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Maria-Crina Radu
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 26, pp 35-41; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v26i2.166

Abstract:
Identifying and assessing occupational health and safety risks and implementing measures to prevent accidents at work and occupational diseases are legal obligations and the implementation and certification of an occupational health and safety (OH&S) management system may help organization to achieve these goals, being also a credible evidence of its commitment to protect life and health of its interested parties. Consultation and participation of workers at all applicable levels and functions is part of the system; workers involved in daily activities and those most at risk can provide a broad perspective on potential problems and the decisions made with these workers are likely to be more effective for system improvement. The paper presents the results of a study on consulting workers of the "Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacau on occupational health and safety issues.
Felicia Cosmulescu, Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 26, pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v26i3.207

Abstract:
The paper presents an unconventional technique for manufacturing foam glass gravel. The numerous experimental results obtained by the authors in the last year using various manufacturing recipes common in the world industrial production by conventional techniques were selected and subjected to a qualitative and energy efficiency comparative analysis, aiming to determine the best foam glass gravel manufacturing procedure under the conditions of the use of the microwave energy. The optimum recipe was composed of 83% glass waste, 1 % glycerol, 8 % sodium silicate and 8 % water. The maximum heating temperature reached 823 ºC with a very economical energy consumption of 0.88 kWh/kg. The sample characteristics were apparent density-0.24 g/cm3, porosity-89.1% with pore size between 0.3 - 0.6 mm, thermal conductivity-0.063 W/m·K and compressive strength - 5.9 MPa, almost similar to those industrially obtained.
Lucian Păunescu, Marius Florin Drăgoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i2.113

Abstract:
The paper presents experimental results obtained by a team of researchers from the company Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest in the field of producing the foamed glass-ceramic from waste bottle glass, coal ash and silicon carbide as foaming agent. The originality of the experiments consists in the use of electricity or microwave energy, unlike all techniques known worldwide consumers of fossil fuel. The product, obtained with low energy consumptions and very low pollutants emissions, has physical and mechanical characteristics of an insulating material, i.e. high porosity, low thermal conductivity and an adequate compressive strength.
Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte, Ana Casandra Sebe
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 25, pp 48-55; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v25i2.34

Abstract:
In the work experimental results on the manufacture of glass foam with high mechanical strength from glass waste are presented. By replacing the usual conventional energy source with a nonconventional energy (electromagnetic waves) the heating efficiency allows a fast and economical manufacturing process. Calcium carbonate as a foaming agent and an addition of sodium silicate (aqueous solution) as a binder were used. By their physico-mechanical and morphological features (0.40-0.66 g/ cm3 the apparent density, 0.054-0113 W/ m·K the thermal conductivity, 2.2-6.3 MPa the compressive strength, below 1.2 % the water absorption and under 2 mm the pore size), the foams are appropriate for their use as replacer of existing similar building materials on the market.
Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 26, pp 57-64; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v26i1.9

Abstract:
The paper presents experimental results obtained in the process of making glass foam from glass waste using a cheap foaming agent (natural dolomite). The originality of the work is the application of the microwave energy, unlike the conventional techniques commonly used in the world. The main advantage highlighted by the experiments is the very low specific energy consumption (below 1.5 kWh/kg), due to the peculiarities of the microwave heating technique. The foamed product has physical, mechanical and morphological characteristics (density between 0.30-0.32 g/cm3, thermal conductivity between 0.064-0.067 W/m·K, compressive strength in the range 2.2-2.6 MPa), which are similar to those of foams made by conventional methods and are suitable for its use as insulating material in construction.
Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 26, pp 173-180; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v26i3.221

Abstract:
The paper presents recent achievements in the microwave use for manufacturing foam glass gravel from recycled glass waste and silicon carbide. The aim was to obtain a product with physical and mechanical characteristics almost similar to those of industrially manufactured materials by conventional heating techniques, but with a higher energy efficiency. A foam glass with the thermal conductivity of 0.075 W/m·K and the compressive strength of 7.5 MPa was experimentally obtained. The specific energy consumption was of 1.0 kWh/kg comparable with the industrial processes and it could reach values up to 25% lower by using a high power industrial microwave equipment.
Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte, Ana Casandra Sebe
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 25, pp 43-49; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v25i4.23

Abstract:
The paper presents an aluminum foam experimental technique using the microwave energy. The raw material was recycling aluminum waste processed by ecological melting and gas atomizing to obtain the fine powder required in the foaming process. The powder mixture was completed with dolomite as a foaming agent. The products had a fine and homogeneous porous structure (pore size between 0.4-0.9 mm). The density (1.17-1.19 g/cm3), the compressive strength (6.83-7.01 MPa) and the thermal conductivity (5.71-5.84 W/m·K) had values almost similar to the foams made by conventional methods.
Musediq Adedoyin Sulaiman, Ignatius Kema Okakwu, Akintunde Samson Alayande, Olakunle Elijah Olabode, Augustus Ehiremen Ibhaze
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 26, pp 67-76; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v26i2.170

