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, Glenda D. Hevia, Brian G Walker, Patricia M González, Marcelo Bertellotti
Canadian Journal of Zoology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0095

Abstract:
Migratory shorebirds are of the most threatened avian species due to effects of human activities and climate change. Physiological parameters are useful to evaluate the health status of free-living animals. Here we investigated lymphocytes, heterophils, heterophils/lymphocytes, and glucose for female and male Two-banded plovers (TBPLs), Charadrius falklandicus (Latham, 1790) during nonbreeding (body moult) and breeding (incubation), in coastal areas of northern Patagonia Argentina. We also measured corticosterone for first time for the species during breeding. Nonbreeding TBPLs were more likely to have higher physiological measurements that were not dependent on body moult nor body condition, being similar between sexes. Differences found in glucose are likely related to recent feeding in nonbreeding birds compared with fasting during incubation. The gregarious nonbreeding behaviour in comparison with the isolated breeding pairs, would increase the risk of acquiring parasites and /or pathogens inducing a response of the immune system reflected in higher values of lymphocytes. Baseline corticosterone during breeding was similar between sexes and were lower compared with other values reported for breeding plovers. TBPLs undergo energetically demanding physiological changes during the nonbreeding stage, strengthening the idea that conservation of the environmental resources at these locations may be more important than previously thought.
Fanlin Ling, Shuying Wang, Qinxin Hu, Shuo Huang, Zhiyao Feng
Canadian Geotechnical Journal; https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2021-0196

Abstract:
During earth pressure balance (EPB) shield tunnelling in sandy ground, not only foam but also other conditioning agents need to be injected to reduce the permeability of muck and avoid water spewing out of the screw conveyor. Permeability tests were carried out to study the permeability characteristics of conditioned sand under high hydraulic gradients. A low bentonite slurry injection ratio (BIR) enhanced the workability of foam-conditioned sand. As the hydraulic gradient increased, the initial permeability coefficient of conditioned sand increased, and the initial stable period became shorter or disappeared. The BIR had a more significant effect on the permeability of conditioned sand than the foam injection ratio (FIR), and this effect gradually weakened as the hydraulic gradient increased. The initial permeability coefficient of the foam-bentonite slurry-conditioned sand decreased by approximately an order of magnitude compared with that of the foam-conditioned sand. With the addition of bentonite slurry, suitable sand conditioning can accept a higher water content (w) and lower FIR, resulting in suitable ranges of w and FIR that are more flexible. Finally, the mechanism of stabilizing foam under the action of bentonite slurry was discussed by considering the interaction between foam bubbles and fine particles.
Ting-Ru Yang, John A. Kershaw, Elizabeth McGarrigle, Mark J. Ducey, Dhirendra Shukla
Canadian Journal of Forest Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2021-0070

Abstract:
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is used to estimate tree, stand, and forest characteristics across large geographic areas. In the province of Nova Scotia, an enhanced forest inventory (EFI) was developed to provide high-resolution spatial forest inventory estimates across the landscape. For various forest attributes, independent LiDAR-based relationships were built leading to mathematical and biological inconsistency among forest attribute estimates. A systems approach, composed of allometric equations describing the relationships between volume per unit area, Lorey’s average height, basal area, quadratic mean diameter, and density, is developed to address these inconsistencies. Previous results showed that applying the systems approach provided reasonable and compatible estimates and eliminated inconsistency issues among forest attributes. This study evaluates application of the systems approach applied to eastern Nova Scotia using field data from a network of permanent sample plots and recent LiDAR acquisitions. The independent EFI estimates had inconsistencies of greater than 100% for basal area and implied stand-level form factor. These inconsistencies were eliminated using the systems approach. Results show that the systems approach can be scaled to larger landscape areas and that long-term field data can be leveraged to fit the allometric systems producing mathematically and biologically consistent estimates.
Charmaine D. Espinosa, Maryane S.F. Oliveira, Joseph R. Limbach, Natalia S. Fanelli, Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin,
Canadian Journal of Animal Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0029

Abstract:
Two experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and the concentration of metabolizable energy (ME) in non-heat-treated and heat-treated soybean expellers (L-0, L-12, and L-48). L-0 underwent short-term steam conditioning for 60 s, whereas L-12 and L-48 underwent short-term steam conditioning for 60 s and long-term steam conditioning for 12 or 48 min. All heat-treated soybean expellers were expander processed. In experiment 1, 10 ileal-cannulated barrows (54.22 ± 4.54 kg) were allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square design with eight replicate pigs per diet. Each source of soybean expellers was included in one diet, and a nitrogen-free diet was also used. Results indicated that the SID of AA in non-heat-treated soybean expellers was less (P < 0.01) than in heat-treated soybean expellers. In experiment 2, 40 barrows (17.52 ± 1.63 kg) housed in metabolism crates were allotted to a corn-based diet or four corn–soybean expellers diets. Feces and urine were collected with 5 d adaptation and 4 d collection periods. The ME in non-heat-treated soybean expellers was less (P < 0.01) compared with L-0, L-12, or L-48. In conclusion, the SID of AA and the ME in heat-treated soybean expellers were greater than in non-heat-treated soybean expellers.
, Federico Abate Daga, Marco Pappaccogli, Elisabetta Eula, Anna Astarita, Giulia Mingrone, Chiara Fasano, Corrado Magnino, Domenica Schiavone, Ivana Rabbone, et al.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism; https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2021-0092

Abstract:
Background. Obesity is a significant health problem, with increasing involvement of young population worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different types of physical exercise (resistance vs combined aerobic-resistance) on cardiovascular and anthropometric profile of a sample of sedentary adolescents with overweight and obesity. Methods. After undergoing clinical, cardiovascular and anthropometric-metabolic evaluation (T0), subjects with overweight and obesity were randomized to a 6-months resistance or combined aerobic-resistance training program. Clinical, cardiovascular and anthropometric-metabolic evaluations were repeated after 6 months of training (T1) and after 3 months of detraining (T2). Results. Thirty adolescents with overweight/obesity were enrolled; 20 subjects completed training program. A significant improvement in body composition was detected after 6 months, with a reduction of BMI (32.1 [30.5-34.4] vs 31.1 [29.6-33.4] kg/m2, p=0.02) and adipose tissue (45.5 [41.1-49.7] vs 41.6 [37.0-49.2] Kg, p<0.01). A reduction in Diastolic blood pressure (75.5 ± 8.9 vs 68.2 ± 6.4 mmHg, p=0.02) and Pulse Wave Velocity (5.7 [5.1-5.9] vs 5.2 [4.7-5.7] m/s, p=0.04) was also observed. Persistence of the effect on the most important parameters was observed also after detraining period. Conclusions. Regular physical exercise induces positive metabolic and cardiovascular effects, with persistence also after brief discontinuation. Novelty bullets. Physical exercise induces positive effect on cardiovascular risk profile. Positive effects persist also after brief discontinuation. Physical exercise reduces early signs of autonomic disfunction.
, Alice J. Kenney, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin, Vratika Chaudhary, James E. E Hines, C.J. Krebs
Canadian Journal of Zoology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0139

