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Narmatha T, Devanan R
Published: 15 September 2021
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 75-82;

Man cannot live alone. You can only live dependent on relationships. Relationships play a major role in determining a person's development. Every relationship is subject to structure. With protocol. It can be divided into two types. One is family relationships. The other is social relations. In family relationships parents can have relationships like children, siblings, boyfriend girlfriend, husband wife. Social relationships include friends, teachers, students, acquaintances, and strangers. In this, selfless relationships are enduring. This can be seen in the community and family. The Kattunde family runs smoothly through the bond of love. Otherwise, the family would not be where it is today. Childbearing is considered important in family relationships. People considered a life without children to be a useless day. Children born into the world are recognized by their parents. Parents also act as if they have a duty to grow as a responsible person in the community. That is why it is so sweet. Compensation is unparalleled than other relationships. Inseparable. Bound in love. Participating in pleasures and pains. Many generations have passed. The parent-child relationship functions with such a variety of features. Various literatures record this. However, this article only explains the status of parent-child development in the parent-child relationship in the Sivagasindamani epic.
Yebpella G.G, Magomya A.M, Hikon B.N, Joshua Y, Gani J
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 26-31;

Heavy metals accumulation in biological system are by inhalation of contaminated air, intake of contaminated food or drinking water has been considered to be an ecological menace to man and other organisms. This study was carried out to ascertain the pollution status of Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in sediment of Akata Lake, Katsina- Ala Benue State, Nigeria. Sediment samples were collected, digested using 30% H2O2 followed by 0.5M HCl and the metal concentrations were determined with Varian AA240 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with Zeeman’s background correction (Varian, New Jersey, USA). The mean level of the heavy metals, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr are 31.05, 2.72, 19.22 and 0.88 mg/kg while the concentration of Cr was below the detection limit of the instrument. The values obtained were compared with the established soil and sediment standard by World Health Organization (WHO). The contamination factors value for Zn, Cu and Cd are 1, hence it shows that the sediment is polluted by lead. The pollution load index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) levels for Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd heavy metals in sample A - E were less than 1 except for Pb which is >1, this show that, the sediment were polluted with Pb.
Chandrakumari S
Published: 11 September 2021
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 58-62;

Proverbs Four Hundred Emphasizing Ethics is the topic of the study. Proverb four hundred says that old sins will go away by doing dharmas. It means doing good deeds in a timely manner. It says that one should not insult a friend among intellectuals, and that such insulting is like insulting ourselves. Wealth that is kept safe should not be put together as big money to help behind. It says that we should give the wealth we have accumulated to others and if we live like that, it will be the great treasure that we will accumulate in the end times. The deeds he has done will benefit one. Surrounding people will not give such an advantage. It is okay to not be able to do beneficial charity for many days. Says do some day. Doing virtue also brings benefits. The proverb says that you will get Motsam as well. Let us attain the Moksha life by doing the proverbial four hundred emphasizing virtue.
Mahadevi N
Published: 11 September 2021
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 63-74;

Ephigraphs of Kongu Nadu has the Evidence of Women’s Contribution both from Royal Family and poverty-stricken family. Though the disparate regions of Kongu Nadu was ruled by various kings, the evidence of women’s contribution is found only in the Ephigraphs of Pandyas, Cheras, and Cholas. However, women Contribution was at peak during Chozha Period. Women of Royal Clan was provisioned with the ability and rights to maintain and rejuvenate Temples. Devaradiyarkal contributed Gold and coins which stands as a testimony to their social standard. It also reflects their Wealth. The wives of Government officials offered lands as part of their contribution. The evidence of contributions made by lay women could be traced only in the Epigraphs of 12th or 13th Century only. It is believed that women made their contribution with regard to God but the trace of evidence couldn’t be found anywhere. Further, the glimpses on women’s right to property and in addition, their freedom to use their property regardless of any exterior interventions were also been recorded.
M Devi, S Balasubramaniyan
Published: 11 September 2021
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 50-57;

Various types of literature in Tamil have appeared and developed over time. Literature refines our lives. The literature that appeared in each period is able to reveal the living environment of the people of the respective period. Sangam Literature, Sangam Forgotten Literature, Devotional Literature, Folk Literature, Short Story, Novel, Renewal Poetry, Drama, Prose Literature. In this order his historical literature appears and develops. Her history is a collection of events that took place in a person's life. Traces of his historical literature can be found in the Sangam literature. When he and his friend Kopperuncholan, who was dying in the north, went to die in the north, many witnesses there asked why he had not lost his hair for so long. He has the best character wife in life, and people. He says that the Evelars who do not say what he thinks, and that the king is a good protector. And in our town live many learned, virtuous, well-meaning people with goals and principles. So I don't care. So he says I don't have gray hair. Through this, the news about Pichirantaiyar, his hometown, the witnesses in Avur, the people, the king and the evildoer are revealed. And he records through his songs that he lived a quiet contented life without any problems or interruptions. The above biographical notes are able to know the capital of his historical literature. Autobiography is written by a wide variety of writers, political leaders, scholars, and writers from all walks of life. One of the most significant of these biographies is considered to be that of the poet Ramalingam Pillai. The poet Ramalingam of this book is not only talking about the child's own life. Rather it speaks to the community as well. Because the poet Ramalingam Pillai has expressed in his works that he loved this community and what he experienced in his life. In particular, many of the events under the headings of Prayer, Thirukkural Pride, Gandhi, Nattukkummi, Feminism, Bharathidarshanam can be traced back to his works.
Selvakumaran S, Prabha Joslin K
Published: 11 September 2021
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 44-49;

