Refine Search

New Search

Results: 39,487

(searched for: publisher_group_id:8054)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 790
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8e96

Abstract:
We explore some of the ramifications arising from superflares on the evolutionary history of Earth, other planets in the solar system, and exoplanets. We propose that the most powerful superflares can serve as plausible drivers of extinction events, and that their periodicity corresponds to certain patterns in the terrestrial fossil diversity record. On the other hand, weaker superflares may play a positive role in enabling the origin of life through the formation of key organic compounds. Superflares could also prove to be quite detrimental to the evolution of complex life on present-day Mars and exoplanets in the habitable zone of M- and K-dwarfs. We conclude that the risk posed by superflares has not been sufficiently appreciated, and that humanity might potentially witness a superflare event in the next years, leading to devastating economic and technological losses. In light of the many uncertainties and assumptions associated with our analysis, we recommend that these results should be viewed with due caution.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8d6a

Abstract:
We analyze space- and ground-based data for the old (7.0 ± 0.3 Gyr) solar analogs 16 Cyg A and B. The stars were observed with the Cosmic Origins UV Spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 2015 October 23 and 2016 February 3, respectively, and with the Chandra X-ray Observatory on 2016 February 7. Time-series data in Ca ii data are used to place the UV data in context. The UV spectra of 18 Sco (3.7 ± 0.5 Gyr), the Sun (4.6 ± 0.04 Gyr), and α Cen A () appear remarkably similar, pointing to a convergence of magnetic heating rates for G2 main-sequence stars older than ≈2–4 Gyr. But the B component's X-ray (0.3–2.5 keV) flux lies 20× below a well-known minimum level reported by Schmitt. As reported for α Cen A, the coronal temperature probably lies below that detectable in soft X-rays. No solar UV flux spectra of comparable resolution to those of stellar data exist, but they are badly needed for comparison with stellar data. Center-to-limb variations are reevaluated for lines such as Ca ii through X-rays, with important consequences for observing activity cycles in such features. We also call into question work that has mixed solar intensity–intensity statistics with flux–flux relations of stars.
Catherine Lacombe, Olga Alexandrova,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8c06

Abstract:
We present the first statistical study of the anisotropy of the magnetic field turbulence in the solar wind between 1 and 200 Hz, i.e., from proton to sub-electron scales. We consider 93 ten-minute intervals of the Cluster/STAFF measurements. We find that the fluctuations are not gyrotropic at a given frequency f, a property already observed at larger scales ( means parallel/perpendicular to the average magnetic ). This non-gyrotropy gives indications of the angular distribution of the wave vectors : at 10 Hz, we find that , mainly in the fast wind; at 10 Hz, fluctuations with a non-negligible k are also present. We then consider the anisotropy ratio , which is a measure of the magnetic compressibility of the fluctuations. This ratio, always smaller than 1, increases with f. It reaches a value showing that the fluctuations are more or less isotropic at electron scales, for . From 1 to 15–20 Hz, there is a strong correlation between the observed compressibility and the one expected for the kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs), which only depends on the total plasma β. For , the observed compressibility is larger than expected for KAWs, and it is stronger in the slow wind: this could be an indication of the presence of a slow-ion acoustic mode of fluctuations, which is more compressive and is favored by the larger values of the electron to proton temperature ratio generally observed in the slow wind.
Kazuaki Ota, Masanori Iye, , Kazuhiro Shimasaku, , Tomonori Totani, Masahiro Nagashima, Tomoki Morokuma, , Takashi Hattori, et al.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 677, pp 12-26; https://doi.org/10.1086/529006

Abstract:
We have performed narrowband NB973 (bandwidth 200 Å centered at 9755 Å) imaging of the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) and found two z = 7 Lyα emitter (LAE) candidates down to NB973 = 24.9. Carrying out deep follow-up spectroscopy, we identified one of them as a real z = 6.96 LAE. This has established a new redshift record, showing that galaxy formation was in progress just 750 Myr after the big bang. Meanwhile, the Lyα line luminosity function of LAEs is known to decline from z = 5.7 to 6.6 in the SDF; L* at z = 6.6 is 40%-60% that at z = 5.7. We also confirm that the number density of z = 7 LAEs is only 17% of the density at z = 6.6 comparing the latest SDF LAE samples. This series of significant decreases in LAE density with increasing redshift could be the result of galaxy evolution during these epochs. However, using the UV continuum luminosity functions of LAEs and Lyman break galaxies, and a LAE evolution model based on hierarchical clustering, we find that galaxy evolution alone cannot entirely explain the decrease in density. This extra density deficit might reflect the attenuation of the Lyα photons from LAEs by the neutral hydrogen possibly left at the last stage of cosmic reionization at z ~ 6-7.
M. H. Christopher, N. Z. Scoville, S. R. Stolovy, Min S. Yun
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 622, pp 346-365; https://doi.org/10.1086/427911

Abstract:
We present high spatial resolution (5.1" x 2.7") OVRO millimeter array observations of HCN (J=1-0) and HCO+ (J=1-0) emission in the inner 3 pc of the galaxy. The HCN and HCO+ emission of the circumnuclear disk (CND) is distributed in a well-defined ring with a peak at a radius of 1.6pc. The HCO+/HCN emission ratio is typically ~0.4 but with significant variations. The HCN emission is well correlated with the H_2 emission at 2.12 microns both in the main emission lobes of the CND and also in four filaments. Multiple areas of interaction between the ionized gas and the CND are also seen - the western arm of the minispiral is spatially and kinematically consistent with being the ionized inner edge of the CND, and the northern arm may be connected to the CND northeastern extension. With the enhanced spatial resolution of the HCN map, we resolve numerous dense molecular gas cores within the CND with characteristic diameter of 7" (0.25pc). For 26 of the more isolated cores, we measure sizes, velocity widths, and integrated fluxes. We estimate three masses for each core: a virial mass, an optically thick mass, and a lower limit mass assuming optically thin HCN emission. The virial and optically thick masses are in good agreement with a typical mass of (2-3)x10^4 M_sun and a total CND gas mass of 10^6 M_sun. The internal densities implied by these core masses are on average (3-4)x10^7 cm^-3, high enough to be stable against tidal disruption from Sgr A* and the central stellar concentration. This tidal stability suggests a longer lifetime for the CND. The higher densities and masses within the cores might support star formation either in the CND itself or within a core infalling toward the inner parsec, thus providing a mechanism for the formation of the young stellar population in the inner arcseconds of the galaxy.
Klaus M. Pontoppidan, , , , Adwin C. A. Boogert, Neal J. Evans Ii, Jacqueline E. Kessler‐Silacci,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 622, pp 463-481; https://doi.org/10.1086/427688