Abstract:
Estimates of demographic parameters based on capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods may be biased when some individuals in the population are temporarily unavailable for capture (temporary emigration). We estimated snowshoe hare abundance, apparent survival, and probability of temporary emigration in a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben 1777) in the Yukon using Pollock’s robust design CMR model, and population density using spatially-explicit CMR models. Survival rates strongly varied among cyclic phases, seasons, and across five population cycles. We found strong evidence that temporary emigration was Markovian (i.e., non-random), suggesting that it varied among individuals that were temporary emigrant in the previous sampling period and those that were present in the sampled area. The probability of temporary emigration for individuals that were in the study area during the previous sampling occasion (γ´´) varied among cycles. Probability that individuals that were temporarily absent from the sampled area would remain temporary emigrants (γ´) showed strongly seasonal pattern, low in winter and high during summers. Snowshoe hare population density ranged from 0.017 (0.015–0.05) hares/ha to 4.43 (3.90–5.00) hares/ha and large-scale cyclical fluctuation. Autocorrelation functions and autoregressive analyses revealed that our study population exhibited statistically significant cyclic fluctuations, with a periodicity of 9-10 years.
, Ana Paula Cuzziol Boccioni, Paola Mariela Peltzer, Andres Maximiliano Attademo, Agustin Bassó, Evelina León, Rafael Carlos Lajmanovich
Canadian Journal of Zoology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0075

Abstract:
Tadpoles detect chemical signals released from predators and conspecifics, and those present in the environment, and adjust their behavioral responses. This study evaluated the swimming activity of Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril and Bibron, 1941) tadpoles exposed to chemical signals, including cues from a predator fish Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1975 and an injured conspecific; sublethal concentration of insecticide cypermethrin; and their combination. Swimming behavior (total distance moved, average speed, global activity, number of contacts between tadpoles) was evaluated in an individual (1) and groups of different size (3, 5, 7 and 10 tadpoles) using a video-tracking software tool. Predator exposure modified behavioral parameters, reducing encounters with predators and, therefore, mortality. Total distance moved and average speed increased in trials involving 1 tadpole and 3 interacting tadpoles exposed to injured conspecifics, whereas global activity increased in all group sizes, showing that gregarious tadpoles may be affected by alarm cues and their behavior may be disrupted. The insecticide treatments (alone and combined) increased parameters in all group sizes, causing hyperactivity due to its neurotoxic effect. The different responses observed after exposure to alarm cues and environmental signals in the different group sizes modified the normal behavior and the ecological dynamics of gregarious tadpoles.
, Pierre Blanchette, André Desrochers
Canadian Journal of Zoology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0115

Abstract:
Studying habitat occupancy at the margins of species’ distributions can be helpful in clarifying species’ requirements and planning management measures. Spruce grouse (Canachites canadensis Linnaeus, 1758), a bird species associated with northern short-needle coniferous forests in North America, has its southeastern range limit where coniferous forests are mixed with temperate deciduous forests and agricultural lands. Some isolated populations are found in these habitats. Using a single-season occupancy modelling approach, we investigated habitat use by spruce grouse, accounting for imperfect detection, in the lowlands of the St. Lawrence River in southern Québec, Canada. We conducted call-response spruce over three years at 279 sites (59 sites in 2007, 100 sites in 2008 and 120 sites in 2009). At the site level, the probability of occupancy was 21% (IC: 10.7% - 37.9%) and probability of detection was 54% (IC: 34.7% - 73.0%). Based on the covariates in the models, occurrence increased with higher cover of coniferous trees and low deciduous shrubs, and decreased with higher cover of deciduous trees. Finally, detection probability was highest at the beginning of the survey (50% in late April) and was influenced by year.
Stephen R Lantz, Robert A. Adair, , Roger A. Bergstedt, Michael A Boogaard, Ugo Bussy, Margaret F. Docker, Erin S. Dunlap, Alex Gonzalez, Terrance Hubert, et al.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2020-0316

Abstract:
Successful integrated management of the invasive predatory sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America is owed largely to the long history of beneficial use of two lampricides: 3 trifluoromethyl 4 nitrophenol (TFM) and 2’,5-dichloro-4’-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide). Ensuring continued successful sea lamprey control necessitates consideration of possible next-generation lampricides to supplement or replace current lampricides. This review identifies fifteen hallmarks of success for current lampricides to be used as design criteria in a search for next-generation lampricides. A three-stage research approach is outlined. Targeted research using omics, computer modelling, and high-throughput technology to define molecular mechanisms and high probability molecular targets for sea lamprey selective toxic action is crucial to prioritizing chemical candidates. Targeted delivery or identifying synergists to existing or new lampricides can provide increased efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Ultimate development of next-generation lampricides will rely on traditional toxicity testing methodologies to ensure safety and regulatory compliance.
Le Wang, Erin M Goldberg, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka,
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism; https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2021-0495

Abstract:
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has high morbidity and mortality rates. A metabolomics approach was employed to determine whether consumption of bean-rich diets for 8 weeks would impact the metabolomic profile of PAD individuals. Serum and urine, collected from 54 participants with clinical PAD at baseline and after 8 weeks on 0.3 cups beans/d (n=19), 0.6 cups beans/d (n= 20), or control (n=23) diet, and the beans were extracted and analyzed using LC-QTOF-MS. As a result, PGE2 p-acetamidophenyl ester, PGF2α diethyl amide and 5-L-glutamyl-L-alanine were significantly changed in the serum or urine of bean groups compared to control. Significant changes (P<0.05) in the profile and/or levels of 22 flavonoids present in bean extracts showed the potential importance of the mixture of beans used in this study. In a subset of participants taking metoprolol, after 8 weeks the bean-rich diets significantly elevated metoprolol in the serum while reducing it in urine compared to baseline. In addition, the diets significantly enhanced the urinary excretion of metformin. In conclusion, several biochemical pathways including prostaglandins and glutathione were affected by bean consumption. Significant changes in the metabolism of metoprolol and metformin with bean consumption suggested the presence of diet-drug interactions that may require adjustment of the prescribed dose. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01382056 Novelty: • Bean consumption by people with PAD alters the levels of certain metabolites in serum and urine • Different bean types (black, red kidney, pinto, navy) have unique flavonoid profiles • Metabolomics revealed potential diet-dug interactions as serum and/or urinary levels of metoprolol and metformin are modified by bean consumption
, Andrew T. Fields, William F. Patterson, Beverly K. Barnett, Christopher M. Hollenbeck, David S. Portnoy
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2021-0240

Abstract:
Cutting-edge DNA methylation-based epigenetic aging techniques were applied to Gulf of Mexico northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus; n = 10; 1–26 years old) and red grouper (Epinephelus morio; n = 10; 2–14 years old). Bisulfite-converted restriction site-associated DNA sequencing was used to identify CpG sites (cytosines followed by guanines) that exhibit age-correlated DNA methylation, and species-specific epigenetic clocks developed from 100s of CpG sites in each species showed strong agreements between predicted and otolith-derived ages (r2 > 0.99 for both species). Results suggest epigenetic age estimation could provide an accurate and efficient approach to mass-aging fishes in a non-invasive manner.
, Jaichandar S
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1139/tcsme-2021-0013