Shobashakti is one of the most important migrant creators of today's Eelam. He has created novels including Gorilla, M and BOX. This paper deals with BOX. The new day brings to the fore the geological and social and historical references to the village of Palankulam, the central domain of the story, and the various war-related situations of Eelam. This study reveals them critically. Moreover, the story is told under a separate title from Mayyakakatha to Forty in the novel. In addition, the final version of the story has been set up. Under some headings subsection symmesis sub-copies 1 and 2 are also included. The subsection of the subcopies is centered on the statement of the characters and the textual record of the heart queen and the text language record of Roman Bhaktadas are the new techniques and methods in the new system. They are also discussed in the article.
Venkatesan R,
Published: 4 September 2021
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 32-43;

India is the symbol of spirituality. Yoga is the method of attaining spiritual awareness. Yoga is spreading all over the world in this twentieth century. The ‘Yoga Sutra’ divised by the sage Patanjali who is known as the father of yoga, is seen by most people as the source of the art of yoga. When comparing the Patanjali Yoga Sutra with the Thirumoolar Thirumandiram, both the texts explain Astanga Yoga, Astama Siddhis, Four Padas, Pranava Samadhi and Mukthi. The Yoga Sutra speaks of ten types of samadhi states. Thirumandiram elaborates on thirty types of states of consciousness. Apart from Astanga Yoga, special techniques like Pariyanga Yoga, Chandra Yoga and Kayasiddhi Upayam are also mentioned in the Thirumandiram. Yoga Sutra is a book of 196 songs. Thirumandiram is a very comprehensive book with 3000 songs.
Savithri Ch
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 76-92;

This review examines the subject under five sub-headings: writing intent, writing structure, Type of techniques, vocabulary, and spelling observation. Of these, the structure of the text is examined under two sub-headings, external structure and internal structure. Among the 32 writing techniques mentioned by Tolkappiyar, 1. Writing purpose, 2. Section order, 3. Codification expression, 4. Section expression, 5. Semantic coordination, 6. Fictional gestures, 7. Meaningful reference, 8. Alternative formula entry, 9. Future reference, 10. Sutra and examples are examined in bilingual grammars. In formulaic construction methods such as sutrartham, sutra structure, relation between sutras, gana, nipatam are taken into consideration. In the alphabet section, topics such as distribution of letters, creation of letters, conjugation, and word usage are examined. Finally, at the end of the character the 10 things identified in the bilingual grammars examined comparatively are revealed and the table of reference is compiled.
Pushpa Renu Bhattacharyya
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 65-75;

Languages play a vital role in the formation of identity of a speech community with its unique features. The degree of usage of a language in various domains and the positive attitudes of the native speakers towards the language help to strengthen up and maintain the status, power and solidarity of the speech community. Very often the native speakers of the smaller known languages remain unaware of the risk of losing their language or about the process of language shifting. Today in the world of science and technology each and every speech community is practising multilingualism either directly or indirectly according to the demands of the basic needs in their daily lives. This paper is a result of an attempt to present a sociolinguistic survey on the language use, attitude and identity of native speakers of Khelma (Sakachep) in the district of Dima Hasao, Assam in North-East India towards their mother tongue as well as towards other languages spoken and used in different domains in the Khelma community according to their needs. The research work is carried out under CFEL, Tezpur University, Assam. Native speakers based on different age groups, gender, educational qualifications, occupational patterns, family types and as rural and urban dwellers were interviewed. The methods used for interview were personal interviews, group discussions, telephonic conversations and silent observations. The participants were asked a series of questions concerning their language, culture, traditions and also their feelings regarding other languages used in and around them.
Poongodi A
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 24-31;

Humans carried the ideas that came to their minds to the people through the arts. Artists are those who have the power to express the arts to others through their culture. The role of such artists in the Sangam era was of great importance. Ninga had a place in the kingdom and in the battlefields. In Sangam songs, the words for the artist were Panar, Porunar, Kuiluvar, Vayiriyar, Viraliyar, Kuttar, Kannular and Patiniyar. Although all of these are generic, there is a subtle difference between the names in terms of musical instruments' playing, dancing, and singing skills. Of these, Viraliyar is a feminist and singer. Virali is a performer who leads a nomadic life. Virali, who excelled in receiving gifts, exemplified the success of kings through their arts. The literature shows that they received valuables gifts like mountain, country, gold, jewelers when they sang songs in praise of the kings. In perumpanatrupadaiviralis beauty was lauded from head to toe. The detailed description is present inkesathipatha. From these descriptions we can get to understand their significance. Such a beautiful and elegantviralis transferred intoparaththiyarover a period of time.
Geethanjali T.M.
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 52-64;

The Western Ghats in India’s Deccan Plateau has been recognized as one of the eight “hottest hot-spots” of biological diversity in the world. UNESCO has identified this region as a World Heritage Site. In Maharashtra, this mountain range is known as ‘Sahyadri’, ‘Dang forests’ in Gujarat, ‘Nilgiris’ in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and ‘Malnad’ in Karnataka. It stretches across the six Indian states of Gujrat, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and two union territories including Daman and Diu and Pondicherry. These hills begin near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and end at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India, covering an incredible 1,60,000 In the 18th and 19th centuries, most of the people who classified the flora of these regions are hobbyists. Very few British Officers who conduct survey of this landscape release their books. A complete scientific study of this biodiversity hot-spot is yet to be undertaken. Until now, only a handful of scientists have undertaken a study of the Western Ghats. So, this present article expains a brief scientific study of the forests of the Western Ghats.
Ugin Rositta M
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 1-5;