Abstract:
We present 5.2-37.2 micron spectroscopy of the edge-on circumstellar disk CRBR 2422.8-3423 obtained using the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS spectrum is combined with ground-based 3-5 micron spectroscopy to obtain a complete inventory of solid state material present along the line of sight toward the source. We model the object with a 2D axisymmetric (effectively 3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. It is found that the model disk, assuming a standard flaring structure, is too warm to contain the very large observed column density of pure CO ice, but is possibly responsible for up to 50% of the water, CO2 and minor ice species. In particular the 6.85 micron band, tentatively due to NH4+, exhibits a prominent red wing, indicating a significant contribution from warm ice in the disk. It is argued that the pure CO ice is located in the dense core Oph-F in front of the source seen in the submillimeter imaging, with the CO gas in the core highly depleted. The model is used to predict which circumstances are most favourable for direct observations of ices in edge-on circumstellar disks. Ice bands will in general be deepest for inclinations similar to the disk opening angle, i.e. ~70 degrees. Due to the high optical depths of typical disk mid-planes, ice absorption bands will often probe warmer ice located in the upper layers of nearly edge-on disks. The ratios between different ice bands are found to vary by up to an order of magnitude depending on disk inclination due to radiative transfer effects caused by the 2D structure of the disk. Ratios between ice bands of the same species can therefore be used to constrain the location of the ices in a circumstellar disk. [Abstract abridged]Comment: 49 pages, accepted for publication in Ap
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8d1f

Abstract:
One of the most active fields of research of modern-day astrophysics is that of massive black hole formation and coevolution with the host galaxy. In these investigations, ranging from cosmological simulations, to semi-analytical modeling, to observational studies, the Bondi solution for accretion on a central point-mass is widely adopted. In this work we generalize the classical Bondi accretion theory to take into account the effects of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy, and of radiation pressure in the optically thin limit. Then, we present the fully analytical solution, in terms of the Lambert–Euler W-function, for isothermal accretion in Jaffe and Hernquist galaxies with a central black hole. The flow structure is found to be sensitive to the shape of the mass profile of the host galaxy. These results and the formulae that are provided, most importantly, the one for the critical accretion parameter, allow for a direct evaluation of all flow properties, and are then useful for the abovementioned studies. As an application, we examine the departure from the true mass accretion rate of estimates obtained using the gas properties at various distances from the black hole, under the hypothesis of classical Bondi accretion. An overestimate is obtained from regions close to the black hole, and an underestimate outside a few Bondi radii; the exact position of the transition between the two kinds of departure depends on the galaxy model.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8ad1

Abstract:
This paper presents a three-dimensional simulation of chromospheric jets with twisted magnetic field lines. Detailed treatments of the photospheric radiative transfer and the equations of state allow us to model realistic thermal convection near the solar surface, which excites various MHD waves and produces chromospheric jets in the simulation. A tall chromospheric jet with a maximum height of 10–11 Mm and lifetime of 8–10 minutes is formed above a strong magnetic field concentration. The magnetic field lines are strongly entangled in the chromosphere, which helps the chromospheric jet to be driven by the Lorentz force. The jet exhibits oscillatory motion as a natural consequence of its generation mechanism. We also find that the produced chromospheric jet forms a cluster with a diameter of several Mm with finer strands. These results imply a close relationship between the simulated jet and solar spicules.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8a68

Abstract:
IRIS and EIS observed a GOES C3.1 flare in stare mode on 2014 March 15. The GOES flare started at 00:21:35 and peaked at 00:26:30 UT. The IRIS slit pointed near the center of the flare, while the EIS slit pointed to its west. About 4 minutes before the GOES flare start, the IRIS C ii and Si iv intensities became (and remained) greater than their pre-flare averages, indicating that the flare had begun and that the chromosphere and transition region were involved. IRIS first detected blueshifted Fe xxi emission at 00:22:42 UT, by which time the C ii and Si iv intensities had increased by factors around 100 and their profiles were redshifted. Simultaneous, cospatial blueshifted Fe xxi emission with redshifted C ii and Si iv emission indicates explosive chromospheric evaporation. EIS spectra reveal Fe xxiii emission that is too weak to measure velocities, and intensity enhancements by factors about 1.7 in the Fe xiv and Fe xvi emission. Lines from both of these coronal ions show redshifts ≈9 km s−1 around 00:24:00 UT, and the Fe xiv 264.7/274.2 intensity ratio reveals an increase of ne from before to cm−3 during the flare. The redshifted coronal line emission and increased ne are consistent with warm rain falling and accumulating in the remote area observed by EIS. A fit to the RHESSI hard X-ray spectrum yields a nonthermal energy injection rate of erg s−1, from which we estimate a HXR beam energy flux range consistent with explosive evaporation.
, , Margaret C. Turnbull, Ella Osby, , Graeme H. Smith, Alexis Klimasewski, Garrett Somers,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b0f

Abstract:
Almost every star in our Galaxy is likely to harbor a terrestrial planet, but accurate measurements of an exoplanet's mass and radius demand accurate knowledge of the properties of its host star. The imminent TESS and CHEOPS missions are slated to discover thousands of new exoplanets. Along with WFIRST, which will directly image nearby planets, these surveys make urgent the need to better characterize stars in the nearby solar neighborhood (<30 pc). We have compiled the CATalog of Stellar Unified Properties (CATSUP) for 951 stars, including such data as: Gaia astrometry; multiplicity within stellar systems; stellar elemental abundance measurements; standardized spectral types; Ca ii H and K stellar activity indices; GALEX NUV and FUV photometry; and X-ray fluxes and luminosities from ROSAT, XMM, and Chandra. We use this data-rich catalog to find correlations, especially between stellar emission indices, colors, and galactic velocity. Additionally, we demonstrate that thick-disk stars in the sample are generally older, have lower activity, and have higher velocities normal to the galactic plane. We anticipate that CATSUP will be useful for discerning other trends among stars within the nearby solar neighborhood, for comparing thin-disk versus thick-disk stars, for comparing stars with and without planets, and for finding correlations between chemical and kinematic properties.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8ad5

