida Akram, Anam Iftikhar, Danish Ashfaq, , Roomina Mazhar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Iqbal
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Volume 7, pp 185-192; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtd.7.2017d6-385

Prashant Tiwari, Pratap Sahu
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 6, pp 49-53; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjr.6.20170201

Graça Costa, Sónia Soares, Fernando Carvalho, João Bela
Published: 1 May 2016
Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, Volume 4, pp 345-352; https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.4.2016j6-18

Abstract:
Objective: To study the digenean parasites of the prosobranch gastropods, Littorina littorea (L. littorea) and Gibbula umbilicalis (G. umbilicalis) from rocky shores of the Northern Atlantic coast of Portugal.Methods: A total of 413 L. littorea and 2 603 G. umbilicalis were collected from rocky shores, at Aveiro estuary, Aguda Beach, and Foz Beach at Porto (Northern Atlantic coast of Portugal) from January to July 2014 and February 2014 to January 2015, respectively. Gonads and digestive glands of the gastropods were examined under light microscopy for the presence of digeneans. Infected gonads of L. littorea were prepared for histological observation, whereas digeneans found in G. umbilicalis were studied and identified with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy.Results: Two species of digeneans were found infecting the digestive gland and gonads of G. umbilicalis, namely, Cainocreadium labracis and Lecithochirium furcolabiatum with a combined prevalence of 3%. Histological observations of gonads of L. littorea revealed the infection with digeneans, with considerable replacement of gonadal tissues. These digeneans were not identified to species level. The prevalence of digeneans in this snail host was 0.7%.Conclusions: The present study adds G. umbilicalis as another first intermediate host for Cainocreadium labracis and extends its geographical range to the Portuguese Atlantic coast. Cercariae of Lecithochirium furcolabiatum were previously reported from G. umbilicalis. A literature review of digeneans occurring in the gastropod genera Gibbula and Littorina is given.
Mooza Al-Owaisi, Nora Al-Hadiwi,
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 964-970; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b295

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) leaves.MethodsThe dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity.ResultsPhytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract, 6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract. Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid.ConclusionsResults of this study show that the leaves of M. peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases
Hai-Feng Yuan, , Deng-Feng Gao, Guang-Hua Hao, An-Qi Song, Jin Wei
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 977-981; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b416

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of phosphorylated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ) in the aging thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on the phosphorylation of PPARγ.Methods16, 32 and 64 week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were randomly and respectively divided into WKY, SHR and SHR+rosiglitazone group (9 in each group). The rats in SHR+rosiglitazone group were treated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 56 d, whereas normal saline was applied in WKY and SHR groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats was measured by tail cuff method. Histopathological damage of thoracic aorta was analyzed using Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot were performed to test the level of p-PPARγ protein in the thoracic aorta arising from each group.ResultsThe SBP in 16, 32 and 64 week-old SHR were significantly higher as compared with those in matched WKY rats (P<0.05, respectively). HE staining showed increased content of smooth muscle cell, wrinkled lining endothelium and increased thickness of internal elastic lamina in the thoracic aorta of SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot indicated that the levels of p-PPARγ in the thoracic aorta arising from SHR were obviously higher than those in the thoracic aorta arising from WKY rats (P<0.05, respectively). Importantly, the high SBP, histopathological abnormalities of the thoracic aorta and elevated p-PPARγ expression were prominently abrogated by rosiglitazone treatment in SHR (P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, the SBP, histopathological abnormalities of the thoracic aorta and p-PPARγ expression were positively correlated with age in SHR (P<0.05, respectively).ConclusionsThe PPARγ phosphorylation was observed in the thoracic aorta of SHR and its expression was increased by the increase of age. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the PPARγ phosphorylation and suppressed vascular aging in SHR
Yitades Gebre, Teshome Gebre, Abena Peters
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 928-936; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b419

Loukil Hanen, Snoussi Mouna, Frikha Faten, Ben Salah Raida, Jallouli Moez, Chérif Yosra, El Aoud Sahar, Marzouk Sameh, Bahloul Zouhir
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 998-1000; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.2014apjtb-2014-0359

Abstract:
Optic neuritis (ON) may be associated to a range of autoimmune or infectious diseases. We report herein a case of ON induced by Rickettsia conorii. A 53-year-old woman presented with a recent decrease in visual acuity and headache. ON was diagnosed on the basis of ophthalmologic examination and flash visual evoked potentials. Etiological investigation made in our department eliminated first autoimmune disorders (vasculitis and connective tissue diseases). Rickettsial optic neuritis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies in serum and the negativity of other serologic tests. An association between corticosteroids and cyclines was prescribed with improvement of visual acuity
Isaac Kingsley Amponsah, , Antonia Otoo, Merlin Lincoln Kwao Mensah, Jato Jonathan
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 941-946; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.2014apjtb-2014-0416

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo establish the pharmacognostic characters for the correct identification and quality control of Hilleria latifolia (H. latifolia), an important herb in Ghanaian folklore medicine, for the treatment of infections, pain and inflammation.MethodsThe macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features, physicochemical and phytochemical features of the medicinally used parts of H. latifolia were evaluated using standard methods.ResultsThe plant has simple, alternate leaves with entire margin. The lamina is ovate to broadly lanceolate with an acuminate apex. It is hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata. The plant contains abundant prismatic crystals in all parts. Starch grains abound in the roots. The quantitative indices of the leaf and physicochemical parameters have also been established.ConclusionsThe pharmacognostic features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeial standard for the correct identification and quality control of H. latifolia
, Vincenzo Nicosia,
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 925-927; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b448