Tamil world always owe its tribute to Avvai for her scholarly contribution. Desire to do virtue is an iconic statement of this great personality who perceived to be an epistemic advantage. The purpose of this article is to examine her work as a children literary creator and to explore her cognitive success in terms of Educational Philosophy. Her literary contribution plays a major role in identifying the Tamil community as an epistemic community. The pattern of knowledge construction employed by Avvai enhances the individual to explore knowledge, to discover the ultimate truth and establishing virtue. This article is known for its analysis of the literary work and social dialogues chose to add Avvai’s commitment to establishing that education is a way to subdue the senses and achieve reality. This piece of research ignites a spark to future researcher to view Avvai as a social scientist rather than a Tamil scholar with reference to the normative principles established in her work.
Nallamuthu R
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 6-15;

As to impoverished men this present world is not: The ‘graceless’ in you world have neither part nor lot. As the famous poet vazhuvar puts across this thought, we are surrounded and dependenton material possessions in this world. These asserts play a vital role in every stage and every event of our life. The relationship between oneself and the goods is too deep and enigmatic. In no way we withdraw ourselves from these domestic equipments. The materials connected to our everyday life can be tagged domestic products. These asserts help us in understanding and sangam period. On this note, the domestic products and its varieties are widely discussed. The research focuses on differentating these products namely: Domestic things, pottery, jewelleries made of gold, utensils made of stone, iron and bamboo made appliances.
Bavliance A
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 47-51;

In the praise of the Lord who creates the world, the scriptures of the eighteen following books of the Sangamamaruviya period, and the Holy Book of Christianity, the Holy Book of Christianity, are of the Lord. This article explains that humanity is cultivated by the praise of sovereignty, removes evils, and directs the way of good ness. In the article, the article explains the importance of appreciating the nature of God and the system of worship of God, the benefits and the virtues of the sovereignty, that the world is the creation of the Lord and that the atom will not move without him.
Trisha Wangno, Madhumita Barbora
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 37-46;

Kinship terms and systems are considered to be one of the most resistant parts of language which are constantly in a threat by dominant language. Through these terminologies, we can find out how language not only defines but tries to explain the world view of the native speakers. The kinship terms can also be used to identify and group the specific language with other languages with which it shares its common features under a common phylum. This paper is a study of the kinship terms and systems of Nocte, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Arunachal Pradesh. It has also been established as an endangered language. In this paper we look into Nocte Kinship terms, the system, the social structure and its affinity to the Proto-Tibeto-Burman roots.
Ricardo Ferraz, Luís Branquinho, Miguel Pereira, Mário C Marques, Henrique P Neiva, Daniel A Marinho
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 68-83;

This study aimed to determine the most and least important reasons for engaging in physical education classes among students in two educational pathways within the context of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Forty-one students participated in the study (25 males and 16 females; mean age = 16.37 ± 0.829). The sample was divided based on two class types: regular education and professional education. All students answered a questionnaire that aimed to verify the most and least important reasons for students to engage in physical education classes concerning intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Indicated that both regular education and professional education classes had intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The results also revealed that the participation of students was based essentially on their intrinsic motivation, but for different reasons when comparing the two educational pathways. Both types of the class were intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to participate in physical education classes.
Kausalya V
Published: 11 August 2021
Indian Journal of Tamil pp 42-47;

The article is being carried out on the theocratic principle given by vallalar. In these, the morals of the philanthropists are explained to the people of today's society. It is not mankind that a man is born, lived, and then dies. It is only in human birth that there is a possibility of seeing and attaining God. That is why the philanthropist instructs us on some ethics. Love and compassion should be felt in all living beings. This article reveals that those who act with in their heart can truly reach God, who completely eliminates caste, religion and race differences, and who, when they suffer from hunger, who relieves them of suffering and who takes pity without killing any of them, can reach God by heart.
Siddharth Bhatt, Dhara Patel, Sharav Desai, Dhananjay Meshram
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 11-25;

There is a continuous requirement to develop novel, safe, effective and affordable anti-cancer drugs because Cancer is a serious disease at current situation. A huge number of patients die annually due to cancer disease. Phytochemical are the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants and significantly used in conventional cancer research. Bioactive phytochemical is favored as they claim differentially on cancer cell only without altering normal cell. Carcinogenesis is an intricate process and includes multifold signaling procedures. Phytochemical are pleiotropic in nature, function and target these events in multiple manners so they are considered as most appropriate candidate for drug development. The aim of the present research was to find out the anti-cancer activity of the phytochemical constituents through computer aided drug design approach. In this experiment, we have find total 42 natural compounds with anti-cancer activity against the cancer target 1QCF tyrosine kinase. The data set comprising of phytochemical compounds was used for virtual screening and molecular docking in PyRx software. Along with screened compound, hit compound Carnosic acid was further docked to confirm the binding mode and confirmed the effective inhibition of 1QCF and anticancer activity. Molecular dynamic simulation studies were done to confirm the stability of the protein and ligand complex during a simulation. Parameters like RMSD, RMSF, and radius of gyration were experiential to understand the fluctuations. Protein-ligand interaction studies also expose that enough hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds are present to validate our results. Our study suggests that the potential use of Carnosic acid can come out as a potential candidate and in turn prevent cancer.
Lobna M. Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed A. Soror, Ahmed A. Hassan, Ahmed S. Ali, Ahmed A. Hafez, Ahmed A. Hemdan, Mahmoud M. Sebaiy
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 1-10;

Chlordiazepoxide is considered one of most important sedative and hypnotic benzodiazepines drugs which is currently used all over the world with the increased rate of anxiety drugs. In this literature review, we will introduce the pharmacological action of this drug in addition to most of up-to-date reported methods that have been developed for determination of chlordiazepoxide in its pure form, combined form with other drugs, combined form with degradation products, and in biological samples. Most of the reported analytical methods will focus on spectroscopic, chromatographic and electrochemical techniques.
Gowrieeswaran T
Published: 5 August 2021
Indian Journal of Tamil pp 35-41;