Abstract:
The waste cooking biodiesel's steady-state coefficient of friction rate of fuel blends are B90 (18.2%), B60 (7.2%), B20 (16.72%), B10 (30.8%), and diesel (38.77%) higher compared with B40 fuel blend and wear scar diameter of the fuel blends from B40 to B100 had a minimal range of 0.5mm. The flash temperature parameter results higher from B40 to B100 fuel blends, and the corrosion rate was minimal for B40 and B50 fuel blends. Afterward, the fuel blend B40 (40% WCO+60% Diesel fuel) was chosen as fuel, along with Cerium (25ppm), Zinc (25ppm), and Titanium nanoparticles (25ppm) were selected as fuel additives. The B40+D60+Titanium (25ppm) blend resulted in improved BTE and 3.83% lowered BSEC comparison with diesel fuel. Then the fuel blend, B40+D80+Titanium (25ppm), resulted in 2.08% reduced HC, 36.36% CO, and 16.25% smoke emissions, along with marginally 8.5% higher NOx emissions comparison with diesel fuel. Also, the fuel blend, B40+D80+Titanium (25ppm) combustions characteristics are the equivalent trend of cylinder pressure (58.82 bar) and HRR (66.65 J/deg CA) related to diesel fuel at peak load.
Christopher Oldfield, Teri L Moffatt, Vernon W Dolinsky,
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2021-0587

Abstract:
Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+) ATPase (SERCA) transports Ca2+ in muscle. Impaired SERCA activity contributes to diabetic myopathy. Sirtuin (SIRT) 3 regulates muscle metabolism and function. However, it is unknown if SIRT3 regulates muscle SERCA activity. We determined if SIRT3 overexpression enhances SERCA activity in mouse gastrocnemius muscle and if SIRT3 overexpression preserves gastrocnemius SERCA activity in a model of type 2 diabetes, induced by high fat-high sucrose (HFHS)-feeding. We also determined if the acetylation status of SERCA proteins in mouse gastrocnemius is altered by SIRT3 overexpression or HFHS-feeding. Wild-type (WT) mice and SIRT3 transgenic (SIRT3TG) mice, overexpressing SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, were fed a standard- or HFHS-diet for 4-months. SIRT3TG and WT mice developed obesity and glucose intolerance after 4-months of HFHS-feeding. SERCA Vmax was higher in gastrocnemius of SIRT3TG mice, compared to WT mice. HFHS-fed mice had lower SERCA1a protein levels and lower SERCA Vmax in their gastrocnemius than control-fed mice. The decrease in SERCA Vmax in gastrocnemius muscle due to HFHS-feeding was attenuated by SIRT3 overexpression in HFHS-fed SIRT3TG mice. SERCA1a and SERCA2a acetylation in mouse gastrocnemius was not altered by genotype or diet. These findings suggest SIRT3 overexpression improves SERCA function in diabetic mouse skeletal muscle.
Abida Sultana, Ahmed Alanazi, Jintana Meesungnoen,
Canadian Journal of Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjc-2021-0259

Abstract:
Monte Carlo multi-track chemistry simulations were carried out to study the effects of high dose rates on the transient yields of hydronium ions (H3O+) formed during low linear energy transfer (LET) radiolysis of both pure, deaerated and aerated liquid water at 25 °C, in the interval ~1 ps–10 μs. Our simulation model consisted of randomly irradiating water with N interactive tracks of 300-MeV incident protons (LET ~ 0.3 keV/μm), which simultaneously impact perpendicularly on the water within a circular surface. The effect of the dose rate was studied by varying N. Our calculations showed that the radiolytic formation of H3O+ causes the entire irradiated volume to temporarily become very acidic. The magnitude and duration of this abrupt “acid-spike” response depend on the value of N. It is most intense at times less than ~10–100 ns, equal to ~3.4 and 2.8 for N = 500 and 2000 (i.e., for dose rates of ~1.9 × 109 and 8.7 × 109 Gy/s, respectively). At longer times, the pH gradually increases for all N values and eventually returns to the neutral value of seven, which corresponds to the non-radiolytic, pre-irradiation concentration of H3O+. It is worth noting that these early acidic pH responses are very little dependent on the presence or absence of oxygen. Finally, given the importance of pH for many cellular functions, this study suggests that these acidic pH spikes may contribute to the normal tissue-sparing effect of FLASH radiotherapy.
Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros, Richard C. Fox, Craig S. Scott
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences pp 1155-1169; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2019-0234

Abstract:
A large collection of dentigerous jaws quarried from the Gao Mine locality, late Paleocene, Paskapoo Formation, central Alberta, Canada, documents a new species of the early Paleogene phenacodontid “condylarth” Ectocion Cope, 1882. The new species, Ectocion stockeyae, the smallest of the genus, occurs well before the abrupt global warming at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, an event purportedly causing the rapid evolution of “dwarfed” mammals, including a species of Ectocion; however, there is no evidence of increased temperatures at Gao Mine to account for the small size of Ectocion stockeyae, raising questions of the relationship between temperature and body size in Ectocion. Ectocion stockeyae also exhibits sexual dimorphism of the canines, a pattern in mammals often associated with a population structure in which the males are relatively few and polygynous, resulting in intense male rivalry for mating success. The sample of Ectocion stockeyae from Gao Mine includes a substantial majority of “juvenile” individuals retaining deciduous posterior premolars, many even after eruption of the molars had been completed, suggesting short life spans, accelerated growth, and rapid dental development in this species as expressed in Schultz’s Rule.
Amal Ghanim, Mahmoud Farag, Mahitab Anwar, Nada Ali, Mohammed Hawas, Hend Elsallab, Walaa Elhendawy, Lina Basyouni, Ola Refaey, Khaled Zaki, et al.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2021-0488

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which taurine exerts its reno-protective effects in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced kidney injury in rats. Rats received taurine (100 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) either from day 1 of TAA injection (250 mg/kg twice weekly for 6 weeks) or after 6 weeks of TAA administration. Taurine treatment, either concomitant or later as a therapy, restored kidney functions, reduced BUN, creatinine, MDA, and increased renal levels of SOD and reversed the increase of KIM-1 and NGAL caused by TAA. Taurine treatment also led to a significant rise in Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 levels, with significant suppression of ERK 1/2, NF-κB, and TNFα gene expressions, and IL-18 and TNFα protein levels compared to those in TAA kidney-injured rats. Taurine exhibited reno-protective potential in TAA-induced kidney injury through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Taurine anti-oxidant activity is accredited to its effect on Nrf-2 induction and subsequent activation of HO-1 and NQO-1. In addition, taurine exerts its anti-inflammatory effect via regulating NF-κB transcription and subsequent production of pro-inflammatory mediators via MAPK signaling regulation.
Patricia L. Albornoz, Roque Interdonato, Ariadna Hammann, Mariana Rosa, Fernando E. Prado, Viviana A Rapisarda,
Published: 25 October 2021
Abstract:
Plants mobilize the photosynthates by three transport pathways: apoplastic, symplastic through plasmodesmata (PD), and transcellular. In flavedo of postharvest mature lemons, a high activity of cell wall-bound invertase (WI), an enzyme associated with transcellular transport of monosaccharides, has been detected. In order to elucidate whether this high enzymatic activity is related to restricted transport in the symplastic pathway with fruit maturation, the aim of the present work was to compare anatomical and biochemical parameters in peel tissues of immature and mature lemons. Anatomical structure focusing on cell walls, callose deposition, WI activity, and sucrose content were analyzed in peel tissues of immature and mature lemons. The parenchyma of flavedo tissue of immature lemons presented an elevated number of primary pit fields (PPF). These PPF, associated to PD or cell wall interruptions, had the appearance of a string of beads. However, in mature lemons, the number of PPF was scarce due to callose deposition. WI activity and apoplastic sucrose content increased significantly in flavedo of mature lemons in comparison to immature lemons. Present findings lay structural and functional bases relevant to understand differences between immature and mature lemons, which would help to design agricultural practices in pre- and post-harvest management.
Huizhi Bao, Alain Y. Li, Vanessa Kairouz,
Canadian Journal of Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjc-2021-0197