Abstract:
We present a new method for photometering objects in galaxy clusters. We introduce a mode-filtering technique for removing spatially variable backgrounds, improving both detection and photometric accuracy (roughly halving the scatter in the red sequence compared to previous catalogs of the same clusters). This method is based on robustly determining the distribution of background pixel values and should provide comparable improvement in photometric analysis of any crowded fields. We produce new multiwavelength catalogs for the 25 CLASH cluster fields in all 16 bandpasses from the UV through the near-IR, as well as rest-frame magnitudes. A comparison with spectroscopic values from the literature finds a decrease in the redshift deviation from previously released CLASH photometry. This improvement in redshift precision, in combination with a detection scheme designed to maximize purity, yields a substantial upgrade in cluster member identification over the previous CLASH galaxy catalog. We construct luminosity functions for each cluster, reliably reaching depths of at least 4.5 mag below M* in every case, and deeper still in several clusters. We measure M* , α, and their redshift evolution, assuming the cluster populations are coeval, and find little to no evolution of , and M* values consistent with passive evolution. We present a catalog of galaxy photometry, photometric and spectroscopic redshifts, and rest-frame photometry for the full fields of view of all 25 CLASH clusters. Not only will our new photometric catalogs enable new studies of the properties of CLASH clusters, but mode-filtering techniques, such as those presented here, should greatly enhance the data quality of future photometric surveys of crowded fields.
J. Scharwächter, , , ,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8ad8

Abstract:
We present optical integral field spectroscopy for five narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, probing their host galaxies at scales. Emission lines from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the large-scale host galaxy are analyzed separately, based on an AGN–host decomposition technique. The host galaxy gas kinematics indicates large-scale gas rotation in all five sources. At the probed scales of , the host galaxy gas is found to be predominantly ionized by star formation without any evidence of a strong AGN contribution. None of the five objects shows specific star formation rates (SFRs) exceeding the main sequence of low-redshift star-forming galaxies. The specific SFRs for MCG-05-01-013 and WPVS 007 are roughly consistent with the main sequence, while ESO 399-IG20, MS 22549-3712, and TON S180 show lower specific SFRs, intermediate to the main sequence and the red quiescent galaxies. The host galaxy metallicities, derived for the two sources with sufficient data quality (ESO 399-IG20 and MCG-05-01-013), indicate central oxygen abundances just below the low-redshift mass–metallicity relation. Based on this initial case study, we outline a comparison of AGN and host galaxy parameters as a starting point for future extended NLS1 studies with similar methods.
Derek Wilson, Asantha Cooray, Hooshang Nayyeri, , Charles M. Bradford, , , , , , et al.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8cc7

Abstract:
We present stacked average far-infrared spectra of a sample of 197 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at using about 90% of the Herschel Space Observatory SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) extragalactic data archive based on 3.5 years of science operations. These spectra explore an observed-frame 447–1568 GHz frequency range, allowing us to observe the main atomic and molecular lines emitted by gas in the interstellar medium. The sample is subdivided into redshift bins, and a subset of the bins are stacked by infrared luminosity as well. These stacked spectra are used to determine the average gas density and radiation field strength in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) of DSFGs. For the low-redshift sample, we present the average spectral line energy distributions of CO and H2O rotational transitions and consider PDR conditions based on observed [C i] 370 and 609 μm, and CO (7-6) lines. For the high-z () sample, PDR models suggest a molecular gas distribution in the presence of a radiation field that is at least a factor of 103 larger than the Milky Way and with a neutral gas density of roughly – cm−3. The corresponding PDR models for the low-z sample suggest a UV radiation field and gas density comparable to those at high-z. Given the challenges in obtaining adequate far-infrared observations, the stacked average spectra we present here will remain the measurements with the highest signal-to-noise ratio for at least a decade and a half until the launch of the next far-infrared facility.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8c73

Abstract:
A relativistic spacecraft of the type envisioned by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative will inevitably become charged through collisions with interstellar particles and UV photons. Interstellar magnetic fields would therefore deflect the trajectory of the spacecraft. We calculate the expected deflection for typical interstellar conditions. We also find that the charge distribution of the spacecraft is asymmetric, producing an electric dipole moment. The interaction between the moving electric dipole and the interstellar magnetic field is found to produce a large torque, which can result in fast oscillation of the spacecraft around the axis perpendicular to the direction of motion, with a period of ~0.5 hr. We then study the spacecraft rotation arising from impulsive torques by dust bombardment. Finally, we discuss the effect of the spacecraft rotation and suggest several methods to mitigate it.
, , P. Dufour
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8ad6

Abstract:
Collision-induced absorption (CIA) from molecular hydrogen is a dominant opacity source in the atmosphere of cool white dwarfs. It results in a significant flux depletion in the near-IR and IR parts of their spectra. Because of the extreme conditions of helium-rich atmospheres (where the density can be as high as a few g cm−3), this opacity source is expected to undergo strong pressure distortion and the currently used opacities have not been validated at such extreme conditions. To check the distortion of the CIA opacity, we applied state-of-the-art ab initio methods of computational quantum chemistry to simulate the CIA opacity at high densities. The results show that the CIA profiles are significantly distorted above densities of in a way that is not captured by the existing models. The roto-translational band is enhanced and shifted to higher frequencies as an effect of the decrease of the interatomic separation of the H2 molecule. The vibrational band is blueward shifted and split into QR and QP branches, separated by a pronounced interference dip. Its intensity is also substantially reduced. The distortions result in a shift of the maximum of the absorption from 2.3 μm to 3–7 μm, which could potentially explain the spectra of some very cool, helium-rich white dwarfs.
, Kristen Menou
The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b1c

Abstract:
It has recently been proposed that Earth-like planets in the outer regions of the habitable zone experience unstable climates, repeatedly cycling between glaciated and deglaciated climatic states. While this result has been confirmed and also extended to explain early Mars climate records, all existing work relies on highly idealized low-dimensional climate models. Here, we confirm that the phenomenology of climate cycles remains in 3D Earth climate models with considerably more degrees of freedom. To circumvent the computational barrier of integrating climate on Gyr timescales, we implement a hybrid 0D-3D integrator that uses a general circulation model (GCM) as a short relaxation step along a long evolutionary climate sequence. We find that GCM climate cycles are qualitatively consistent with reported low-dimensional results. This establishes on a firmer ground the notion that outer habitable zone planets may be preferentially found in transiently glaciated states.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8cc3