This study deals with the annual ritual practices of Eastern Sri Lanka and how the ritual practices were determined, designed and redesigned time to time according to the natural disaster of Pandemics. The order of the existing local ritual practices are particularly designed and constructed in order to get rid from smallpox. Literature of local ritual practices are rich in information and instruction of the pandemic, smallpox. Oral traditions carries plenty of experiences and stories about the pandemic particularly during local ritual ceremonies. Period, atmosphere and behavior of people in ritual ceremony and the things utilized and consumed particularly the food habits exhibit the experiences of a pandemic they underwent and designed or redesigned the ritual ceremony to get rid from the catastrophe.
Balachandran B, Tharmalingam
Published: 31 July 2021
Indian Journal of Tamil pp 26-34;

Many thousands of years ago, Thirumular had guided today's employees to subject themselves to a spirit of service so that he and society could live in excellence through the mantra sacraments of this temple. In this article, the merits of Thirumanthiram, the virtues and practices of yoga, the speciality of Attanga Yoga, the use of Pranayama, women's degradation, lovelessness, the superiority of education, neutrality, toddy, periyaaraith thunaikkotal, orality, morality, impermanence, state justice, and pride are mentioned in its principles and moral activities. It is no exaggeration to say that Thirumanthiram is a great guide for society to act wisely in today's fast-growing situation. Thirumanthiram is the arumandram where the country and we prosper and guide.
Sivakumar V
International Research Journal of Tamil Literary Studies pp 29-35;

The ‘word’ means that everyone knows what it means. Time and space confirm that ‘word’ is the ‘meaning’ of the word. Tholkappiyar who says that everything is about meaning. The word 'Thinnai' is given in many meanings in the Tamil language. Tholkappiyar refers to 'Thinnai' by other names when thinking about language. He clarified the Tamil grammar by using different types of names when thinking about the meaning found in the literature. The pharse ‘'Thinnai'’ depending on the grammar and the literature it has been handled in a multiple of ways. In Tamil literature it is known for its dependence on land and its morality. The word ‘'Thinnai'’ is known in various context in Tamil Literature.
Padma Priya M
International Research Journal of Tamil Literary Studies pp 1-6;

The principles of the Siddharthas are instructive of the ideas of instability. In particular, it is advisable to go beyond the stages of yak (physical) instability, youth instability, and wealth instability and ignore worldly attachments as everything is unstable. Furthermore, it is possible that the songs sound like a body that depicts the body as an erotic state and regrets the depravity of the body. However, some Siddhas refer to the body as the state of the Lord. Notable among them is Tirumular. He loves the body as Shiva. His songs transform the ordinary human body into a body of devotion. Kayasitthi's lifestyle is revealed in the package "Udale Sivam". When songs about Tirumular's health are studied with psychological factors, the intuitional stimuli of his life experience resonate in the songs.
Manonmani Devi
International Research Journal of Tamil Literary Studies pp 7-22;

Next to the canonical Tholkaappiyam, the book entitled 'Nannool' stands out as the one that closely follows the Tamil grammatical tradition. This book can be considered as a sequel to the 'Tholkaappiyam' with respect to the rudimentary Tamil grammar rules used, though some of which have been omitted over the years, with some improvisations added. 'Nannool' has fine-tuned some aspects which Tholkaappiyam had eleborated in detail to an easier & simplified version of understanding and at the same time consolidated the grammar knowledge within it. The 'word punarchi' rules found in 'Nannool' along with the new added-on 'word punarchi' rules not mentioned in Tholkaappiyam are looked at closely and reviewed in detail in this study. This is the primary aim of this study.
Sinem Gürkan Aydin A, Oktay Polat B, Arzu Ozgen A
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 93-105;

In our developing and changing world, the use of energy resources is becoming important. With the development of the aviation industry all over the world, the need to use more innovative, more sustainable resources emerges. When the demands in the transportation sector from past to present are examined, the transformation in energy resources will be inevitable. As stated, all studies have focused on the energy resources that reduce the environmental impact, sustainability, environmental friendliness, costs and dependence on oil producing states. In this study, the study of aviation fuels from past to present, its production, environmental impact, sustainability and the returns of alternative aviation fuels are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world's developing and changing aviation sector should switch to sustainable alternative fuels as soon as possible.
Asterios P, Gortsila E
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 55-67;

The purpose of this study was to identify the technical volleyball elements participating and contributing to the victory in the qualifying matches for the 2021 CEV European Men's and Women's Championship and lead to the best scoring position and qualification to the final stage. The sample consisted of the matches of the 8 teams (4 Men and 4 Women) who participated in the qualifying matches for the European Men's and Women's Championships Confédération Européenne de Volleyball (CEV) 2021. The data was analyzed using the official software of the European Confederation (CEV) (Data Volley 2 Professional). The data was then further analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 statistical package with the help of descriptive statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between the teams that won and qualified for the European Championship of CEV 2021 in ‘‘reception error’’ and ‘‘attack error’’ and between the men's and women's volleyball teams in service error attack points. In addition, based on the results of this study, all coaches should focus and organize training with exercises related to these technical skills that lead to victory and qualification to improve the ability of their players to win the matches.
Jainambu Barvin, Mohamed Anwar
International Research Journal of Tamil Literary Studies pp 23-28;