Abstract:
Cu(I) catalysts were studied for the synthesis of a propargylamine via A3-coupling of aldehyde, amine, and alkyne, under solvent-free and low loading conditions, using batch microwave or flow thermal heating. We explore ultra-low loading conditions with Cu(I) salts as ultra fast and active catalysts featuring TOFs above 105 h-1. Well-defined octahedral and cubic Cu2O microcrystals were also successfully applied and compared to this reaction. Both types of microcrystals exhibited excellent catalytic activities within minutes, via in-situ generation of low dose of Cu(I) ions within the reaction medium, to achieve TON beyond 2000 and recycling up to 10 times in a flow reactor. The study of the catalytic system demonstrated that the activity was surface-structure dependent and allowed for the design of low Cu contamination A3-coupling systems, affording a product at the decigram scale, with Cu contamination below FDA recommendations for drug synthesis, without the need for a purification procedure.
, Marcio R. Pie
Canadian Journal of Zoology pp 1002-1008; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0074

Abstract:
Understanding the mechanisms that allow species coexistence across spatial scales is of great interest to ecologists. Many such proposed mechanisms involve trade-offs between species in different life-history traits, with distinct trade-offs being expected to be prevalent at varying temporal and spatial scales. The dominance–discovery trade-off posits that species differ in their ability to find and use resources quickly, in contrast to their ability to monopolize those resources, a mechanism analogous to the competition-colonization trade-off. We investigated the occurrence of this structuring mechanism in the genus Pheidole Westwood, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages in Atlantic Forest remnants. According to the dominance–discovery trade-off, consistent interspecific variation should be observed along the axis of discovery and dominance. We established 55 sampling units across two sites, with each unit consisting of a sardine bait monitored for 3 h. There was no distinction among Pheidole species in their ability to find or dominate food sources, suggesting that the dominance–discovery trade-off does not explain their coexistence. The low levels of aggression between Pheidole species could prevent the establishment of dominance hierarchies, whereas the species order of arrival at food sources could allow for resource partitioning through priority effects.
Canadian Journal of Zoology pp 995-1001; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0118

Abstract:
Sexual dimorphism has long been stressed as a remarkable characteristic of Eulimidae snails. This idea is so common for this family that, even without information on the soft parts, some species were already identified as male or female, as observed in Nanobalcis worsfoldi Warén, 1990. Here, we investigated whether larger and smaller individuals of N. worsfoldi are female and male, respectively, and what are the most useful characteristics to differentiate the sexes. We analyzed shell morphology and morphometry, along with coloration of the soft parts of large and small individuals, and crosschecked our findings through histological analysis. Our results confirmed that (i) larger and smaller individuals are females and males, respectively; (ii) shell morphology is not useful, while morphometry is important to address sexual dimorphism; (iii) since shell length and width showed the most remarkable differences, they are considered the best parameters to predict the sex. Furthermore, conchological characteristics associated with histological analysis suggest that this species could be the first non-sessile eulimid known as a sequential hermaphrodite (protandric) with environmental sex determination, but this remains to be confirmed. Considering that most studies on eulimids are based on shells, the morphometric parameters used here may support future ecological/biological analyses in the family, such as parasitological prevalence, or parasitic burden related to sex.
Silvia De Francia, Daniele Mancardi, Paola Berchialla, Tiziana Armando, Silvana Storto, , Giulia Soave, Silvia Racca, Francesco Chiara, Jennifer Carnovale, et al.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2021-0622

Abstract:
Pancreatic carcinoma incidence showed a significant increase in men over the last few years and the prognosis remains poor. Patients are treated with different pharmacological plans with no evidence about gender-specific adverse effects. We aimed to investigate differences in the incidence of chemotherapy side effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, in order to provide insights toward a personalized assistance based in individual needs. The sample population is composed of 207 patients. Regression model highlighted the predictive role of female gender for alopecia, constipation, hand-foot syndrome and epigastric pain. Also considering single therapeutic schemes, gender differences have been reported. Moreover, evaluating the effect of age, a general reduced risk of toxicity has been reported in younger patients. In order to personalize chemotherapy and increase patients survival rate and life quality during the therapy, gender medicine and pharmacology studies are recommended.
Laura L. Van Eerd, Yangxue Zhou, Amy L Turnbull, David Johnston-Monje, George Lazarovits, Steven A. Loewen
Canadian Journal of Plant Science; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjps-2021-0098

Abstract:
Tomato vine decline (TVD) disease complex results in fruit yield loss, but what soil management strategies might mitigate it? In commercial fields with a history of TVD, five approaches (soil organic amendments and transplant treatments) were evaluated for their impact on fruit yield, fruit quality and microbial abundance or diversity at four site-years. One site-year had very high TVD pressure and high variability with no yield differences, thus efforts focused on the remaining site-years. Marketable yield was not different among treatments but numerically followed a trend similar to total yield. Amending soil with poultry manure delayed maturity (i.e., increased proportion of green fruit) and had the greatest total yield increases of 17.2%, congruent with decreased abundance of root pathogens (Verticillium dahliae, Rhizopicnis vagum). Microbial DNA fingerprinting data of rhizospheres, roots and/or stems suggested treatments did not significantly shift the total diversity fungal nor bacterial populations, but the aforementioned pathogen loads were reduced with the application of organic amendments relative to the untreated control. While drenching tomato transplants with pseudomonad culture increased their presence in roots, pathogen load was not reduced relative to the untreated control. Overall, these results show that soil organic amendments were able to improve tomato total yield in two of four site-years without reducing fruit quality (i.e., soluble solids, pH, colour), perhaps, in part, due to their ability to suppress specific root pathogens in commercial fields.
, S.L. Fox, Kirby T. Nilsen, Denis Green, Thomas Fetch, Brent McCallum, Reem Aboukhaddour, Maria Antonia Henriquez
Canadian Journal of Plant Science; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjps-2021-0197