Abstract:
In this paper, the wind power potentials as well as wind speed characteristics of four selected locations in the North-Central (Ilorin and Makurdi) and North-East (Gombe and Maiduguri) parts of Nigeria are investigated. The data used are obtained from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) between the durations of 11 and 54 years, measured at an anemometer height of 10m. The analysis of the data is carried out using a two-parameter Weibull Distribution Function (WDF). The most probable wind-speed and the wind-speed carrying the maximum energy were also evaluated. The capacity factor estimation is then used to identify the most suitable turbine for the sites. The results obtained show a monthly mean wind-speed of 4.50 m/s, 3.72 m/s, 4.77 m/s and 5.34 m/s for Ilorin, Gombe, Makurdi and Maiduguri respectively, while the wind-power densities were 67.74 W/m2, 40.87 W/m2, 79.52 W/m2 and 107.49 W/m2 respectively for the same sites.
Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte, Bogdan Valentin Paunescu
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 24, pp 30-35; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v24i1.65

Abstract:
Experimental results obtained in the process of manufacturing dense glass foam using the microwave energy are presented in the work. The glass foam is produced from bottle glass waste, calcium carbonate as foaming agent and borax as fluxing agent. The high compressive strength (2.5 - 6.2 MPa) is the main mechanical feature of this product, which together with other physical and morphological features (apparent density 0.60 – 0.90 g/cm3, porosity 59.1 – 72.7%, thermal conductivity 0.081 – 0.105 W m K, water absorption 0.5 – 1.0%, pore size 0.5 – 3 mm), are appropriate for using as a substitute for similar building materials existing on the market.
Lucian Paunescu, Marius Florin Dragoescu, Sorin Mircea Axinte
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 26, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v26i2.173

Abstract:
The paper presents the results of experimental research for manufacture a high mechanical strength thermal insulating material using the microwave energy. Clay brick waste (75 - 83 mass %) and coal ash (15 - 23 mass %) as raw material and silicon carbide (2%) as a foaming agent have been used as a powder mixture. The porous product obtained by a sintering/ foaming process at 1115 - 1145 ºC had relatively low density and thermal conductivity (0.50 - 0.68 g/cm3 and 0.078 - 0.095 W/mK, respectively) and high compressive strength (up to 7.5 MPa). This remarkable combination of some physical and mechanical characteristics of the insulating material allows its use in applications involving mechanical stress resistance.
Daniel Botez, Anatol Melega
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.482

Abstract:
Internal auditing plays an important part in the management of corporations, but it has also proved necessary in the more general framework of public interest entities, especially listed entities, given the importance of their activity in society. The different activities that internal auditors perform lead to the creation of added value in the entity in which they operate. In Romania, this activity is relatively recent and it involves certain organising and exercising particularities. The internal auditor profession has globally faced the same challenges all the other professions face in regards to the digitalization of the economy.
Mihai Deju
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.478

Abstract:
The preparation of annual consolidated financial statements, in the context of the existence of group companies, represents a relatively new problematic issue for accounting practitioners, the world of the academia, as well as for the regulating bodies in the field of accounting. This situation generates intense debates among accounting specialists with the aim of finding practical solutions that facilitate the understanding and correct application of accounting regulations in the area of consolidating accounts. The present article approaches, by means of a case study, the specific aspects related to the consolidation of affiliated entities’ accounts by means of using the global integration method and the direct consolidation procedure.
Lacramioara Ciomartan
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i29.439

Abstract:
An important factor in promoting economic development is the educational capital that should be seen as an investment in those who will generate economic growth. The present paper aims to carry out a statistical analysis of indicators in the field of education: early education, presentation based on statistical indicators disseminated by the two main official institutions: the National Institute of Statistics of Romania and the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova. In order to quantify the educational phenomenon in the two territorial units for statistics regarding the education market, a rather small number of indicators were taken into account due to lack of their dissemination on the desired administrative-territorial units.
Ouoya Zrakpa Melaine
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i29.438

Abstract:
Unlike the other two components of the financial trinity savings and insurance, the demand for credit has been the subject of much work. Using data from the household standards of living survey in Côte d'Ivoire (ENV2015), we use two logit models to identify the determinants of demand for credit and savings in rural Ivorian. Our work shows that the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the household and its head are significant determinants of demand for those services. The study revealed that each of these two services is a significant determinant of the other. Following this first analysis, we have identified the typical profiles of households with the highest and lowest probabilities of access to savings and credit. Finally, the gender approach of this study has shown that unlike the number of men who has no influence on the demand for savings among households without access to credit, the number of women considerably increases the level of access to credit for households with or without access to savings. And that households led by a woman have a better access to credit.
Florina Popa
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i29.435

Abstract:
After the ending of the Second World War, Romania's cooperation relations with other countries were subordinated to the political and economic situations developed among the world states and to the events that followed the completion of the war, the form and content of these relations being different, corresponding to the context.The study presents aspects related to the partnership relations developed through the economic cooperation relations achieved by Romania within the Commission for Reciprocal Economic Aid – COMECON (CAER), on the period of its operation (1949-1989).There are presented participants' cooperation modalities, the partnership being of public-public or public-private type.The examples shown include elements regarding the participating parties, the objectives to be achieved, the period, participation share, as the case may be.Also, some references are made to the enlargement of Romania's economic cooperation relations, internationally, after the 1970 year, expression of the favorable evolution of the geographical space of manifestation of the Romanian foreign trade.
Waly Diallo, Libasse Diop
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 23, pp 12-15; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v23i2.81