The purpose of this study is to explore the innovations that creator Sujatha has used in her works and that she has some unique identities in handling language. The explanatory approach approach has been handled based on the thread study of this study. The researcher confirms that Sujatha is also a great creator in the world of Tamil literature. Creators use many elements in their work to convey to the reader the emotions they have received. The creator can be identified by examining those elements. The study aims to identify her uniqueness in Sujatha's work. In Sujata's works, the language structure is better than the plot. His essence has been adopted by later literary men as well. I am learning a lot from Sujatha in the post-modernist Charu Nivedita uirmai magazine. Also says my teacher (p.43). S. Ramakrishnan says of Sujatha's "chopped verses are a forerunner to those like me today".
Allirajan K
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 32-36;

A look at Tamil literature reveals a variety of concepts. Sangam literature means two called kaadhal veeram. Moral literature means 'justice' in such a way that bhakti literature means 'vituperu' home birth is the state of salvation that separates from man's body after his life is over. In order to reach that stage, you must receive the blessings of God, the Lord. The servants are those who show the way and religion to the God. The Saivism-based Nayanmars say that the principles of attaining Shiva through siddha are Tevara songs. Gnanasambandar, one of the Nayanmars, speaks of the principle of godly ness that reaches Lord Shiva in his Tevarapan. The article explains the natural events of the places where Shiva temples are situated and describes the devotional dignity of reaching the lord.
Jeevanandam S
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 89-96;

Caste is an ‘integral component’ of Indian society. Almost all the social groups in Indian subcontinent have their specific rites and rituals. It consolidated them within certain compartmentalized caste category. In this context, there was a custom where girl children were used to dedicate to the ‘Hindu’ temples for the religious service to the deity in the name of devadasi. The system became an important cultural element in the medieval Indian society. The system evolved with its unique functionality in the Indian tradition. The dedicated young girls came from different castes and assigned duties accordingly. However, it was not classified as a separate caste. It became an interesting historical question. This particular paper focused on the devadasi custom and its caste dynamics in the historical past.
Chennappan M
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 108-113;

The development of grammatical literature is constantly changing according to the context in which it appears. On that basis, each of the Tamil grammar books records the biographical elements of the people who lived in the respective period. Nambiyaga Porul is the book that expands the internal grammar after the Iraiyanar Kalaviyalurai who gives grammar to the internal subject in the line of grammar. In that sense, the autobiographical grammar of Tholkappiyar grammar and Chandor's literature, which adapts it, expands the internal grammar and sets it up as a story show, showing new developments. The description of the inner branch was first known in this book. Karuporul ettu. He was fourteen. He also mentions the events leading up to the marriage in the area of handwriting and drawing people. The description of the inner branch was first known in this book. The karpiyal nattrai thirteen people were found to have marked the day along with the learner. It is the only object of faith in grammar texts that standardize internal traditions and describe them as fields. Tholkappiyar refers to events only as claims. Theft classification has been categorized as possible up to chastity and has been divided into various claims in 32 fields. Theft and chastity have been categorized and elaborated, and charitable standing has been summarized into seven categories, which have been extensively discussed in two areas, internal and graphical. Beliefs such as the Tholkappiyam have five physical distinctions: introspection, theology, graphics, pedagogy, and annihilation. The grammatical definition of thirukkovaiyar is also interpreted as the concept of intuition. The text is based on the amount, type, and spread. Literary songs such as Thanjai Vanan Kovai songs, Sangam literary songs, Thinaimozhi Iympadhu, Thinaimaalai Nootruiympadhu, thirukkovaiyar have also been taken as evidence songs. It explores lifestyles that show a special optimism with a theatrical style and literary style that arose from the old and new tradition.
Umadevi D
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 97-102;

The term “counter narrative” refers to a narrative that takes on meaning through its relation with one or more other narratives. While this relation is not necessarily oppositional, it involves a stance toward some other narrative(s), and it is this aspect of stance, or position, that distinguishes counter narrative from other forms of intertextuality. The article explained, “counter‐narratives only make sense in relation to something else, that which they are countering counter narratives has been seen as a means of opposing or resisting socially and culturally informed master narratives (about, for example, skin colour, ethnicity, and food culture), which are often normative or oppressive, or exclude perspectives or experiences that diverge from those conveyed through master narratives. In this sense, counter narratives play a role in storytellers positioning themselves against, or critiquing, the themes and ideologies of master narratives. Used in this way, “counter narratives” refer to “the stories which people tell and live which offer resistance, either implicitly or explicitly, to dominant cultural narratives” This articles explains the counter narratives on perception of black skin colour and food culture. Both the concepts of counter-culture and counter-narrative tradition are new in the folklore field of Tamil traction.
Arulprakash C.S, Suresh P
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 103-107;

Both in the History of Tamil Literature and Tamil Religions thinking Research emphasis the teachings of siddhars in the prime place. Theywere great in the field of medicine, chemistry, astrology, astronomy there also very skilled in the art of mandharas and Yogas. Through their songs revealed the ‘Guru’ concept and this Guru concept of the Bible very hand in a hand. Siddhars emphasis that a real or true ‘Guru’ must be God himself and he need to born as a man and teach the followers a good way the same teaching also found in the Bible. Jesus God himself born as a ‘Guru’ and thought his students or followers the eternal way of or path of eternal life.
Constantinides P, Constantinidou D
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 46-54;

The purpose of this study was to explore classroom teachers’ perceptions in providing physical activity breaks during their regular lessons in their classrooms. Twenty-two randomly selected school teachers (6 men and 16 women) from public urban elementary schools participated in this study. Data collection took place in the participating school settings during regular school time and included 30-minute semi-structured interviews, teachers’ reflective journals and field notes taken for classroom facilities, number of students in each class, available space in each class, etc. Data were analyzed inductively by conducting a systematic search for similar patterns that occurred across the collected data. According to the results, teachers identified barriers to implementation of activity breaks, such as a) had a hard time for class management when movement activities were included, b) did not have a minimum repertoire of activities to implement in class, c) had limited pedagogical knowledge in implementing the activity breaks, d) had difficulties in re-starting the class, e) had a limitation of time, due to the additional workload, beyond their regular teaching load in class and other school responsibilities and f) had limited space to implement physical activity breaks in the classroom. As far as the content, results showed that teachers prefer activity breaks relevant to the lesson, enjoyable to students, or waking up students to attend the rest of the lesson effectively. These findings may have practical implications regarding physical education teacher education and professional development for classroom teachers.
Maheswari K
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 24-31;