Abstract:
AAC Hodge (BW1069) is a hollow-stemmed, awned and high yielding Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat cultivar suited to the growing conditions in Western Canada. AAC Hodge was 6% higher yielding than AAC Viewfield, the highest yielding check in the Central Bread Wheat Cooperative (CBWC) registration trials (2017-2019). Within the same test, AAC Hodge was 16% higher yielding than Carberry. AAC Hodge matured 1 d earlier than Carberry and 2 d later than Unity; Unity is the earliest maturing check in the eastern prairie growing conditions. AAC Hodge was 7 cm shorter with better lodging resistance than Unity. The lodging score for AAC Hodge was lower than the mean of the checks. The test weight of AAC Hodge was similar to the mean of the checks. Over the 3 yr of testing (2017-2019), the 1000-kernel weight of AAC Hodge was equal to, or higher than all the checks. The grain protein content of AAC Hodge was equal to that of AAC Viewfield. AAC Hodge was rated moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (FHB; Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) and resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend), stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn), and common bunt [Tilletia caries (DC) Tul. & C. Tul.]. AAC Hodge ranged from resistant to moderately susceptible for its reaction to the Ug99 family of stem rusts. AAC Hodge was resistant to orange wheat blossom midge (OBWM) (Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin). AAC Hodge was registered under the CWRS class.
Shiro Tsuyuzaki, Taeoh Kwon, Fumiko Takeuchi, Michiru Otaki, Yuki Sawada
Canadian Journal of Forest Research; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2021-0134

Abstract:
We measured differences in %C, %N,  13C and  15N of plant functional types 17 (PFTs) between burned and unburned ground surfaces soon after a wildfire on a north-18 facing slope in interior Alaska. The C and N were measured for 16 species and 19 Sphagnum litter.  13C differed among the PFTs and was low for trees and shrubs, 20 suggesting that woody stems slowed C dynamics or showed low water use efficiency. 21  15N concentrations suggested that the herbaceous plants depended less on the 22 mycorrhizal associations that became weak on the burned surfaces. The shrub leaves 23 showed the lowest  15N of PFTs and showed higher  15N on the burned surface, showing 24 that N transfer from the soils to the leaves in the shrubs was slowed by the wildfire. 25 Mosses showed the highest C/N ratio. Sphagnum litter decomposed faster on the burned 26 surface, and %N and  15N in the litter increased from the second to third year on both 27 burned and unburned surfaces, while %C changed little. In conclusion, the responses to 28 the wildfire differed among the PFTs as characterized by their C and N dynamics. 29 30 Key words: Burned and unburned ground surface, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), Alaskan 31 taiga, plant functional type, stable isotope
Basem Ghayour, Jafar Khodagholizadeh, , Ming-Lei Tong, Ali Ghayour
Canadian Journal of Physics pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2021-0077

Abstract:
A new experiment for gravitational waves (GWs) detection is proposed. It is shown that the effect of GWs on sound waves (SWs) in a fluid is that GWs vary the pressure of the fluid as they pass through it. This variation can be found by analysing the gauge of the local observer. It is shown that one can, in principle, detect GWs through the proposed new experiment. The variation of the pressure of the fluid, which represents detected signals, is indeed much higher than the corresponding values of GW amplitudes. The examples of rotating neutron stars (NSs) and relic GWs are discussed. Remarkably, a comparison of the proposed new method with a previous paper of Singh et al. (New J. Phys. 19, 073023 (2017). doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/aa78cb ) on a similar approach shows a possible improvement of the sensitivity concerning the potential detection of GWs. It must be emphasized that this proposed procedure may be difficult in practical experiments because of the presence of different types of noise. For this reason, a section of the paper is dedicated to the discussion of such noise. On the other hand, this paper must be considered as pioneering the new proposed approach. Thus, we hope that in future more precise studies of the noise that concerns the proposed new experiment will be done.
Futaba Nishimura, Yujin Kim, Takeharu Bando, Yoshihiro Fujise, Gen Nakamura, Hiroto Murase, Hidehiro Kato
Canadian Journal of Zoology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2020-0237

Abstract:
The differences in rorqual feeding ecology have been linked to the presence of different morphological markers. The Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis Burmeister, 1867) and common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804) are closely related species, but their morphological differences have not been fully investigated. In this study, we compared 21 skull and 11 feeding apparatuses (baleen and mouth-related parts) measurement points between these two species using hundreds of individuals covering a wide range of body lengths in both sexes. Their engulfment capacities were estimated using these measurements. Our results show that Antarctic minke whales have (1) proportionally larger skulls to the body length, (2) more dorsoventrally and laterally curved rostra, (3) proportionally larger feeding apparatuses to the condylobasal length, and (4) significantly larger engulfment capacity than common minke whales. These differences could indicate that Antarctic minke whales have developed a feeding strategy suitable for feeding on krill, which forms large schools. In contrast, common minke whales have adapted to prey on small pelagic fishes that are agile and form small schools.
Stacey P A Forbes, Lawrence L. Spriet
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism; https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2021-0563

Abstract:
This study examined if acute dietary nitrate supplementation (140 ml beetroot juice, BRJ) would reduce oxygen consumption (V̇O2) during cycling at power outputs of 50 and 70% V̇O2max in 14 well-trained female Canadian University Ringette League athletes. BRJ had no effect on VO2 or heart rate but significantly reduced ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) at both intensities. Individually, 4 participants responded to BRJ supplementation with a ≥3% reduction in V̇O2 at the higher power output. • Acute BRJ supplementation did not improve exercise economy in well-trained females, but significantly reduced RPE. However, 4/14 subjects did respond with a ≥3% V̇O2 reduction.
, Marie-Andrée Arago, Laurent Beaulaton, Gaëlle Germis, Marie Nevoux, Etienne Rivot, Etienne Prévost
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2020-0368

Abstract:
Estimation of abundance with wide spatio-temporal coverage is essential to the assessment and management of wild populations. But, in many cases, data available to estimate abundance time series have diverse forms, variable quality over space and time and they stem from multiple data collection procedures. We developed a Hierarchical Bayesian Modelling (HBM) approach that take full advantage of the diverse assemblage of data at hand to estimate homogeneous time series of abundances irrespective of the data collection procedure. We apply our approach to the estimation of adult abundances of 18 Atlantic salmon populations of Brittany (France) from 1987 to 2017 using catch statistics, environmental covariates and fishing effort. Additional data of total or partial abundance collected in 4 closely monitored populations are also integrated into the analysis. The HBM framework allows the transfer of information from the closely monitored populations to the others. Our results reveal no clear trend in the abundance of adult returns in Brittany over the period studied.
, Arzu Keskin-Aktan, Esra Aslan
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2021-0337