Abstract:
Cold hydrogen gas is the raw fuel for star formation in galaxies, and its partition into atomic and molecular phases is a key quantity for galaxy evolution. In this Letter, we combine Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Arecibo single-dish observations to estimate the molecular-to-atomic hydrogen mass ratio for massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.2 extracted from the HIGHz survey, i.e., some of the most massive gas-rich systems currently known. We show that the balance between atomic and molecular hydrogen in these galaxies is similar to that of local main-sequence disks, implying that atomic hydrogen has been dominating the cold gas mass budget of star-forming galaxies for at least the past three billion years. In addition, despite harboring gas reservoirs that are more typical of objects at the cosmic noon, HIGHz galaxies host regular rotating disks with low gas velocity dispersions suggesting that high total gas fractions do not necessarily drive high turbulence in the interstellar medium.
, , , R. Ruffini, , R. Moradi
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b6f

Abstract:
Regarding the strong magnetic field of neutron stars and the high-energy regime scenario that is based on the high-curvature region near the compact objects, one is motivated to study magnetic neutron stars in an energy-dependent spacetime. In this paper, we show that such a strong magnetic field and energy dependency of spacetime have considerable effects on the properties of neutron stars. We examine the variations of maximum mass and related radius, Schwarzschild radius, average density, gravitational redshift, Kretschmann scalar, and Buchdahl theorem due to the magnetic field and energy dependency of the metric. First, it will be shown that the maximum mass and radius of neutron stars are increasing functions of the magnetic field, while average density, redshift, strength of gravity, and Kretschmann scalar are decreasing functions of it. These results are due to a repulsive-like force behavior for the magnetic field. Next, the effects of gravity's rainbow will be studied, and it will be shown that by increasing the rainbow function, the neutron stars could enjoy an expansion in their structures. Then, we obtain a new relation for the upper mass limit of a static spherical neutron star with uniform density in gravity's rainbow (Buchdahl limit) in which such an upper limit is modified as . In addition, stability and energy conditions for the equation of state of neutron star matter are investigated, and a comparison with empirical results is done. It is notable that the numerical study in this paper is conducted by using the lowest-order constrained variational approach in the presence of a magnetic field employing AV18 potential.
, Adrian Liu, Aaron R. Parsons, ,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8bb4

Abstract:
Current and upcoming radio interferometric experiments are aiming to make a statistical characterization of the high-redshift 21 cm fluctuation signal spanning the hydrogen reionization and X-ray heating epochs of the universe. However, connecting 21 cm statistics to the underlying physical parameters is complicated by the theoretical challenge of modeling the relevant physics at computational speeds quick enough to enable exploration of the high-dimensional and weakly constrained parameter space. In this work, we use machine learning algorithms to build a fast emulator that can accurately mimic an expensive simulation of the 21 cm signal across a wide parameter space. We embed our emulator within a Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework in order to perform Bayesian parameter constraints over a large number of model parameters, including those that govern the Epoch of Reionization, the Epoch of X-ray Heating, and cosmology. As a worked example, we use our emulator to present an updated parameter constraint forecast for the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array experiment, showing that its characterization of a fiducial 21 cm power spectrum will considerably narrow the allowed parameter space of reionization and heating parameters, and could help strengthen Planck's constraints on . We provide both our generalized emulator code and its implementation specifically for 21 cm parameter constraints as publicly available software.
, , , , B. Wang, , Bo Li, ,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8d1a

Abstract:
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often exhibit the typical three-part structure in the corona when observed with white-light coronagraphs, i.e., the bright leading front, dark cavity, and bright core, corresponding to a high-low-high density sequence. As CMEs result from eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), which can possess either lower (e.g., coronal-cavity MFRs) or higher (e.g., hot-channel MFRs) density compared to their surroundings in the corona, the traditional opinion regards the three-part structure as the manifestations of coronal plasma pileup (high density), coronal-cavity MFR (low density), and filament (high density) contained in the trailing part of MFR, respectively. In this paper, we demonstrate that filament-unrelated CMEs can also exhibit the classical three-part structure. The observations were made from different perspectives through an event that occurred on 2011 October 4. The CME cavity corresponds to the low-density zone between the leading front and the high-density core, and it is obvious in the low corona and gradually becomes fuzzy when propagating outward. The bright core corresponds to a high-density structure that is suggested to be an erupting MFR. The MFR is recorded from both edge-on and face-on perspectives, exhibiting different morphologies that are due to projection effects. We stress that the zone (MFR) with lower (higher) density in comparison to the surroundings can appear as the dark cavity (bright core) when observed through white-light coronagraphs, which is not necessarily the coronal-cavity MFR (erupted filament).
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b6e

Abstract:
Recent versions of the observed cosmic star formation history (SFH) have resolved an inconsistency with the stellar mass density history. We show that the revised SFH also scales up the delay-time distribution (DTD) of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), as determined from the observed volumetric SN Ia rate history, aligning it with other field-galaxy SN Ia DTD measurements. The revised-SFH-based DTD has a form and a Hubble-time-integrated production efficiency of SNe Ia per of formed stellar mass. Using these revised histories and updated empirical iron yields of the various SN types, we re-derive the cosmic iron accumulation history. Core-collapse SNe and SNe Ia have contributed about equally to the total mass of iron in the universe today. We find the track of the average cosmic gas element in the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] abundance-ratio plane. The track is broadly similar to the observed main locus of Galactic stars in this plane, indicating a Milky Way (MW) SFH similar in form to the cosmic one. We easily find a simple MW SFH that makes the track closely match this stellar locus. Galaxy clusters appear to have a higher-normalization DTD. This cluster DTD, combined with a short-burst MW SFH peaked at z = 3, produces a track that matches remarkably well the observed "high-α" locus of MW stars, suggesting the halo/thick-disk population has had a galaxy-cluster-like formation mode. Thus, a simple two-component SFH, combined with empirical DTDs and SN iron yields, suffices to closely reproduce the MW's stellar abundance patterns.
Maurice H. P. M. Van Putten
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa88cc

Abstract:
Galaxy dynamics probe weak gravity at accelerations below the de Sitter scale of acceleration , where c is the velocity of light and H is the Hubble parameter. Low- and high-redshift galaxies hereby offer a novel probe of weak gravity in an evolving cosmology, satisfying / with matter content sans tension to H0 in surveys of the local universe. Galaxy rotation curves show anomalous galaxy dynamics in weak gravity across a transition radius in galaxies of mass , where aN is the Newtonian acceleration based on baryonic matter content. We identify this behavior with a holographic origin of inertia from entanglement entropy, which introduces a C0 onset across with asymptotic behavior described by a Milgrom parameter satisfying , where is a fundamental eigenfrequency of the cosmological horizon. Extending an earlier confrontation with data covering at redshift in Lellie et al., the modest anomalous behavior in the Genzel et al. sample at redshifts is found to be mostly due to clustering close to the C0 onset to weak gravity and an increase of up to 65% in a0.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8bb6