Shaivism is a popular philosophy on the world philosophical stage. They were the forerunner and basis of the Scriptures. Saivism. That is why the two eyes of Shaivism are referred to as the thothirangal and shastras. Pathi, Cow and Affection are the three stools of Saiva Siddhantha. They are a mixture of pride, pride, delusion, and three stools of affection, with the knowledge of life. In order to remove the stools, the Lord gives life to the other two stools, maya kanma, and thereby removes three types of stools. The two types of yoga, the pure state of basic yoga, and the nirathara yoga of sukkuma state, is a method of forgetting itself. It is summarized that those who reach the Lord in the heart and worship Him incessantly will attain any stage of the four liberation sins.
Sheeba T, Praveen Sam D
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 82-88;

Poets recreate their innermost feelings in the minds of the readers through their poems. In addition, the vast majority of occasional verses sung on poets’ own emotions. They are therefore classified as autobiographical poems. In these songs, poets not only write about the beauty of nature but also about their experiences of life and the literary world. Literature composed of pleasure, humour, carefree contentment, and the emotions of fear, sadness, anxiety, pain, rivalry, jealousy, frustration, and struggle are largely discussed in the occasional verses of medieval literature. The role of literature in the sociological and psychological analysis of the everyday life problems of poets becomes an integral part of their themes. How do the problems that this society affect the soul of an individual? In it, one can learn from the literature of the time. The success of the creators is that they create the best literature related to human life. Further, the uniqueness and personality of a poet are known by the excellence of his or her conceptual style. This article studies the verses that have been excluded from the history of Tamil literature, and known as the "Occasional Verses Collection (Single Anthology)".
Rasambal V
Published: 20 July 2021
Indian Journal of Tamil pp 21-25;

The intellectual capacity of a society can be measured by its beliefs. From the birth to death of man, people have a variety of beliefs. Most of the Ancient Tamils believed in God. It was the root cause of man's practice of worship. It is the faith of God. The intellectual capacity of a society can be measured by its beliefs. The purpose of this article is to state that the ancient people sat in the river army literature, where the deity of the ancient people had beliefs in climbing, Paliyiṭuthal, Nadukal valipadu, screaming, ghost and goblin beliefs.
Saranya T
Published: 18 July 2021
Indian Journal of Tamil pp 15-20;

The word bursa means keeping your face open. Barda's opposite is that sabita, the central character of the novel, has opened her face. He has also opened his mind. It is learnt that Muslims question the rituals of their religion, which sabita denies saying that it is the highest of all, and that only those who belong to their minds can reach heaven. Moreover, christianity withdraws from the true and light redeemer of the spiritual violations committed in the name of religion, the atrocities that take place within monasteries, and the spiritual and light that prompted him to get out of life that he had been conducting for more than twenty-four years. Although both belong to a different religion, this article reveals that their theocratic principles are the same.
Vanesa B. Dungog, Joefel T. Libo-On
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research pp 30-36;

Self-efficacy is a belief in one capability in accomplishing a particular task. Most of the related studies concluded that having a high self-efficacy has something to do with high performance at work. It has something to do with an individuals' work output/ production; however, some other literature revealed that it does not have something to do with an individual's performance. On the other side, the English language is the required medium of instruction yet the most feared. This study investigated the self-efficacy towards the English Proficiency Test of the teacher applicants from the Division of Romblon. Findings showed that respondents have Low Self- efficacy status towards English Proficiency Test. It concluded that proficient respondents have a Very Low Self-efficacy among the levels of English Proficiency compared to other levels that reached the Low level. Further, the overall English Proficiency of teacher applicants was at the Beginners level.
Jesintha S, Chitra A
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 60-67;

Our Tamil land has a rich history of art and culture. The popularly known ‘Muthamizh’ namely ‘Iyal’ – text or poetry, ‘Isai’ – music and ‘Nadagam’ – theatre has undergone various changes over a period of time due to various social and political factors in the society. Nevertheless, there are few art forms which follow the tradition with its original flavour. One such is the ‘Bhagavata Mela Nadakam’ which is an art form systemized during the Marata’s empire. This research work talks about it in detail. Marata’s period (17th to 19th century AD) is believed to be the glorious period for many art forms. During this period Bhagavata Mela gained its popularity with the patronage of the kings. With the support of literary evidences this research work aims at a detailed study of the patronage extended by the kings and about the growth of Bhagavata Mela and how it was systemized. Marata period plays a very important role for the growth of ‘Bhagavata Mela’. This work gives a detailed study on the systematic approach followed in Bhagavata Mela. An authority supervised the performing artist. There were certain rules to be strictly followed by the artist. They were honored with various titles and gifts, even with pieces of land sometimes. The Bhagavata Mela artists were also appointed as poets in King’s court during the Marata period. There are more such interesting facts. This research deals with the complete study of the evolution and growth of the Bhavata Mela during the Marata period including such interesting information.
Jayalakshmi T
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 53-59;