Abstract:
Five derivatives of general formulae [cation] [SeO4SnR3] (R = Ph, Me) have been studied by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The suggested structures are infinite chains or oligomers, the environment around the tin centre being trans trigonal bipyramidal, the phenyl and methyl substituants occupying equatorial positions, the selenate anion behaving as a bridging bidentate ligand and occupying the apical positions. When cations are involved, supramolecular architectures may be obtained.
Costel Ceocea, Bogdan Nichifor, Laura Timiras
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i0.473

Abstract:
In the context in which globalization generates chain reactions, the economic disturbances generated by the Covid-19 crisis are encountered at the global, European and of course regional level and, due to the novelty of the manifestation of the crisis, the capacity of known economic models to provide quick solutions in this context has proved to be limited. Most of the economic imbalances that have occurred are not due to the epidemic itself, but to the measures taken to prevent the spread of this virus. Attempts are being made globally to identify exit scenarios from the crisis. Such scenarios are the result of individual and collective action by states affected by the pandemic. Obviously, the results are different depending on the characteristics, potential, commitment of each of the states / areas affected by the economic crisis and can be evaluated in term of efficiency only after the trigger factor will cease to exist.
Kimeu Muindi, Bernard Kibeti Nassiuma, Enno Masurel, Kees Van Montfort
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.455

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to examine entrepreneurial competences among female entrepreneurs within the context of developed countries which have been greatly neglected in the same context of emerging economies. This empirical research is based on a survey of 301 micro and small enterprises located in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, run by female entrepreneurs. Its focus is on the following entrepreneurial competences: the need for achievement, locus of control, tolerance of ambiguity, innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, self-efficacy, egoistic passion; goal setting; resilience; trustworthiness; emotional stability; and patience. In measuring entrepreneurial performance, the constructs of firm performance, development of personal wealth, and social performance were used. The findings show that a proper measurement instrument has been applied to check on the constructs of entrepreneurial competences and entrepreneurial performance. The paper makes a finding that entrepreneurial competences do exist among female entrepreneurs in emerging economies. However, it was established that there is hardly any correlation between entrepreneurial competences and entrepreneurial performance. This finding, presents a stimulating area for further research within the contextual framework of emerging economies. The study contributes to the advancement of the literature on entrepreneurial competences and how they relate to the entrepreneurial performance of female entrepreneurs in an emerging economy context.
Costel Ceocea, Raluca Alexandra Ceocea, Adrian Vatamaniuc, Vasile Mihălaș
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.464

Abstract:
Public procurement involves adequate risk management, specific to the procurement portfolio established at the level of the organization. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, in accordance with the regulated framework established at the level of public institutions from Romania, decisions made at the level of contracting authorities must be based on risk management tools and mechanisms. These tools and mechanisms are defined on the basis of analyses of public procurement processes, carried out in compliance with the legal framework applicable at both European and national level. The new context created at the level of the contracting authorities in Romania, with the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, forced the management factors to adopt emergency decisions, to manage new risks and to implement rapid changes in public procurement processes, in the context of high uncertainty. This paper aims at analyzing the way decisions are made at the level of contracting authorities in Romania, in order to identify specific risk management mechanisms, based on the assessment and anticipation of risks related to public procurement organized in an matter of emergency.
Bogdan Nichifor, Laura Cătălina Ţimiraş
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i0.443

Abstract:
The ERASMUS programme was evaluated from a lot of point of views. Depending on the interest of the evaluation, studies were conducted to uncover information related to subjects like: the scope of the programme, the type of participants in the programme, the factors motivating the students to be mobile, the cost and funding of student mobility, the study conditions during the study period, the recognition of achievements during the study period abroad on return, the socio-cultural effect of the mobility (like becoming more “European”), the personal development effects etc. Based on the results of a direct research take on the students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences of the "Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacău, the paper presents a series of results with reference to: the knowledge held by the students with reference to the Erasmus + program, how they he perceives it, the reasons underlying the intention to benefit from the program, as well as those underlying the lack of interest in it. The research carried out was performed on a sample of 116 students from bachelor's degree studies - years II and III of studies selected according to non-probability criteria, so that the obtained results exclusively reveal their point of view.
Iulia Andreea Bucur, Liviana Andreea Niminet, Silviu Mihai Silivestru
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i30.442

Abstract:
During the last decade, fiscal policies in the euro area and structural reforms in the European Union’s countries that experienced different fiscal problems were a priority for the EU decision-makers. The existence of sound and sustainable public finances in the EU and, in particular, in the euro area is based, on the one hand, on macroeconomic stability, and on the other hand, on balanced and sustainable economic growth. This paper focuses on capturing the recent developments in public finances, more precisely some indicators essential for assessing the health of the EU economy and of its Member States. The results of our research show an improvement of them, as a whole, as an effect of structural reforms, investments and also of responsible fiscal-budgetary policies.
Anggita Langgeng Wijaya, Mia Noviyanti, Probo Mahayu
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i30.440