Abstract:
Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapeutic drug that is widely used in the clinic and can cause multi-organ toxicity. Apelin-13 is an endogenous adipocytokine with antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possibility of apelin-13 being a potential therapeutic agent on cardiac toxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by cyclophosphamide. In this study, a total of 4 groups were formed, including 8 rats in each group. Group 1: The control group was administered only saline (ip). Group 2: Cyclophosphamide, a single dose of 200 mg/kg (ip) on day 7. Group 3: Apelin-13 (15 μg/kg), for 7 days (ip). Group 4: Administering apelin-13 (15 μg/kg) (ip) for 7 days and a single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) (ip) on day 7, the rats were sacrificed on day 8. LDH, cTn1, cK-Mb, AST, ALT, ALP, MDA, creatinine, and BUN were found to be high in the cyclophosphamide group, however, these values were reduced with apelin-13 administration. Antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, CAT, and GSH decreased in the cyclophosphamide group, apelin-13 increased these enzyme activities. In addition, histopathological examinations also supported the results obtained. The findings of this study showed that apelin-13 has a protective effect against cardiorenal toxicity caused by cyclophosphamide.
Flemming Ravn Merkel, Jannie Fries Linnebjerg, Ole Norden Andersen, Nicholas Per Huffeldt, Teunis Jansen, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Morten Frederiksen
Canadian Journal of Zoology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0120

Abstract:
Southwest Greenland constitutes an internationally important wintering area for seabirds, including thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia Linnaeus, 1758), but their prey may be affected by the general warming of this sub-Arctic region. We compare murre diet collected in winter in the 1990s and 2010s around Nuuk. Fish made up 36% of the diet (wet mass) and crustaceans 63% in the 1990s, changing to 22% and 78% in the 2010s, respectively. Capelin (Mallotus villosus Müller, 1776) was the dominant fish species, and the smaller contribution in the 2010s coincided with declining densities of capelin around Nuuk. The crustaceans were dominated by two krill species, Meganyctiphanes norvegica M. Sars, 1857, and Thysanoessa inermis Krøyer, 1846. However, M. norvegica was only important in the 2010s (51% wet mass), while T. inermis was dominating the 1990s with 62% wet mass and only 23% in 2010s. The dominance of M. norvegica in the 2010s confirmed our expectations of a gradual “borealization” of this region due to the generally warming sub-Arctic. The smaller contribution of fish in the diet may also support the hypothesis of deteriorating winter conditions for murres. Apart from the diet, plastic was found in 15% of the birds and 53% had parasitic nematods.
Erin Kathleen McClelland, Breanna M. Watson, Fredrik Sundström, Rosalind A. Leggatt, Dionne Sakhrani, Robert H. Devlin
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2021-0153

Abstract:
Experiments examining potential impacts of growth hormone (GH) transgenesis in fish typically use a single source strain, and do not address potential differential impacts in strains of different genetic backgrounds. Here, we examine the effects of differing genetic backgrounds when reared in culture on the growth of transgenic and non-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) produced by mating sires from different rivers with transgenic dams from a single origin. We found a significant difference in size between offspring of sires originating from various river systems in British Columbia. This difference was independent of differences between transgenotypes (i.e., transgenic vs. non-transgenic offspring). However, the effects of strain or sire were relatively small compared to the effects of the transgene, which were consistent regardless of sire origin. Thus, results derived from studies of GH transgenic fish from a single source population can provide useful information for assessments of GH transgenic salmon from other systems. This has important implications for examining potential risks from introgression of a transgene into different populations.
Mrinal Kanti Sen, Subhrajit Dutta, , Shamim Ahmed Laskar
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2020-0819

Abstract:
Housing constitutes a basic need for all living beings. Unfortunately, natural hazards, including floods, pose a severe threat to housing infrastructure systems. In turn, this paper develops a framework to quantify the resilience of housing infrastructure systems against flood hazards. The parameters for this resilience are based on the literature and knowledge from experts. This paper gauges the significance of each resilience parameter is evaluated using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the fuzzy AHP. The evaluated values are then compared to observe the effectiveness of fuzzy AHP over AHP. The evaluated importance of each parameter will help stakeholders focus on the most important parameters and, in turn, boost the flood resilience of infrastructure. This paper then implements the developed framework in a study area to quantify local flood resilience. This resilience value will help stakeholders in the considered area to understand the resilience of local housing infrastructure.
Kathia Lüneberg, , Eduardo Mucito-Varela, Leticia Martínez, Eva Salinas, Yolanda López-Vidal, Christina Siebe, Irma Rosas
Canadian Journal of Microbiology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2021-0284

Abstract:
While monitoring the presence of antibiotic resistance in municipal wastewater bacteria from Mexico City, five Escherichia coli isolates were detected to be resistant to carbapenems, antibiotics of “last resort” used mostly in hospitals. Further analysis revealed that these carbapenem-resistant isolates carried the gene for a metallo-beta-lactamase, NDM-5. The gene was found to be beared by a large, ~145 kb conjugative plasmid, which also carries putative genes encoding resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol (although no phenotypic chloramphenicol resistance was detected) and quaternary-ammonium compounds. The plasmid also carried gene mobility determinants, such as an integron integrase, and two transposases. In addition to the direct public health threat posed by the presence of such multi-resistant organisms in wastewater released into the environment and used for crop irrigation; it is particularly concerning that carbapenem-resistant E. coli is rather rare in Mexican hospitals (<1%), but was found in small, 100-mL samples of municipal wastewater. This could suggest that, either these organisms are under-reported by clinical microbiology laboratories, underlining the usefulness of wastewater monitoring; or that there is an unknown source of such carbapenem-resistant organisms that are being dumped into the wastewater. The source of these bacteria must be assessed and controlled to prevent the further spread of this multi-resistance plasmid among other environmental and clinical microorganisms.
, Andreas Stoecklin, Alexander M. Puzrin
Canadian Geotechnical Journal; https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2021-0252

Abstract:
Landslides are often triggered by earthquakes and can cause immense damage due to large mass movements. To model such large-deformation events, the material point method (MPM) has become increasingly popular in recent years. A limitation of existing MPM implementations is the lack of appropriate boundary conditions to perform seismic response analysis of slopes. In this article, an extension to the basic MPM framework is proposed for simulating the seismic triggering and subsequent collapse of slopes within a single analysis step. Original implementations of a compliant base boundary and free-field boundary conditions in the MPM framework are presented, enabling the application of input ground motions while accounting for the absorption of outgoing waves and the free-ground movement at the lateral boundaries. An example slope is analysed to illustrate the proposed procedure and to benchmark it against the results obtained using an independent simulation technique, based on a three-step FE analysis. The comparison generally shows a good agreement of the results obtained from the two independent procedures and highlights advantages of the presented “all-in-one” MPM approach, in particular for long duration strong motions.
Yu-Yan Zhao, Lin-Hui Chen, Liang Huang, Yong-Zhen Li, Chen Yang, Ying Zhu, Shun-Lin Qu,
Biochemistry and Cell Biology; https://doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2021-0365

Abstract:
Cardiovascular and related metabolic diseases are significant global health challenges. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a brain-gut peptide secreted by ileal endocrine that is now an established drug target in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). GLP-1 targeting agents have been shown not only to treat T2DM, but also to exert cardiovascular protective effects through regulating multiple signaling pathways. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, a common signal transduction pathway for transmitting extracellular signals to downstream effector molecules, is involved in regulating diverse cell physiological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, stress, inflammation, functional synchronization, transformation and apoptosis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the relationship between GLP-1 and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and discuss how GLP-1 exerts cardiovascular protective effects through MAPK signaling pathway. This review also discusses the future challenges in fully characterizing and evaluating the CVD protective effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) at the cellular and molecular level. A better understanding of MAPK signaling pathway that are disregulated in CVD may aid in the design and development of promising GLP-1RA.
Adam S. van der Lee, Mark R. Vinson, Marten A. Koops
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2021-0155