Contributions of Tamil Bhakti poets to the literature have been significant in the past along with the contributions that they made to the social upliftment of the society. Ramavataram, popularly referred to as Kamba Ramayanam, is a Tamil epic that was written by the Tamil poet Kambar based on sanskrit version of Valmiki Ramayanam that describes the life of King Rama of Ayodhya. In this epic Hanuman is a imporatant character. The Tamil poet Kachiyappa sivachariyar greatest composition is the Kandha puranam based on sanskrit version of Sivasankara sangithai. The great warrior Veerabagu Dhevar is close associate of Lord Muruga. This article mainly focuses on stunning similarities between the supernatural powers of the ardent devotee, dedicated Hanuman described in Kamba Ramayanam and Veerabagu Dhevar in kandha puranam.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 68-74;

As members of Dravidian family of Languages, Kannada and Tamil are close to each other. Apart from linguistic and grammatical similarities there are comparable elements in literary texts also. There are similar motifs and themes in Ancient Kannada and Tamil literary works. Though a few studies have concentrated in the similarities of Kannada and Tamil grammars, very little is done on the similar features of literary works. This paper makes an attempt to bring out a surprising motif of ghosts that occur in Ancient Kannada and Tamil texts. Tolkappiyam is an early grammatical work in Tamil and date of which is believed to be from 1 to 3 AD. This book speaks of a concept of ‘Thodakkaanji’. This concept is explained by commentators as not allowing the evil spirit to eat the body of the hero who died during a war. The same concept, though the technical term to denote the concept is absent, is present in the Kannada text ‘Sahasa Bheema Vijaya or Gadhayuddha’ by the Ranna, who belongs to the tenth century. While the theme of the narration centers around the battle of maces between Bhima and Duryodhana on the last day of the eighteen-day war, the poet uses a technique similar to flashbacks. This technic we can see in Tamil as a “Singanokku” which is used in grammar text to explain the ‘noorpaa’. Ranna the Kannada poet gives the details of an incident of the war field where the dead leader’s body is guarded from evil spirits/ ghosts by the fellow warriors whose wounds are less fatal. Tolkappiyam is an earlier work and Ranna’s work is late period. But that the particular theme of Thodakkanchi occurs in the Kannada and Tamil contexts merits mention and study a rare example which has not been brought out by anybody so far. Such similar points of comparison are brought out elaborately in this article.
Haroun A.A., Masoud R.A.
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 83-92;

This work deals with preparation and characterization of immobilized laccase (Aspergillus sp.) over oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) via simple mixing technique. The resulting materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution analysis using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS). The results showed that the TEM images exhibited more separate individual carbon bundles with particle size around of 396 nm after enzyme immobilization rather than the spaghetti-like tubes with size about 180 nm in the case of ox-MWCNTs. Also, the lowering in the zeta potential negative value (-5 mv) proved that the free carboxyl groups at ox-MWCNT surface were decreased after enzyme immobilization. Moreover, the thermal stability was decreased after enzyme immobilization using TGA. These results confirmed that the laccase could be reacted at the side walls of the ox-MWCNTs without structure damage. The biocatalytic effect of the immobilized laccase was investigated after its incubation with silver nitrate solution for 1 and 24 h. It can be concluded that the biocatalytic efficiency of the immobilized laccase could be enhanced after its incubation with silver nitrate solution for 24 h at room temperature relative to the free form. On the other hand, the enzyme stability was improved after immobilization up to 50ºC and at pH 3.0, while no remarkable differences on the activity values were observed for immobilized and free laccases at acidic pH range (4-6).
Bojan Bjelica, Nikola Aksović, Laishram Santosh Singh, Ljubica Milanović, Milan Zelenović
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 38-45;

The concept of dementia is associated with cognitive changes, behavioral changes, as well as daily motor actions and life functions. The association of physical activity with dementia is a controversial topic in science and is always an interesting basis for discussion among researchers. Moderate PA can be an effective means of reducing the rate of dementia as well as behavioral problems, however caution should be approached when working with this group of people, especially when setting end goals. Given the division of dementia, each person needs to be approached individually and appropriate selection made. The contribution of PA is irreplaceable compared to any type of therapeutic treatment, it improves basic life functions, reduces the mortality rate and improves the quality of life.
Mitrotasios M
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 29-37;

The aim of the present study was to describe how corner kicks were taken and to identify key variables associated with final attempts during Greek Super League season 2018-19. There was a total of 424 final attempts after corner kick, of which, 16.3% were attempts off target, 6.8% attempts on target and 2.8% resulting in a goal. Bivariate analysis presented that attempts on target were increased when the ball was delivered outswing, no players positioned at the goal posts, >1 intervening attackers, attacking player the 1st contact and ball delivered into the central zones of the 18-yard box. Binary logistic regression (Final attempt/ No Final attempt) revealed that the model was statistically significant for the final attempt (p < 0.001) and showed that the intervening attackers (p < 0.001) and the player of the 1st contact (p < 0.001) contributed significantly to the model. These results can aid coaches to enhance on one hand the attacking effectiveness; on the other hand the defensive efficacy of corner kicks within Greek football.
Vidanapathirana J, Wijewardana D
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences pp 77-79;

The National Strategic Plan (2020-2024) of the National Cancer Control Programme, Sri Lanka directed the establishment of island wide Cancer Early Detection Centers (CEDC) in all provincial hospitals, aiming to avoid some of the delays for diagnosis of cancer patients in all age groups in Sri Lanka. These one-stop centers provide cancer diagnosis to detect, confirm and refer without long a referral pathway to a treatment center. The services provided these centers are consult a doctor to discuss cancer related issues, identify and education on risk factors and obtain guidance on the need to screen and prevent common and preventable cancers including individual counseling for risk factor reduction and post diagnosis. Further, it facilitates screening for Breast Cancer which includes clinical-breast examination, ultrasound scanning and mammography depending on the clinical assessment. The clinical oral examination for all high-risk target groups and educated on self-mouth examination. Screening for cervical cancer for necessary women via pap test and the HPV DNA test is carried out depending on the clinical assessment. These centers provide fast track method for early detection of cancers.
Mboneza N Kabanda
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research pp 18-29;