Abstract:
We present a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of 219 DA and DB white dwarfs for which trigonometric parallax measurements are available. Our aim is to compare the physical parameters derived from the spectroscopic and photometric techniques, and then to test the theoretical mass–radius relation for white dwarfs using these results. The agreement between spectroscopic and photometric parameters is found to be excellent, especially for effective temperatures, showing that our model atmospheres and fitting procedures provide an accurate, internally consistent analysis. The values of surface gravity and solid angle obtained, respectively, from spectroscopy and photometry, are combined with parallax measurements in various ways to study the validity of the mass–radius relation from an empirical point of view. After a thorough examination of our results, we find that 73% and 92% of the white dwarfs are consistent within 1σ and 2σ confidence levels, respectively, with the predictions of the mass–radius relation, thus providing strong support to the theory of stellar degeneracy. Our analysis also allows us to identify 15 stars that are better interpreted in terms of unresolved double degenerate binaries. Atmospheric parameters for both components in these binary systems are obtained using a novel approach. We further identify a few white dwarfs that are possibly composed of an iron core rather than a carbon/oxygen core, since they are consistent with Fe-core evolutionary models.
M. Gendron-Marsolais, , A. Bogdan, J. Hlavacek-Larrondo, , C. Jones, Y. Su, , ,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8a6f

Abstract:
We present results from deep (380 ks) Chandra observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst in the massive early-type galaxy NGC 4472. We detect cavities in the gas coincident with the radio lobes and estimate the eastern and western lobe enthalpy to be erg and erg and the average power required to inflate the lobes to be erg s−1 and erg s−1, respectively. We also detect enhanced X-ray rims around the radio lobes with sharp surface brightness discontinuities between the shells and the ambient gas. The temperature of the gas in the shells is less than that of the ambient medium, suggesting that they are not AGN-driven shocks but rather gas uplifted from the core by the buoyant rise of the radio bubbles. We estimate the energy required to lift the gas to be up to erg and erg for the eastern and western rims, respectively, constituting a significant fraction of the total outburst energy. A more conservative estimate suggests that the gas in the rim was uplifted at a smaller distance, requiring only 20%–25% of this energy. In either case, if a significant fraction of this uplift energy is thermalized via hydrodynamic instabilities or thermal conduction, our results suggest that it could be an important source of heating in cool core clusters and groups. We also find evidence for a central abundance drop in NGC 4472. The iron abundance profile shows that the region along the cavity system has a lower metallicity than the surrounding undisturbed gas, similar to the central region. This also shows that bubbles have lifted low-metallicity gas from the center.
Qianli Xia, , , , Xiaohu Yang, Yipeng Jing, Huiyuan Wang, HouJun Mo
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8d17

Abstract:
In this paper we use high-resolution cosmological simulations to study halo intrinsic alignment and its dependence on mass, formation time, and large-scale environment. In agreement with previous studies using N-body simulations, it is found that massive halos have stronger alignment. For the first time, we find that for a given halo mass older halos have stronger alignment and halos in cluster regions also have stronger alignment than those in filaments. To model these dependencies, we extend the linear alignment model with inclusion of halo bias and find that the halo alignment with its mass and formation time dependence can be explained by halo bias. However, the model cannot account for the environment dependence, as it is found that halo bias is lower in clusters and higher in filaments. Our results suggest that halo bias and environment are independent factors in determining halo alignment. We also study the halo alignment correlation function and find that halos are strongly clustered along their major axes and less clustered along the minor axes. The correlated halo alignment can extend to scales as large as 100 h−1 Mpc, where its feature is mainly driven by the baryon acoustic oscillation effect.
, , , , Rosalba Perna, Jared C. Workman
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8f3d

Abstract:
We present the results of numerical simulations of the prompt emission of short-duration gamma-ray bursts. We consider emission from the relativistic jet, the mildly relativistic cocoon, and the non-relativistic shocked ambient material. We find that the cocoon material is confined between off-axis angles and gives origin to X-ray transients with a duration of a few to ~10 s, delayed by a few seconds from the time of the merger. We also discuss the distance at which such transients can be detected, finding that it depends sensitively on the assumptions that are made about the radiation spectrum. Purely thermal cocoon transients are detectable only out to a few Mpc, while Comptonized transients can instead be detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) out to several tens of Mpc.
Lilly Bralts-Kelly, Alyssa M. Bulatek, Sarah Chinski, Robert N. Ford, Hannah E. Gilbonio, Greta Helmel, Riley McGlasson, Andrew Mizener, , Serafim Kaisin, et al.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8ea0

Abstract:
We present the first H i spectral-line images of the nearby, star-forming dwarf galaxies UGC 11411 and UGC 8245, acquired as part of the "Observing for University Classes" program with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). These low-resolution images localize the H i gas and reveal the bulk kinematics of each system. Comparing with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) broadband and ground-based Hα imaging, we find that the ongoing star formation in each galaxy is associated with the highest H i mass surface density regions. UGC 8245 has a much lower current star formation rate than UGC 11411, which harbors very high surface brightness Hα emission in the inner disk and diffuse, lower surface brightness nebular gas that extends well beyond the stellar disk as traced by HST. We measure the dynamical masses of each galaxy and find that the halo of UGC 11411 is more than an order of magnitude more massive than the halo of UGC 8245, even though the H i and stellar masses of the sources are similar. We show that UGC 8245 shares similar physical properties with other well-studied low-mass galaxies, while UGC 11411 is more highly dark matter dominated. Both systems have negative peculiar velocities that are associated with a coherent flow of nearby galaxies at high supergalactic latitude.
, Jun Zhang, , , Xiaohong Li
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8edd

Abstract:
Recent high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal bright wall-shaped structures in active regions (ARs), especially above sunspot light bridges. Their most prominent feature is the bright oscillating front in the 1400/1330 Å channel. These structures are named light walls and are often interpreted to be driven by p-mode waves. Above the light bridge of AR 12222 on 2014 December 06, we observed intermittent ejections superimposed on an oscillating light wall in the 1400 Å passband. At the base location of each ejection, the emission enhancement was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory 1600 Å channel. Thus, we suggest that in wall bases (light bridges), in addition to the leaked p-mode waves consistently driving the oscillating light wall, magnetic reconnection could happen intermittently at some locations and eject the heated plasma upward. Similarly, in the second event occurring in AR 12371 on 2015 June 16, a jet was simultaneously detected in addition to the light wall with a wave-shaped bright front above the light bridge. At the footpoint of this jet, lasting brightening was observed, implying magnetic reconnection at the base. We propose that in these events, two mechanisms, p-mode waves and magnetic reconnection, simultaneously play roles in the light bridge, and lead to the distinct kinetic features of the light walls and the ejection-like activities, respectively. To illustrate the two mechanisms and their resulting activities above light bridges, in this study we present a cartoon model.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b76