Abstract:
Population assessments of fish species often rely on data from surveys with different objectives such as measuring biodiversity or community dynamics. These surveys often contain spatial-temporal dependencies that can greatly influence conclusions drawn from analyses. Pygmy whitefish (PWF, Prosopium coulterii) populations in Lake Superior were recently assessed as Threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Species in Canada which motivated a thorough analysis of available data to improve our understanding of its population status. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts annual bottom trawl surveys in Lake Superior that commonly captures PWF. We used these data (1989-2018) to model temporal trends in PWF biomass-density and make lake-wide population projections. We used a Bayesian approach, Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA), and compared the impact of including different random structures on model fit. Inclusion of spatial structure improved model fit and conclusions differed from models omitting random effects. PWF populations have experienced periodic fluctuations in biomass-density since 1989, though 2018 may represent the lowest density in the 30-year time series. Lake-wide biomass was estimated to be 71.5t.
Terese Berggren, Ulf Bergström, Göran Sundblad,
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2020-0386

Abstract:
Large fish species often display truncated size distributions related to harvest. In addition, temperature, food availability and density-dependence affect body growth, and together with natural mortality influence population size structure. Here we study changes in body growth, size distributions and mortality in both harvested and non-harvested populations of northern pike over 50 years along the Baltic Sea coast and in Lake Mälaren, Sweden. For coastal pike, body growth has increased coincidentally with increasing water temperatures, yet in the last two decades there has been a decrease of larger individuals. In Lake Mälaren, in contrast, size distributions and body growth were stationary despite similar increases in water temperature. A dominance of slow-growing individuals in older age-classes was evident in all studied populations, also in the no-take zone, suggesting other factors than fishing contribute to the mortality pattern. We propose that increasing temperatures have favoured body growth in coastal areas, but this has been counteracted by increased mortality, causing pike sizes to decline. To regain larger coastal pike, managers need to consider multiple measures that reduce mortality.
Shahbaz Ahmad, Neda Tufail, Nazia Parveen,
Biochemistry and Cell Biology; https://doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2021-0229

Abstract:
Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental pollutant and toxicant which induces multiple organ damage in humans and animals. Hg toxicity is mediated by the induction of oxidative stress in target cells. We have used uric acid (UA), a potent antioxidant found in biological fluids, to protect human red blood cells (RBC) and lymphocytes against Hg-mediated cell, organelle and genotoxicity. RBC were incubated with HgCl2, an Hg(II) compound, either alone or in presence of UA. Incubation of RBC with only HgCl2 increased production of nitrogen and oxygen radical species, enhanced methemoglobin levels, heme degradation, free ferrous iron, oxidation of proteins and membrane lipids and reduced antioxidant capacity of cells. UA enhanced the antioxidant capacity of RBC and restored metabolic, plasma membrane-bound and antioxidant enzyme activities. Scanning electron microscopy showed that UA prevented HgCl2-mediated morphological changes in RBC. HgCl2 dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased lysosomal membrane damage in lymphocytes, but UA pre-treatment attenuated these effects. Genotoxicity analysis by comet assay showed that UA protected lymphocyte DNA from HgCl2-induced damage. Importantly, UA itself did not exhibit any deleterious effects in either RBC or lymphocytes. Thus, UA protects human blood cells from Hg(II)-mediated oxidative damage reducing the harmful effects of this extremely toxic metal. We suggest that UA performs a similar protective role in the plasma against heavy metal toxicity.
, Mathieu Buoro, Clément Lebot, Stephanie M Carlson
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2021-0017

Abstract:
Dispersal and shared environmental conditions can both synchronize the dynamics of local populations, but disentangling their relative influence on dynamics is challenging. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the synchrony of a metapopulation of Atlantic salmon composed of 18 populations in Brittany, France, including a 24-year time-series of the abundances of juveniles. We estimated the spatial synchrony at a regional and local spatial scale over the study period. We found a strong regional synchrony despite spatio-temporal variability of local synchrony in the abundance of juveniles. We then explored the drivers of synchrony, including environmental conditions (aspects of river flow) and abundance of adult breeders. This revealed that summer low-flow conditions seemed to synchronize the abundances of juveniles more than the synchrony in the abundance of adult breeders, suggesting a Moran effect. Given that drought conditions are expected to become more common with climate change, our work highlights the potentially strong synchronizing effect of summer low-flow on the dynamics of local salmon populations and the benefits of considering synchrony at multiple scales.
K. K.K. Nawarathna, , Randombage Saman Dharmakeerthi, Priyantha Weerasinghe
Canadian Journal of Soil Science; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjss-2021-0072

Abstract:
Nitrification inhibitors (NI) are aimed at improving N-fertilizer use efficiency in cropping systems. This study aimed to assess the nitrification inhibition potential and non-target effects of dry leaf powders (botanicals) of ten plant species [neem (Azadirachta indica), lantana (Lantana camara), karanda (Pongamia pinnata), Brachiaria humidicola, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), wild-sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), mee (‎Madhuca longifolia), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) and pepper (Piper nigram)]. The effect of botanicals on the growth of three ammonia oxidizing bacteria isolates (M4, M5 and M7) and NO3- formation in soil were tested in laboratory experiments. In a pot-experiment, botanicals were applied with urea to assess their effect on vegetative-growth of tomato and capsicum. The non-target effects of botanicals on soil bacteria and fungi, and seed germination were assessed separately. Dicyandiamide (DCD) was used as the positive control in all experiments. Only the growth of M7 was significantly suppressed by all botanicals except neem, Brachiaria and pepper. The highest shoot-biomass of tomato was obtained when urea was applied with pepper. Nitrate leaching from pots was significantly reduced (p<0.05) when urea was added with botanicals except for clove and wild-sunflower at basal-dressing. The abundance of culturable fungi and bacteria were not affected significantly by botanicals while seed germination was reduced significantly and consistently by clove only. From the ten botanicals tested leaf powders of nutmeg, lantana, cinnamon, mee, and pepper were identified as materials with better potential to suppress nitrification with minimum non-target effects.
, Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Canadian Journal of Soil Science; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjss-2021-0064

Abstract:
The application of organic amendments to agricultural soils enables the recycling of nutrients, further reducing the inputs of synthetic fertilizers for crop production. However, the production of N2O emissions is a concern that arises from such a practice. A 35-day incubation experiment was conducted with soils receiving three contrasting types of biosolids —mesophilic anaerobic digested (BM), composted (BC), and alkaline-stabilized (BA)— at four water-filled pore spaces (WFPS): 28, 40, 52, and 64%. A zero-N-addition control was also evaluated. Across all the three types of biosolids, N2O production increased with soil moisture content, with BM and BC producing the overall highest N2O fluxes. The most intense pulses of N2O production were exhibited by BC at the beginning of the incubation. The highest cumulative N2O production was found with 64% WFPS and from BC- (409 µg N2O–N kg−1 soil) or BM-amended soils (390 µg N2O–N kg−1 soil), which produced more than four and two times the emissions from the control and BA-amended soils at 64% WFPS, respectively. We also found the highest nitrification rates in the BM- and BC-amended soils. The total N2O production was exponentially associated with the NO3−–N concentration present at the end of the experiment (R2 = 0.83). Changes in the concentration of the soil available N indicated the occurrence of mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification over the incubation. These results provided insight into the interacting responses of N2O production to soil moisture contents, biosolids treatment stabilization and properties, and soil N availability.
, Mandeep Singh, Thanh Trung Nguyen, Serge Leroueil, Aruni Abeywickrama, Richard Kelly, Tim Neville
Canadian Geotechnical Journal pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2021-0511