From the end of the second world war, the awareness of a globalized society has gained power. The theory of globalization is supported by time and space polarity and how these two elements' change affects the world today. This situation concerns all sectors, including education. Indeed, in this era of globalization and competition, educators, researchers, and employers are concerned about the educational institutions' curriculum to prepare students for employment outside their boundaries. Since globalization influences education practices and curriculum worldwide, employees, like products, are shaped by the educational industry in a complex and competitive job market. Thus, the curriculum makers must ensure the preparation of individuals equipped with 21st century skills. This theoretical paper aims to identify how globalization affects educational practices due to competition and how a flexible and dynamic curriculum looks like in the 21st century. Adaptability, flexibility, and cooperation between developed and developing countries can help train graduates for employment in the 21st century job market.
Yebpella G.G, Hikon B.N, Magomya A.M, Paninga M
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 75-82;

This study aimed at the preliminary investigation of inorganic and organic contaminants in soils within Wukari metropolis and to assess the contamination status and metal bioavailability. Digested soil samples for total metals and fractionation were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations in triplicates using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while 5 Varian Bond Elu SI SPE cartridges was used for solid phase extraction and the soil sample extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. The percentage bioavailability of metals ranged from Fe: 13.81 – 98.85 %, Ni: 65.01 - 80.93 %, Cr: 34.82 – 77.19 %, Pb: 66.93 - 86.59 % and Co: 70.35 - 99.14 % respectively. The bioavailability of Fe, Ni, Pb and Co station ST3 which is an agricultural area were above 50.00%. This indicates that food crops grown in the area may be contaminated by the metals. Irrespective of sampling points, the distribution of metals in the soil samples generally followed the order Fe: residual > carbonate > exchangeable > oxidizable; Ni: exchangeable > carbonate > oxidizable > residual; Pb: exchangeable > residual > carbonate > oxidizable; Co: exchangeable > carbonate > oxidizable > residual. Organic contaminants such as Halo alkanes; bromodichloromethane (molecular weight 162.0 g/mol) and chloroform (molecular weight 118.0 g/mol) were detected in ST1 while, 1, 1, 2 trichloroethane (molecular weight 132.0 g/mol). Another contaminant phenol d5 was recorded in sample ST2, ST3 and ST4 respectively. BTEX compounds were also contaminants present in ST5 (Fuel station near some automobile workshops).
Sandip Mondal, Goutam Nandi, Pradip Kumar Pal
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 67-74;

Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding on Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is more easy, comfortable and useful, if the process is precisely understood and controlled through development of the science & technology. TIG welding on DSS has been performed with the help of specific controlled welding process parameters. Welding quality has been strongly depended on these process parameters. In this study, some valuable welding parameters are chosen. These are welding current, shielding gas flow rate and speed of welding. These process parameters of TIG welding for ASTM/UNS 2205 DSS welds are optimized by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method and Grey based Taguchi’s L9 Orthogonal array (OA) experimental plan with the conception of signal to noise ratio (N/S). After that, compression results of above mentioned two analyses of TIG welding process parameters have been calculated. The quality of the TIG welding on DSS has been evaluated in term of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and percentage of elongation. Compression results of both analyses indicate application feasibility for continuous improvement of welding quality on DSS in different components of chemical, oil and gas industries.
, Soumalya Chatterjee, Debraj Hazra
Published: 9 July 2021
Nanoparticle mediated drug delivery is an emerging area of research now a days. In our present study, we emphasized on the mode of interaction of a widely used drug, Quercetin with frequently worked metallic nanoparticle, Gold (Au). At first five –OH groups have been attached separately with gold atom and energy minimization was performed using Avogadro Software for windows system. From this, we found that the –OH groups present at 7 position of ‘A’ ring, 3’ and 4’ positions of ‘B’ ring are most suitable site for gold atom to bind. In the next level of study, a gold atom has been interacted with two quercetin molecules at a time. The gold atom was attached to –OH group of 7 position of one quercetin molecule and 4’ position of the other. The calculated energy was found to be 482.319 KJ/Mol. Further, gold atoms were interacted with all –OH groups of quercetin molecule at a time to see its stability and the structure was found to have quite stable with an energy level of 218.074 KJ/Mol. Lastly we tried to make a quercetin–gold nanoparticle model structure which mimics the actual nanocomposite synthesized in vitro where one gold atom was interacted with two quercetin molecules and the other –OH groups of quercetin molecules were again attached with gold atoms. This structure possesses energy of 439.880 KJ/Mol. The bond lengths and bond angle of interacting C, O and Au atoms were measured to characterize the complex.
Murukaiya Sathees
Published: 8 July 2021
Indian Journal of Tamil pp 1-7;

Scientific Thoughts Expressed by Old Tamil Literatures Synopsis Science is a scientific form of thought recorded in old Tamil literature. Thoughts can be seen as expressions of the life activities of the people of that time. Scientific ideas also merged with the ancient Tamils as they tended to adapt their lives to nature. They have lived with biological, astronomical, mathematical, medical, biological, chronological, craft, geological, etc. scientific disciplines. This study is aimed at identifying and documenting the reflections of such scientific ideas on how they have been studied in ancient Tamil literature. The dissertation is characterized by the fact that the dissertation has been used extensively in old Tamil literature, as well as old Tamil essays, magazines, and electronic commentaries. Based on these, the study concludes that Tamils have had the best scientific knowledge since the dawn of time. Therefore, this study also suggests that many more studies should be carried out by researchers focusing on the ancient Tamil literature.
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