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to test the market reaction to the announcement of the Sri Kehati Index on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The population in this study is all companies included in the Sri Kehati Index from 2013 to 2016. The selection of samples was taken by the population sampling method. Hypothesis testing is done by paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The findings of this research are: 1) there is no difference in abnormal returns before and after the announcement of the Sri Kehati Index on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. 2) There is a difference in the activity of stock trading volume before and after the announcement of the Sri Kehati index in the 5th and 6th periods, but there is no difference in the activity of stock trading volume in other periods. The Indonesia Stock Exchange did not react consistently to the announcement of the Sri Kehati Index.
Besime Ziberi, Mimoza Hodaj
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.477

Abstract:
The main aim of this study is to analyze the trend of public spending dedicated to education in case of Kosovo over the years and to measure the impact of public spending in education on economic growth of Kosovo. In order to achieve the goal, the Pearson Correlation is used and a multifactorial regression model (OLS) has been modified and adapted, where we have determined the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as depended variable and as independent variable in the model conclude: (i) Total public expenditure on education (ii) Public expenditure on Secondary Education and (iii) Public expenditure on Higher Education (University). The data used is secondary data from the Kosovo’s State Budget, Ministry of Finance and Transfers, and Kosovo Agency of Statistics. We come in conclusion that public spending dedicated to the Higher Education (University) has a positive impact on Kosovo's economic growth meanwhile the public spending on secondary education and total public expenditure on education in the model circumstances show no significance. The paper comes with further recommendations on public spending policies dedicated to education in order to influence Kosovo's economic growth.
, Nelson Amoedo
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.476

Abstract:
Investment in research and development is a key factor in increasing countries' competitiveness. However, its impact can potentially be broader and include other socially relevant elements like job quality. In effect, the quantity of generated jobs is an incomplete indicator since it does not allow to conclude on the quality of the job generated. In this sense, this paper intends to explore the relevance of R&D investments for the job quality in the European Union between 2009 and 2018. For this purpose, we investigate the effects of R&D expenditures made by the business sector, government, and higher education sector on three dimensions of job quality. Three research methods are employed, i.e. univariate linear analysis, multiple linear analysis, and cluster analysis. The findings only confirm the association between R&D expenditure and the number of hours worked, such that the European Union countries with the highest R&D expenses are those with the lowest average weekly working hours.
Adrian Ciprian Ghinea
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.466

Abstract:
This research is based on the PACE recommendation and in this paper we will showcase some of the results. Our main purpose was to describe and analyse possibilities to achieve a moral and religious education by both family and school actors, as well as to come up with an inventory of suggestions for the improvement of this two-fold type of education. For this article we will only focus on a supportive objective, namely identifying the state-of-fact of religious and moral education in the North-Eastern region of Romania, more specifically the item concerning the effectiveness of religion and the belief that it provides answers to some problematical issues in the lives of the subjects selected for the study.
Florina Popa
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.451

Abstract:
Foreign Direct Investment are among the mobilizing factors of the economic development of a country, alongside the domestic investments, being a basic support in the achievement of the development and modernization strategies. The study presents, briefly, the effects of intervening Foreign Direct Investment flows on the economy of a country, able, by the advanced experience brought, to generate a better capitalization of resources, a contribution to growth. The directions of manifesting the mechanisms of influence of Foreign Direct Investment, as well as the role that they hold for their impact, the economic environment of the host country and the policies practiced in relation to Foreign Direct Investment are taken into account. The purpose of the paper was to point out some aspects regarding the favourable impact that foreign investments could have on an economy, by the contribution to new technologies and the contribution to the productivity increase. The conclusions point to the potential of the impact of Foreign Direct Investment on development and the need for the host countries, to support some properly oriented policies, by maintaining a correlation between the volume of foreign investment flows and the development potential of a country. The research method used to carry out the study was the documentation from the foreign and domestic specialized literature, the synthesis and processing of the relevant ideas, by capturing the impact of Foreign Direct Investment in economic development.
Corina Buzoianu, Monica Bira, Alina Duduciuc
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i30.445

Abstract:
This paper aims to shed a light on the importance of looking on the epistemological and methodological grounds of communication as a discipline in Romania in order to be able to discuss about the professionalization of the domain. We start from the widely acknowledged idea that communication is a new and emerging field, drawing its concepts, theories, and methods from diverse other fields and domains. In Romania, as well as in other former communist countries, after 1990 the changes in the political and economic situation created the premises to establish university programs in communication and to create jobs for people working in communication. All these were possible with the help of “imports” from the Western world, imports that transferred not only concepts and theories, but also the epistemological dispute and weakness of the field. This paper explores the development and the current state of communication as an academic discipline in Romania. Through an analysis of the social documents available on the University program’s website, we seek to understand the theoretical roots of the discipline of communication, as well as its current development.
Laura Catalina Timiras
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.447