Abstract:
Aql X–1 is one of the most prolific low-mass X-ray binary transients (LMXBTs) showing outbursts almost annually. We present the results of our spectral analyses of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/proportional counter-array observations of the 2000 and 2011 outbursts. We investigate the spectral changes related to the changing disk-magnetosphere interaction modes of Aql X–1. The X-ray light curves of the outbursts of LMXBTs typically show phases of fast rise and exponential decay. The decay phase shows a "knee" where the flux goes from the slow-decay to the rapid-decay stage. We assume that the rapid decay corresponds to a weak propeller stage at which a fraction of the inflowing matter in the disk accretes onto the star. We introduce a novel method for inferring, from the light curve, the fraction of the inflowing matter in the disk that accretes onto the neutron star depending on the fastness parameter. We determine the fastness parameter range within which the transition from the accretion to the partial propeller stage is realized. This fastness parameter range is a measure of the scale height of the disk in units of the inner disk radius. We applied the method to a sample of outbursts of Aql X–1 with different maximum flux and duration times. We show that different outbursts with different maximum luminosity and duration follow a similar path in the parameter space of accreted/inflowing mass flux fraction versus fastness parameter.
Ryan P. Keenan, , Anne E. Jaskot,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b77

Abstract:
Identifying the mechanism by which high-energy Lyman continuum (LyC) photons escaped from early galaxies is one of the most pressing questions in cosmic evolution. Haro 11 is the best known local LyC-leaking galaxy, providing an important opportunity to test our understanding of LyC escape. The observed LyC emission in this galaxy presumably originates from one of the three bright, photoionizing knots known as A, B, and C. It is known that Knot C has strong Lyα emission, and Knot B hosts an unusually bright ultraluminous X-ray source, which may be a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. To clarify the LyC source, we carry out ionization-parameter mapping (IPM) by obtaining narrow-band imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 and ACS cameras to construct spatially resolved ratio maps of [O iii]/[O ii] emission from the galaxy. IPM traces the ionization structure of the interstellar medium and allows us to identify optically thin regions. To optimize the continuum subtraction, we introduce a new method for determining the best continuum scale factor derived from the mode of the continuum-subtracted, image flux distribution. We find no conclusive evidence of LyC escape from Knots B or C, but instead we identify a high-ionization region extending over at least 1 kpc from Knot A. This knot shows evidence of an extremely young age (1 Myr), perhaps containing very massive stars (>100 M). It is weak in Lyα, so if it is confirmed as the LyC source, our results imply that LyC emission may be independent of Lyα emission.
, C. Iliadis
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8ad0

Abstract:
Abundance anomalies in globular clusters provide strong evidence for multiple stellar populations within each cluster. These populations are usually interpreted as distinct generations, with the currently observed second-generation stars having formed in part from the ejecta of massive, first-generation "polluter" stars, giving rise to the anomalous abundance patterns. The precise nature of the polluters and their enrichment mechanism are still unclear. Even so, the chemical abundances measured in second-generation stars within the globular cluster NGC 2419 provide insight into this puzzling process. Previous work used Monte Carlo nuclear reaction network calculations to constrain the temperature–density conditions that could reproduce the observed abundances, thereby placing robust limits on the origins of the polluter material. The effect of individual reaction rates on these conditions has not been studied, however. Thus, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity study on the nuclear physics input to determine which reactions have the greatest impact on these predictions. We find that the Si(p,γ)P, Ar(p,γ)K, Ar(p,γ)K, and K(p,γ)Ca reactions are all critical in determining the temperature–density conditions, and ultimately, the origins of the polluter material. We conclude with recommendations for future experiments.
Howard E. Bond, , A. Bédard
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8a63

Abstract:
The bright, nearby DA-type white dwarf (WD) 40 Eridani B is orbited by the M dwarf 40 Eri C, allowing determination of the WD's mass. Until recently, however, the mass depended on orbital elements determined four decades ago, and that mass was so low that it created several astrophysical puzzles. Using new astrometric measurements, the binary-star group at the U.S. Naval Observatory has revised the dynamical mass upward, to 0.573 ± 0.018 M. In this paper, we use model-atmosphere analysis to update other parameters of the WD, including effective temperature, surface gravity, radius, and luminosity. We then compare these results with WD interior models. Within the observational uncertainties, theoretical cooling tracks for CO-core WDs of its measured mass are consistent with the position of 40 Eri B in the H-R diagram; equivalently, the theoretical mass–radius relation (MRR) is consistent with the star's location in the mass–radius plane. This consistency is, however, achieved only if we assume a "thin" outer hydrogen layer, with qH = MH/MWD 10−10. We discuss other evidence that a significant fraction of DA WDs have such thin H layers, in spite of the expectation from canonical stellar-evolution theory of "thick" H layers with qH 10−4. The cooling age of 40 Eri B is ~122 Myr, and its total age is ~1.8 Gyr. We present the MRRs for 40 Eri B and three other nearby WDs in visual binaries with precise mass determinations, and show that the agreement of current theory with observations is excellent in all cases.
, , , Mina Pak, Jae-Joon Lee, Sang Chul Kim, Dong-Jin Kim, Sang-Mok Cha
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa88ab

Abstract:
We present BVI surface photometry of 31 dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in a deep image stack from the KMTNet Supernova Program of ~30 square degrees centered on the nearby NGC 2784 galaxy group. Our final images have a 3σ surface brightness detection limit of mag arcsec−2. The faintest central surface brightness that we measure is mag arcsec−2. If these candidates are at the distance of NGC 2784, then they have absolute magnitudes greater than mag and effective radii larger than 170 pc. Their radial number density decreases exponentially with distance from the center of NGC 2784 until it flattens beyond a radius of 0.5 Mpc. We interpret the baseline density level to represent the background contamination and estimate that 22 of the 31 new candidates are dwarf members of the group. The candidate's average color, , and Sérsic structural parameters are consistent with those parameters for the dwarf populations of other groups. We find that the central population of dwarfs is redder and brighter than the rest of the population. The measured faint-end slope of the luminosity function, , is steeper than that of the Local Group, but consistent with published results for other groups. Such comparisons are complicated by systematic differences among different studies, but will be simpler when the KMTNet survey, which will provide homogenous data for 15–20 groups, is completed.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8997