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to highlight the current development in the research field for helping people just exposed to Ebola virus survive (treatment) and to prevent the disease when given at various times after exposure (vaccine). Concerning the treatment, recombinant anti-Ebola monoclonal antibodies and small interfering RNAs that block the expression of essential viral proteins, are the most promising way in stopping the disease when it has already reached the humans. As far as concerns the prevention field, two candidate vaccines have clinical-grade vials available for phase 1 pre-licensure clinical trials, and demonstrated to have a 100% efficacy in studies on non human primates. Well-informed communities can reduce the main ways of spread the infection, by avoiding unprotected home-based care of people who are infected and also by completely modifying traditional burial practices that are way of diffusion of the contagion
, , , , Ana Júlia Figueiró Dalcin, Patrícia Gomes, , Carine Eloise Prestes Zimmerman, Janio Morais Santurio, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro, et al.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 947-951; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.2014apjtb-2014-0435

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aescin and aescin liposomes against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo.MethodsAescin and aescin liposomes were used in vitro on trypomastigotes at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) and exposure times (0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 h). In vivo tests were performed using mice as the experimental model. Trypanosome evansi infected mice were treated with aescin and aescin liposomes with doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg during 4 d.ResultsThe three concentrations tested in free form and nanoencapsulated showed trypanocidal activity in vitro, completely eliminating the parasites in small concentration after 6 h of assay. Animals treated with aescin (100 mg/kg) and aescin liposomes (100 mg/kg) showed increase in longevity, however without curative effect.ConclusionsActive compounds present in natural products, such as aescin, may potentiate the treatment of trypanosomosis when used in association with other trypanocidal drugs
Muhammad Shoaib Amjad, Muhammad Arshad
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 952-958; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b381

Abstract:
To document ethnobotanical informations of useful woody plant species in the region of Kotli, Azad Kashmir.MethodsAn ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Kotli. Data were collected by interview and semi structured questionnaire from selected local informants and traditional practitioners as well as by field assessment.ResultsThe present study documented the etnobotanical uses of 33 woody plant species. Most of the species have been used for dual purpose. Only 5 species are used for one purpose. Study revealed all species have medicinal value, among which 21 were used as fuel wood species, 16 as fodder species, 4 as timber wood species, 12 as edible fruit species, 6 as fence or hedge plant, 7 as ornamental species and 12 species had other uses.ConclusionsMedicinal plants are still widely used for health care by locals of Kotli. Some species of woodlands seem to be vulnerable to overcollection and deforestation. As the young generation is diverted toward allelopathic medicines, ethnobotanical knowledges of important medicinal plants are restricted to the old people only. It is suggested to close the forest of district Kotli for next two to three decades for the conservation of plant biodiversity
Amir Kamali, , Ahmad Reza Movassaghi, , Zahra Naseri
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 990-994; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b378

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran.MethodsPolymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS.ResultsN. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth.ConclusionsThe results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran
, Godfred Antony Menezes, Rahul Dhodapkar, Belgode Narasimha Harish
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 995-997; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b413

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008.MethodsA total of 14 639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened.ResultsAmong the 14 639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to 1.39% in 2008.ConclusionsOur study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs
Shreeti Pradhan, Babulal Tiruwa, Bijay Raj Subedee,
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 971-976; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.2014apjtb-2014-0369

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo study the in vitro germination and plantlet regeneration from artificial seeds of Cymbidium aloifolium (C. aloifolium), a highly threatened medicinal orchid of Nepal.MethodsArtificial seeds were produced in vitro by encapsulation of protocorms with 4% sodium alginate and 0.2 mol/L calcium chloride solution. In vitro germination and plantlet regeneration of the artificial seeds were tested by culturing them on different strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid media (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) and MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzyl amino purine and 0.5 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Freshly produced artificial seeds were stored up to 28 d at 4 ºC. In order to check the viability, storage artificial seeds were treated with five different sterilization techniques (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5) and inoculated on full strength (1.0) of MS liquid medium after each 7 d of interval upto 28th days.ResultsThe highest percentage of germination (100%) of artificial seed was obtained on quarter (0.25), half (0.5) and full (1.0) strength of MS liquid medium. Experimentally, full strength of MS liquid medium was more effective for earlier seedling development of C. aloifolium. Artificial seeds were successfully stored at 4 ºC till 28th days. Treatments T1 and T2 showed 97.5% viability of storage artificial seeds and hence considered as the most effective sterilization techniques to recover the plant from storage artificial seeds. Plantlets developed from artificial seeds were successfully acclimatized in potting mixture containing cocopeat, litter and sphagnum moss with 85% survival rate.ConclusionsThe present study revealed that artificial seeds are the good alternative explants for in vitro mass propagation and short term conservation of C. aloifolium
Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya, Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mend Abeysekera, Chatura Tissa Dayendra Ratnasooriya
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 959-963; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.2014apjtb-2014-0462

Abstract:
ObjectiveTo access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation.MethodsFive concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase.ResultsThe results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93, P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB.ConclusionsSri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation
, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 4, pp 939-940; https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.2014apjtb-2014-0477

Abstract:
The drug searching for combating the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection is the urgent activity at present. Finding the new effective drug at present must base on the molecular analysis of the pathogenic virus. The in-depth analysis of the viral protein to find the binding site, active pocket is needed. Here, the authors analyzed the envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus. Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus was done. According to this assessment, 7 active pockets with varied druggability could be identified
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