Abstract:
The present paper aims to present some of the specific aspects of marketing in the healthcare field (with strict reference to the products intended for human consumption), in relation to other fields. After a presentation of the fields of marketing applicability in the healthcare, a series of specific elements are presented regarding the nature of the motivations underlying the decision to consume / use a medical product and the elements of appreciation of their value by the final consumers (patients), along with aspects regarding price, distribution and communication. In general, the specificity of the marketing activity is given by the category of products targeted - ideas, tangible goods / services intended for the consumer market, products intended for the business markets, which print certain particularities as appropriate: social marketing, marketing of consumer goods, the marketing of services or business-to-business marketing, as well as the specific needs that these products address, the role of the prescribers in manifesting this behavior or the regulations in the field that aim to protect public health.
, Muhammad Nawzad Ali
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.453

Abstract:
This research was carried out to determine the weight of taxation in economic development, the main purpose is to discover the level of impact of taxation on economic development or if it has any impact. Another key objective is to improve the level of understandability and find probable solutions toward issues in taxation within the Kurdistan region, as well as unveiling the Kurdistan Regional Government’s taxation system in compliance with the up to date old Iraqi tax laws. KRG is barely surviving this crisis, with the increase of unemployment and poverty could taxation work as an aid to support the piles of the region. The current corruption in the government that does not use tax money efficiently and lack of transparency has been evaluated. Primary and secondary research methods were used to be able to gather information in order to reach an understanding. The primary source of data includes personal interviews and questionnaires, meanwhile, the secondary source of data includes the use of textbooks, social media, internet, and newspapers. Non-probability method of sampling was used in selecting the respondents. The study used the standard deviation, chi-square formula, and tables for the method of the examination. The results clearly illustrates that the government should commence the critical pursuit of broadening regional economy in order to improve economic growth and expansion and to become meticulous to fight with real corruption. The limitation and resources should be expanded by the government and bring taxation back to life through educational systems and social awareness.
Sissani Midoun, Tagrerout Med
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i30.444

Abstract:
No doubt that Islamic banks have proved its efficiency and effectiveness in both :In methods of financial management and also in the mobilization of financial resources for the sake to promote development in various economic sectors not only in Islamic countries but even in European as well and of course according to Islamic Sharia rules. The aim of this paper is to examine the performances and the Islamic methods adopted to improve the allocation of financial resources and its specific ways to boost earnings. Besides, Islamic financial assets were involved in huge financial markets due to its high quality of financial services provided to investors. Actually, Islamic banking exists in more than 67 countries and by the end of 2019 they may reach about 75 countries in the world. The results show that legislation, shortage of qualified individuals and the lack of using a high technology are the most critical factor of Islamic banking in Algeria.
Melaine Zrakpa Ouoya
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i30.441

Abstract:
Many studies have revealed the importance of taking the ex post and former poor into account in designing sustainable poverty reduction policies. With data from the 2015 household standard of living survey (ENV2015), we use the Chaudhuri, Jalan and Suryahadi model (2002) to measure the vulnerability to poverty of rural households in Côte d’Ivoire. Our work reveals that 34% of households are vulnerable while 25% are poor. The analysis of the influence of certain factors on this vulnerability was based on a tobit model. We come to the conclusion that farm and trade households are more vulnerable than those in industry and services. Also, households with a head of at least secondary education are less vulnerable than those whose head is at most at the primary level. Finally, contrary to many studies, we find that access to credit has a bad influence on the vulnerability of rural households to poverty. The origin and use of these rural credits would explain this last relationship.
S M Uvaneswaran, Tsega Zemen, Seid Muhammed Ahmed
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i30.427

Abstract:
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)is the commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development – working with employees, their families, the local community and society at large to improve the quality of life for the business and public. In Ethiopia, companies are spending portion of profit for developing the society and corporate under different verticals. This paper highlights the demographic and company characteristics of corporate social activities performed by the organizations in the areas of Employee, Community, Environment, Customer and Suppliers. To meet these objectives, a- stratified-random sampling design was used, followed by proportionate technique. The primary data were collected from the merchandising; manufacturing and service render business organizations. To keep representativeness of the sample units, 142 business organizations were chosen based on the category A Tax payers. The data collected are analyzed by using Simple percentage and Likert scaling techniques to find out the participating companies in CSR activities. Thus the paper concludes that CSR contributions relating to community are more compare to other activities like environmental protection, customer and supplier support, employee motivation and social development.
Francis - Lwesya, Kaluse Mohammed
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i27.407

Abstract:
This paper examines the nexus between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Manufactured Export Performance in Tanzania using An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) for the period of 1980-2015. Real manufactured exports were used to proxy manufactured export performance. The findings show the existence of a positive and significant relationship between real manufactured exports and lagged FDI both in the short run and long run. The estimated error correction coefficient is negative and significant at one percent level. This confirms that all the variables (Real Manufactured Exports, FDI, Openness, and Real Effective Exchange Rate) are co-integrated and the speed of adjustment towards the long run equilibrium is at 78% annually. This suggests that FDI is one of the determinants of manufactured export performance in Tanzania. Thus, to stimulate more manufactured exports, Tanzania needs to attract FDIs that target the export sector along with increasing trade openness in a bid to build a competitive and sustainable value added manufacturing sector.
Olivia Christine Chandra, Mukhlasin Mukhlasin
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.458