Abstract:
Recent observational work has indicated that mechanisms for accretion and outflow in Herbig Ae/Be star–disk systems may differ from magnetospheric accretion (MA) as it is thought to occur in T Tauri star–disk systems. In this work, we assess the temporal evolution of spectral lines probing accretion and mass loss in Herbig Ae/Be systems and test for consistency with the MA paradigm. For two Herbig Ae/Be stars, HD 98922 (B9e) and V1295 Aql (A2e), we have gathered multi-epoch (~years) and high-cadence (~minutes) high-resolution optical spectra to probe a wide range of kinematic processes. Employing a line equivalent width evolution correlation metric introduced here, we identify species co-evolving (indicative of common line origin) via novel visualization. We interferometrically constrain often problematically degenerate parameters, inclination and inner-disk radius, allowing us to focus on the structure of the wind, magnetosphere, and inner gaseous disk in radiative transfer models. Over all timescales sampled, the strongest variability occurs within the blueshifted absorption components of the Balmer series lines; the strength of variability increases with the cadence of the observations. Finally, high-resolution spectra allow us to probe substructure within the Balmer series' blueshifted absorption components: we observe static, low-velocity features and time-evolving features at higher velocities. Overall, we find the observed line morphologies and variability are inconsistent with a scaled-up T Tauri MA scenario. We suggest that as magnetic field structure and strength change dramatically with increasing stellar mass from T Tauri to Herbig Ae/Be stars, so too may accretion and outflow processes.
Yuri Nishimura, Yoshimasa Watanabe, , , , , Akiko Kawamura, Satoshi Yamamoto
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa89e5

Abstract:
To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16' × 16', which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, SO, C18O, and 13CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H2CS CH3CCH, and CH3CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH3OH and HC3N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of 13CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO+, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest 13CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s−1). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8465

Abstract:
Modern transient surveys have begun discovering and following supernovae (SNe) shortly after first light—providing systematic measurements of the rise of Type II SNe. We explore how analytic models of early shock-cooling emission from core-collapse SNe can constrain the progenitor's radius, explosion velocity, and local host extinction. We simulate synthetic photometry in several realistic observing scenarios; assuming the models describe the typical explosions well, we find that ultraviolet observations can constrain the progenitor's radius to a statistical uncertainty of ±10%–15%, with a systematic uncertainty of ±20%. With these observations the local host extinction (AV) can be constrained to a factor of two and the shock velocity to ±5% with a systematic uncertainty of ±10%. We also reanalyze the SN light curves presented by Garnavich et al. (2016) and find that KSN 2011a can be fit by a blue supergiant model with a progenitor radius of , while KSN 2011d can be fit with a red supergiant model with a progenitor radius of . Our results do not agree with those of Garnavich et al. Moreover, we re-evaluate their claims and find that there is no statistically significant evidence for a shock-breakout flare in the light curve of KSN 2011d.
Ying Wang, Ji-Lin Zhou, Liu Hui-Gen, Zeyang Meng
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8868

Abstract:
Exoplanets discovered over the past decades have provided a new sample of giant exoplanets: hot Jupiters. For lack of enough materials in the current locations of hot Jupiters, they are perceived to form outside the snowline. Then, they migrate to the locations observed through interactions with gas disks or high-eccentricity mechanisms. We examined the efficiencies of different high-eccentricity mechanisms for forming hot Jupiters in near-coplanar multi-planet systems. These mechanisms include planet–planet scattering, the Kozai–Lidov mechanism, coplanar high-eccentricity migration, and secular chaos, as well as other two new mechanisms that we present in this work, which can produce hot Jupiters with high inclinations even in retrograde. We find that the Kozai–Lidov mechanism plays the most important role in producing hot Jupiters among these mechanisms. Secular chaos is not the usual channel for the formation of hot Jupiters due to the lack of an angular momentum deficit within (periods of the inner orbit). According to comparisons between the observations and simulations, we speculate that there are at least two populations of hot Jupiters. One population migrates into the boundary of tidal effects due to interactions with the gas disk, such as ups And b, WASP-47 b, and HIP 14810 b. These systems usually have at least two planets with lower eccentricities, and remain dynamically stable in compact orbital configurations. Another population forms through high-eccentricity mechanisms after the excitation of eccentricity due to dynamical instability. These kinds of hot Jupiters usually have Jupiter-like companions in distant orbits with moderate or high eccentricities.
Eugene Vasiliev
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8cc8

Abstract:
We present an approach for simulating the collisional evolution of spherical isotropic stellar systems based on the one-dimensional Fokker–Planck equation. A novel aspect is that we use the phase volume as the argument of the distribution function instead of the traditionally used energy, which facilitates the solution. The publicly available code PhaseFlow implements a high-accuracy finite-element method for the Fokker–Planck equation, and can handle multiple-component systems, optionally with the central black hole and taking into account loss-cone effects and star formation. We discuss the energy balance in the general setting, and in application to the Bahcall–Wolf cusp around a central black hole, for which we derive a perturbative solution. We stress that the cusp is not a steady-state structure, but rather evolves in amplitude while retaining an approximately density profile. Finally, we apply the method to the nuclear star cluster of the milky Way, and illustrate a possible evolutionary scenario in which a two-component system of lighter main-sequence stars and stellar-mass black holes develops a Bahcall–Wolf cusp in the heavier component and a weaker cusp in the lighter, visible component, over the period of several Gyr. The present-day density profile is consistent with the recently detected mild cusp inside the central parsec, and is weakly sensitive to initial conditions.
W. D. Apel, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, K. Bekk, M. Bertaina, J. Blümer, H. Bozdog, I. M. Brancus, E. Cantoni, , F. Cossavella, et al.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8bb7

Abstract:
KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande were multi-detector installations to measure individual air showers of cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Based on data sets measured by KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande, 90% C.L. upper limits to the flux of gamma-rays in the primary cosmic ray flux are determined in an energy range of eV. The analysis is performed by selecting air showers with a low muon content as expected for gamma-ray-induced showers compared to air showers induced by energetic nuclei. The best upper limit of the fraction of gamma-rays to the total cosmic ray flux is obtained at eV with . Translated to an absolute gamma-ray flux this sets constraints on some fundamental astrophysical models, such as the distance of sources for at least one of the IceCube neutrino excess models.
, Joseph F. Hennawi, L. Felipe Barrientos,
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8b69