Yuan Ma, Kuichen Liu, Chunyu Zhang, Feng Lin, Wenbo Hu, Yue Jiang, Xianliang Tao, Yulin Han, Litao Han,
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
The soybean can provide rich protein and fat and has great economic value worldwide. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal to organisms. It can accumulate in plants and be transmitted to the human body via food chain. Cd is a serious threat to soybean development, especially to root growth. Some soybean cultivars present tolerant symptoms under Cd stress; however, the potential mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we optimized RNA-seq to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Cd-sensitive (KUAI) and Cd-tolerant (KAIYU) soybean roots and compared the DEGs between KAIYU and KUAI. A total of 1,506 and 1,870 DEGs were identified in the roots of KUAI and KAIYU, respectively. Through Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and gene function analyses, we found that genes related to antioxidants and sequestration were responsible for Cd tolerance in KAIYU. In addition, overexpression of Glyma11g02661, which encodes a heavy metal transporting ATPase, significantly improved Cd tolerance in transgenic hairy roots. These results provide a preliminary understanding of the tolerance mechanisms in response to Cd stress in soybean root development and are of great importance in developing Cd-resistant soybean cultivars by using the identified DEGs through genetic modification.
Kevin Tanner, Gabriel Marineau-Plante, Adrien Schlachter, Paul-Ludovic Karsenti, Armand Soldera,
Canadian Journal of Chemistry pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjc-2021-0120

Abstract:
Five new gold complexes 4-ROC6H4C≡CAuN≡CC6H4-4-OR′ (R/R′ = CH3/C9H19 (C1N9 ), C15H31/C9H19 (C15N9 ), C6H13/C15H31 (C6N15 ), C9H19/C15H31 (C9N15 ), C12H25/C15H31 (C12N15 )) were synthesized and characterized (1H and 13C NMR, IR, Raman spectroscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry). Their organized smectic phases were investigated by TGA, DSC, powder XRD, and polarized light optical microscopy, and the solids are found to have crystalline and amorphous domains. No evidence for Au•••Au interactions was observed. The steady state and time-resolved absorption and emission properties at 298 and 77 K were examined, and surprisingly, the excited lifetime of the triplet excited state in the solid state is extremely short-lived (<100 ps) in comparison with the microsecond time scale recorded for the solution and at 77 K. The photosensitization of 1O2 was observed in solution but not in the solid state. The nature of the singlet (ligand-to-ligand charge transfer) and triplet (ethynyl/intraligand ππ*) excited states were assessed using DFT and TD-DFT computations. The thermal and UV-photochemical formation of gold nanoparticles were performed in solution (slow) and in the solid state (faster). The thermally generated nanoparticles are found to be larger (2–20 nm; TEM) and exhibit well-defined shapes, whereas the photochemically generated ones are smaller (1–10 nm) and show ill-defined shapes.
, Barry A Berejikian, Megan E Moore, Andrew Claiborne, Mark Downen, Joy Lee Waltermire, Katy Doctor, Rob Endicott
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2021-0028

Abstract:
Conservation hatcheries designed to aid in recovery of imperiled fish population often implement atypical rearing and release strategies. We evaluated a conservation hatchery program for steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that hydraulically removed naturally spawned eggs, and captively reared them in different freshwater hatcheries to the smolt stage, and reared smolts in both freshwater and seawater to sexual maturity, before releasing the sexually maturing adults onto the spawning grounds. The adult steelhead added to the spawning population, accounting for most of the adults observed during snorkel observations. They produced 32% of the juvenile offspring sampled, and females were 2.9 times more successful than males. Reproductive success was positively correlated with female body size, which was influenced by pre-smolt and post-smolt rearing conditions and their effects on growth rate and age-at-maturity. Juvenile offspring of the released adults showed size and age differences from offspring of naturally returning steelhead, but exhibited very similar early marine survival rates.
, Katja Engel, W. Jeffrey Binns, Josh Neufeld
Canadian Journal of Microbiology; https://doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2021-0225

Abstract:
Canada is currently implementing a site selection process to identify a location for a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term storage of Canada’s used nuclear fuel, wherein used nuclear fuel bundles will be sealed inside copper-coated carbon steel containers, encased in highly compacted bentonite clay buffer boxes and sealed deep underground in a stable geosphere. Because a DGR must remain functional for a million years, there is value to examining ancient natural systems that serve as analogues for planned DGR components. Specifically, studying the microbiology of natural analogue components of a DGR is important for developing an understanding of the types of microorganisms that may be able to grow and influence the long-term stability of a DGR. This study explored the abundance, viability, and composition of microorganisms in several ancient natural analogues using a combination of cultivation and cultivation-independent approaches. Samples were obtained from the Tsukinuno bentonite deposit (Japan) that formed ~10 mya, the Opalinus Clay formation (Switzerland) that formed ~174 mya, and Canadian shield crystalline rock from Northern Ontario that formed ~2.7 bya. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that three of the ten Tsukinuno bentonite samples analyzed were dominated by putative aerobic heterotrophs and fermenting bacteria from the Actinobacteria phylum, whereas five of the Tsukinuno bentonite samples were dominated by sequences associated with putative acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs capable of sulfur reduction.
, Lixin Yue, Xu Cai, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Shujiang Zhang, Shifan Zhang, Rifei Sun
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
This study evaluated genotyping by sequencing (GBS) protocol for fingerprinting Brassica rapa and the data derived were more reliable than the re-sequencing data of B. rapa. Of the 10 enzyme solutions used to analyze the numbers of genotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in B. rapa, five solutions showed better results, namely: A (HaeIII, 450–500 bp), E (RsaI+HaeIII, 500–550 bp), F (RsaI+HaeIII, 500–600 bp), G (RsaI+HaeIII, ‘All’ fragment), and J (RsaI+EcoRV-HF®, ‘All’ fragment). The five enzyme solutions showed less than 40% similarity in different individuals from various samples, and 90% similarity in between two individuals from one sample. The E enzyme solution was most suitable for fingerprinting B. rapa revealing well-distributed SNPs in the whole genome. Of the 82 highly inbred lines and 18 F1 lines of B. rapa sequenced by GBS in E enzyme solution, known parents of 10 F1 lines were verified and male parents were discovered for 8 F1 lines that had only known female parents. This study provided a valuable method for screening parents for F1 lines in B. rapa for applied breeding through efficient evaluation of GBS with varied library construction strategies.
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