Abstract:
Earnings quality can be determined from the market or investor reaction to information in the published financial statements. But there are some factor, which can be considered to be biased for investors in determining their investment in a company. Market reaction can be proxy by earning response coefficient. This study aims to examine the effect of tax avoidance, foreign direct investment and capital intensity on earnings response coefficient. The population in this study is companies from manufacturing sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the period 2017-2019. Data obtained from the IDX website, Yahoo Finance and website of certain companies. The population of this study are 135 observation data. The hypothesis in this study were tested by multiple linear regression analysis. The result of this research are: 1) foreign direct investment and capital intensity have a positive effect on earnings response coefficient. 2) tax avoidance has no influence on earnings response coefficient.
Costel Ceocea, Raluca Alexandra Ceocea, Aurora Cosma, Marius Savin
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.481

Abstract:
To achieve quality involves the use of standards in all medical and non-medical processes carried out in the medical system. Standards translate quality into operational terms. They set minimum levels of excellence or performance compatibility intervals. In the paper below I presented a brief history of quality management in the world, then a brief history of quality management in health to demonstrate the importance and relevance of implementing quality management in the current health system. The case study presents the interpretation of the data obtained after the evaluation of the medical unit by ANMCS, accreditation system of health units. In this content I presented the number of indicators implemented related to the applied standards and implicitly the number of non-compliant indicators.The results obtained lead to the presentation of the "strengths" of the health unit, also the recommendations are related to the processes that can be improved. The presentation of the results obtained from the application of satisfaction survey to inpatients during 2017 strengthens the belief that the implementation of quality management in a medical unit is not unnecessary work, on the contrary it is appreciated by patients and its continuation is an imperative action to have medical units at standards of excellence.
Anny Widiasmara, Ika Purwaningsih
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.474

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the influence of taxes, tunneling incentives for income shifting, financial reporting and intangible assets on transfer pricing decisions. The data used is secondary data in the form of annual financial statements downloaded from the official website of IDX www.idx.co.id. The population of this study is a manufacturing company registered in IDX for the period 2016-2018. Sample selection technique using purposive sampling method so that 33 companies are obtained according to the criteria. The analysis technique uses multiple linear regressions tested with SPSS version 20 applications. The results showed that taxes, tunneling incentives for income shifting, and financial reporting had no effect on transfer pricing decisions. Meanwhile, intangible assets have a significant positive effect on transfer pricing decisions.
Costel Ceocea, Raluca Alexandra Ceocea, Adrian Vatamaniuc, Vasile Mihălaș
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.465

Abstract:
The normative framework applicable to public institutions imposes an approach to public procurement management aimed at awarding public procurement contracts in conditions of economic and social efficiency. Achieving the objectives set at the level of the organization, in accordance with the principles underlying the award of public procurement contracts is conditioned by the adoption and implementation of specific procedures, mainly oriented towards the organization of decision-making processes. In the context of the crisis triggered by the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, contracting authorities were forced to organize public procurement processes, in a matter of urgency, on a procedural background less oriented towards adopting fast and efficient decisions, with negative effects both on the available financial resources and on the process of ensuring the flow of products, services and works corresponding to the rhythm imposed by the urgent needs of public institutions involved in managing the effects of the health crisis. This paper aims at individualize the decision-making process in the field of public procurement in Romania, in order to identify models of good practice, procedures and support working tools for optimizing the public procurement process carried out at the level of contracting authorities in a matter of emergency.
Zrakpa Melaine Ouoya
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i32.448

Abstract:
Based on data from the Households Living Standard Survey (ENV2015), we analyze the impact of credit on poverty status stability (ex-post and ex-ante poverty) and then study the regional gaps between poverty and vulnerability to poverty in the rural environment in Côte d'Ivoire. We slightly modified the model of Chaudhuri et al. (2002) to estimate the vulnerability to poverty and consider the poverty index as our measure of poverty. We construct a latent variable that is equal to the square of the gap between poverty and vulnerability to poverty and then use a tobit model to estimate the influence of credit on that variable. Our results show that credit makes poverty status unstable by widening the gap between ex-post and ex-ante poverty (poverty and vulnerability to poverty). We also find that the regional distribution of poverty is different from that of vulnerability to poverty in the rural environment in Côte d'Ivoire.
Ouoya Zrakpa Melaine
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.446