Abstract:
In the standard picture of structure formation, the first massive galaxies are expected to form at the highest peaks of the density field, which constitute the cores of massive proto-clusters. Luminous quasars (QSOs) at z ~ 4 are the most strongly clustered population known, and should thus reside in massive dark matter halos surrounded by large overdensities of galaxies, implying a strong QSO–galaxy cross-correlation function. We observed six z ~ 4 QSO fields with VLT/FORS, exploiting a novel set of narrow-band filters custom designed to select Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in a thin redshift slice of , mitigating the projection effects that have limited the sensitivity of previous searches for galaxies around QSOs. We find that LBGs are strongly clustered around QSOs, and present the first measurement of the QSO–LBG cross-correlation function at z ~ 4, on scales of (comoving). Assuming a power-law form for the cross-correlation function , we measure for a fixed slope of . This result is in agreement with the expected cross-correlation length deduced from measurements of the QSO and LBG auto-correlation function, and assuming a deterministic bias model. We also measure a strong auto-correlation of LBGs in our QSO fields, finding for a fixed slope of , which is ~4 times larger than the LBG auto-correlation length in blank fields, providing further evidence that QSOs reside in overdensities of LBGs. Our results qualitatively support a picture where luminous QSOs inhabit exceptionally massive () dark matter halos at z ~ 4.
, , , , O. Yaron, , , , C. Fremling, , et al.
The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8993

Abstract:
We present observations of two new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSN-I), iPTF15esb and iPTF16bad, showing late-time Hα emission with line luminosities of erg s−1 and velocity widths of (4000–6000) km s−1. Including the previously published iPTF13ehe, this makes up a total of three such events to date. iPTF13ehe is one of the most luminous and the slowest evolving SLSNe-I, whereas the other two are less luminous and fast decliners. We interpret this as a result of the ejecta running into a neutral H-shell located at a radius of ~1016 cm. This implies that violent mass loss must have occurred several decades before the supernova explosion. Such a short time interval suggests that eruptive mass loss could be common shortly before core collapse, and more importantly helium is unlikely to be completely stripped off the progenitor and could be present in the ejecta. It is a mystery why helium features are not detected, even though nonthermal energy sources, capable of ionizing He, may exist as suggested by the O ii absorption series in the early-time spectra. Our late-time spectra (+240 days) appear to have intrinsically lower [O i] 6300 Å luminosities than that of SN2015bn and SN2007bi, which is possibly an indication of less oxygen (<10 M). The blueshifted Hα emission relative to the hosts for all three events may be in tension with the binary model proposed for iPTF13ehe. Finally, iPTF15esb has a peculiar light curve (LC) with three peaks separated from one another by ~22 days. The LC undulation is stronger in bluer bands. One possible explanation is ejecta-circumstellar medium interaction.
J. Rodi, E. Jourdain, J. P. Roques
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa89ea

Abstract:
The outburst of V404 Cyg during the summer of 2015 reached unparalleled intensities at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies with fluxes Crab in the 20–50 keV energy band. To date, studies in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray energy domain have focused primarily on the energy spectra. In this work, a timing analysis has been performed with INTEGRAL/SPI data in the 20–300 keV energy range for INTEGRAL revolution 1557, which corresponds to the brightest flare of V404 Cyg (on 2015 June 26). The power spectra are fit with broken power-law and multi-Lorentzian models and compared with previously reported results of V404 Cyg flaring activity from 1989 and 2015. Also, we took advantage of the good signal-to-noise ratio obtained above 70 keV to quantify the timing/fast-variability properties of the source as a function of energy. We then point out similarities of V404 Cyg with the black hole transient V4641 Sgr. Like V4641 Sgr, we found that the power spectra of V404 Cyg during high flux periods did not possess the expected flat-top feature typically seen in a hard spectral state. Interpretations are proposed in the framework of the fluctuating-propagation model to explain the observed properties.
C. S. Black, D. Milisavljevic, R. Margutti, , , S. Parker
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8999

Abstract:
We present early-time Swift and Chandra X-ray data along with late-time optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2013by, a Type IIL supernova (SN) that occurred in the nearby spiral galaxy ESO 138−G10 (D ~ 14.8 Mpc). Optical and NIR photometry and spectroscopy follow the late-time evolution of the SN from days +89 to +457 post maximum brightness. The optical spectra and X-ray light curves are consistent with the picture of an SN having prolonged interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) that accelerates the transition from SN to supernova remnant (SNR). Specifically, we find SN 2013by's Hα profile exhibits significant broadening (~10,000 km s−1) on day +457, the likely consequence of high-velocity, H-rich material being excited by a reverse shock. A relatively flat X-ray light curve is observed that cannot be modeled using Inverse Compton scattering processes alone, but requires an additional energy source most likely originating from the SN-CSM interaction. In addition, we see the first overtone of CO emission near 2.3 μm on day +152, signaling the formation of molecules and dust in the SN ejecta and is the first time CO has been detected in a Type IIL SN. We compare SN 2013by with Type IIP SNe, whose spectra show the rarely observed SN-to-SNR transition in varying degrees and conclude that Type IIL SNe may enter the remnant phase at earlier epochs than their Type IIP counterparts.
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848; https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa89e6

Abstract:
We explain the fast-moving, ripple-like features in the edge-on debris disk orbiting the young M dwarf AU Mic. The bright features are clouds of submicron dust repelled by the host star's wind. The clouds are produced by avalanches: radial outflows of dust that gain exponentially more mass as they shatter background disk particles in collisional chain reactions. The avalanches are triggered from a region a few au across—the "avalanche zone"—located on AU Mic's primary "birth" ring at a true distance of ~35 au from the star but at a projected distance more than a factor of 10 smaller: the avalanche zone sits directly along the line of sight to the star, on the side of the ring nearest Earth, launching clouds that disk rotation sends wholly to the southeast, as observed. The avalanche zone marks where the primary ring intersects a secondary ring of debris left by the catastrophic disruption of a progenitor up to Varuna in size, less than tens of thousands of years ago. Only where the rings intersect are particle collisions sufficiently violent to spawn the submicron dust needed to seed the avalanches. We show that this picture works quantitatively, reproducing the masses, sizes, and velocities of the observed escaping clouds. The Lorentz force exerted by the wind's magnetic field, whose polarity reverses periodically according to the stellar magnetic cycle, promises to explain the observed vertical undulations. The timescale between avalanches, about 10 yr, might be set by time variability of the wind mass loss rate or, more speculatively, by some self-regulating limit cycle.
Page of 790
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top