Abstract:
Shocks are ubiquitous in the daily life of rural people in Côte d'Ivoire, like many other developing countries. These shocked households have to choose between coping or not. With data from the Household Standard of Living Survey in Côte d'Ivoire (ENV2015), we use a probit model to analyze the factors influencing the decision of rural households to cope or not and then we identify the dominant strategies of these households facing shocks. A logit model allows us to understand the impact of the strategic choices made by these households on their well-being. We find that only health shocks have a positive influence on household’s coping decision. Also, for these various shocks (health shocks, natural shocks, economic shocks and shocks related to conflicts / crimes), the dominant strategies are the reduction of consumption, then the receipt of donations and borrowing. However, it is the reduction of food consumption, borrowing and the sale of assets that have a positive impact on these households welfare approximated by their poverty status.
Cristina-Iolanda Filipoaia, Mihai Deju
STUDIES AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. ECONOMICS EDITION; https://doi.org/10.29358/sceco.v0i31.463

Abstract:
During more than six centuries of existence, Bacău benefited both from the favourable socio-economic and political context, and from the interrelationships with the other communities, from the harmonious combination of these two elements resulting both the growth and development of the locality and the position in the local and regional hierarchy. The main beneficiaries of the progress made were of course the inhabitants, the city representing a living environment for them, as well as the essential factor in the functional dynamics and in the urban landscape. Giving meaning to the past, we must recognize that each community that contributed to the development of Bacău has its own history, Bacău becoming the trustee of the communities ‘history entirety, which in perfect communion with Romanians defined the complex identity of the locality. The Jewish community is no exception, whose collaboration with Romanians for over two centuries has contributed to increasing the economic level of development of the locality since the second half of the 18th century.
Emilian Moșneguțu, Valentin Nedeff, Mirela Panainte-Lehăduș, Narcis Bârsan, Dana Chițimuș, Dragoș Rusu
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i2.111

Abstract:
This article presents the methodology for determining the real values of kinematic indices which characterizes the mechanical separation of a mixture of solid particles. Mechanical separation of a mixture of solid-solid on surface provided with holes is the most common method of separation. To optimize equipment that performs this operation, both theoretical and practical characteristics are determined. Kinematic indices are part of the theoretical characteristics, helping to identify behavior of solid particles on a surface flat swing. Starting from an experimental batch, real values of the kinematic indices corresponding to up, down and sideways movement on the sieve were determined for the following types of real particles: grain, large grain beans, small grain beans and soybeans.
Mirela Panainte-Lehadus, Narcis Barsan, Oana Irimia, Claudia Tomozei, Emilian Mosnegutu, Florin Nedeff
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 23, pp 14-18; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v23i4.69

Abstract:
The workplaces, where human activity takes place, is characterized by some complex factors that can affect the health of employees. These factors (temperature, humidity, noise, vibration, toxic substances, lighting, particulate matter etc.) can also be generalized as dangerous factors or workplaces hazards [1, 2, 3, 4]. In this article are presented some results obtained after workplaces hazards measurements in a production and sales bakery unit for the parameters: O2, SO2, CO, NH3, temperature, humidity, suspension powders, VOC. The values of the measured parameters particulate matter (0.17 mg/m3 - 0.30 mg/m3) respectively volatile organic compounds (0.8 ppm ÷ 21.1 ppm) were below the maximum allowable concentrations, which indicates a safe workplaces for employees. The other parameters measured values, respectively temperature and humidity, were between 22.100C - 29.20 C for temperature and 47% - 53% for humidity.
Laurentiu Tataru, Valentin Nedeff, Narcis Barsan, Mirela Panainte-Lehadus, Emilian Mosnegutu, Dana Chitimus, Florina Fabian
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 24, pp 46-57; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v24i2.61

Abstract:
The water deficit for consumption in various daily activities is more pronounced especially in countries where rainfall is low or in those areas where water demand is higher than available resources. This paper is a comparison between the airgap and water-gap distillation method. The results of the study have shown that the water-based distillation method can be more efficient, as the volume of permeate obtained is higher in relation to the increase in the flow temperature.The results obtained as well as the comparison of the advantages related to the two membrane distillation processes will be presented in the present paper.
Oana Irimia, Valentin Nedeff, Mirela Panainte Lehăduş, Claudia Tomozei
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 64-71; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i1.123

Abstract:
The shape of granular particle from a filter layer represent a determinant factor regarding the efficiency of filtration process. In order to adequately predict the efficiency of granular filters is necessary to know the distribution of granular particle shape from filter layer. This paper presents a small study - in terms of experimental results, but laborious - in terms of sample preparation, regarding the identification of distribution by shape classes of granular particles from a filter layer. For experimental determinations have been used perlite and anthracite - two granular filter materials. It has been analyzed in terms of particle shape 1,000 particles of perlite and 1,000 particles of anthracite taken randomly from each filter layer. It has been observed that spherical particles have an average distribution for two type filter materials.
Antonina Temea, Valentin Nedeff, Claudio Comoglio, Serena Botta, Mirela Panainte-Lehadus
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 66-70; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i3.105

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to review and present a short synthesis of the scientific literature on Ecolabel and an analysis of the types of products and services in Romania that obtained this environmental label. European eco-label is the only environmental quality label (type I; ISO 14024), awarded at institutional level (EC) valid all around the Europe, and it represents a unique opportunity to satisfy consumer expectations. In this way is promotes the design, production and marketing of products with lower environmental impact during their entire life cycle compared to other products in the same category. The EU Ecolabel covers a wide range of product groups, from major areas of manufacturing to tourist accommodation services. Key experts, in consultation with main stakeholders, develop the criteria for each product group in order to decrease the main environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of the product. Because the life cycle of every product and service is different, the criteria are tailored to address the unique characteristics of each product type. The European Ecolabel was introduced in Romania in 2002.
Emilian Moşneguţu, Valentin Nedeff, Narcis Bârsan, Alexandra-Dana Chiţimuş, Dragoş Rusu
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 21, pp 51-58; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v21i3.143

Abstract:
This article shows a study aiming to identify the influence carried out by the supporting way of the working surface in the case of plane oscillating screening device, over the behavior of a solid particle. In order to achieve this, a theoretical study has been conducted by using a simulation program, Working Model 2D, within which two ways of supporting the screening block have been conceived: the working surface supported by tie-rods, and the surface suspended on tie-rods. Following the simulation, a series of physical parameters has been determined: the trajectory followed by the solid particle; the circuit of the solid particle during its movement on the working surface; the acceleration of the solid particle and the reaction force occurred between the solid particle and the working surface. Following the analysis of resulting values it may be noted that the best way to support the working surface, as far as the efficiency of mechanical separation is concerned, according to width and thickness of the solid particle, is obtained in the case where the working surface is supported by tie-rods, since the running time of the working surface is the highest and it is 4.12 seconds, value generating the high average moving speed; the particle’s rotation angle is from -2 rad to +4.8 rad, having as a result the amplest possible rotation.
Alisa Moșneaga, Valentin Nedeff, Petru Lozovanu
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 33-38; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i2.110

Abstract:
In this work, research findings on processing bean seeds with sound waves in the range 0-9 kHz are presented. The process of germination has been examined for seeds soaked in heat treated water and plain water. In the initial stage, the conditions necessary to stimulate plant growth were created. The paper describes the experimental setup and the sound wave seed treatment procedure. The characteristics of the seed germination process were determined and compared with those of the control sample germination.
Narcis Barsan, Mariana Turcu, Valentin Nedeff, Emilian Mosnegutu, Dana Chitimus
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 23, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v23i3.74

Abstract:
In the application of coagulation and flocculation process in the wastewater treatment, the laboratory activities are very important and sometime even indispensable. These activities provides some solutions to the efficiency that can be obtained and offer the possibly of results extrapolation to the industrial applications. The present study attempted to verify some possible laboratory application of the Acefloc organic flocculants series to the municipal waste leachate treatment. In these sense, some laboratory techniques were implemented to evaluate de flocculants efficiency by analyzing some quality parameters. In the case of Acefloc 00303L flocculants use were obtained the best performances regarding the analyzed quality indicators reduction. By using the flocculation process, the COD concentration decrease with 85.35 % in the case of Acefloc 00303L flocculants use
Senou Issaka, Narcis Bârsan, Valentin Nedeff, Some N. Antoine, Nacro H. Bismarck
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 72-80; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i1.124

Abstract:
The study parameters: pH, conductivity, salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of groundwater in a closed industrial landfill, subject to the waste discharges of city of Bacau (East Romania), shows that the water quality of the different sampling points is variable. This difference is noted at the level of conductivity, TDS, turbidity, TSS and COD. These differences, however parameters are substantially higher compared the value of the legislation in groundwater Romania. Salinity remains relatively high at the point of sample P1 (0.7). The pH values are comprising in the range of reference values (6.5 to 7.4). The results also showed very strong correlations (r> 0.8) between Conductivity-Salinity, Conductivity -TDS, Salinity, TDS, Turbidity.-TSS, COD and TSS-Turbidity-COD. The strong correlation (0.5 0.8) were noted between Turbidity- Conductivity, Turbidity-Salinity, Turbidity, TDS, TSS conductivity, TSS-Salinity, TSS, TDS, COD, conductivity, salinity, COD, COD-TDS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also highlighted groundwater mineralization events of this landfill and possible pollution by organic matter.
Doina Capșa, Narcis Bârsan, Valentin Nedeff, Emilian Moșneguțu, Dana Chițimuș
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Volume 22, pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v22i1.119

Abstract:
Atmospheric pollution present interest for monitoring and analysis when one or more substances or mixture of pollutants are present in the atmosphere in quantities or for a period that can be dangerous for humans, animals or plants and contribute to endangering the activity or welfare of persons. The present research was aimed to establish a link between meteorological factors (temperature, wind, atmospherically humidity, solar radiation, air pressure) and the ammonia air pollutant. Particularities of research methodology consisted in establishing a connection between meteorological factors in Bacau area and its air quality, taking into account both direct and inverse effects induced by geographical complexity and economic activities. The correlations between ammonia air pollution and analyzed climatic factors variation were realized by graphical interpretations and observing the appropriate links of dependency. In one of the case (2008.08.20) a better dispersion of pollutants occurs in the case of sunshine duration over a longer period, without or with low nebulosity.
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