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Deden Sukmadjaja, Sri Koerniati, Auliya Lukman
Jurnal AgroBiogen, Volume 17, pp 11-24; https://doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v17n1.2021.p11-24

Abstract:
Bulu Lawang (BL) is a sugarcane variety preferred by farmers in Indonesia due to its high yield, but this cultivar is susceptible to shoot and stem borer insect pests. Genetic engineering using cry1Ab and cry1Ac fusion gene is an effort to generate BL varieties resistant to the insect pests. This study aimed to 1) transform T-DNA containing cry1Ab-cry1Ac fusion gene into sugarcane genome by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens method, 2) obtain selection media composition of callus transformants, and 3) obtain transformation efficiency comparison of A. tumefaciens strains EHA105 and GV3101. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, and the greenhouse of the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Bogor from March to August 2019. Research activities consisted of four parts namely 1) callus induction and Agrobacterium culture preparation containing pCambia5300-cry1Ab-cry1Ac ///// pCambia-5300_OaRbcS-prom-cTP-cry1Ab-cry1Ac plasmid, 2) callus incubation in cocultivation and resting media, 3) selection and differentiation of shoots on regeneration media, and 4) molecular analysis using PCR method. Results showed that the composition of media, both for selection and regeneration processes of putative plant transformants, was the key to the success of this experiment. A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 resulted in higher transformation efficiency (11.1%) compared to that of strain GV3101 (9.0%). Molecular analysis showed that cryIAb-cryIAc fusion gene was successfully inserted into the sugarcane genome suggesting that the transgenic plant containing cry1Ab-cry1Ac fusion gene was obtained. The putative transgenic plants need further assay through bioassay tests to verify its resistance phenotype to the insect pests.
Tasliah Tasliah
Jurnal AgroBiogen, Volume 17, pp 45-62; https://doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v17n1.2021.p45-62

Abstract:
Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population. Rice production in 2050 must increase by at least 50% to keep up with the population growth. Efforts to increase rice production continue using various strategies. Breeders apply multiple approaches including application of molecular markers in developing varieties better than the previous ones. Since the discovery of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers in 1980s and the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, many types of molecular markers have been developed and applied to various crops including rice. Various molecular approaches to map genetic loci associated with rice superior traits were conducted. The mapped loci are very useful for rice breeding purposes. This paper reports the results of mapping and breeding economically important traits in rice, mainly those related to abiotic stresses, agronomic traits, yield, and yield quality. These included characters of semidwarf stature, aromatic grain, high yield potential, eating quality, higher Zn and Fe grain, more tolerant to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, phosphate deficiency, Al toxicity and Fe toxicity, submergence, as well as early maturity character. The mapped characters can be transferred using marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) method into cultivated rice genotypes well-adopted by farmers. Several countries including Indonesia have benefited from this breeding method, and Indonesia have released several rice varieties developed through MABC. These include rice varieties such as Code, Angke, Inpari 30, Inpari Blas, Inpari HDB, Bio Patenggang Agritan, and Bioni 63 Ciherang Agritan
Wandy Murti Prasetya, Toto Hadiarto, Wening Enggarini, Aqwin Polosoro, Suharsono Suharsono
Jurnal AgroBiogen, Volume 17, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v17n1.2020.p1-10

Abstract:
Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV) infection transmitted by silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci [Gennadius]) can decrease chili pepper yield up to 100%. At this moment, there is no chili pepper variety resistant to PepYLCV available. Genome editing approach through CRISPR/Cas9 is an effort to develop variety resistance to the viral infection. The purpose of this study was to obtain M2 lines developed by CRISPR/Cas9 system on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene for resistance to PepYLCV. A total of four M2 lines (C47-7, L84-2, L84-23, and L120-19) consisting of 60 chili plants were tested for their resistance to PepYLCV. PCR analysis was performed to detect the presence (infection) of the virus. The results showed that a total of 35 plants derived from the four lines were resistant to PepYLCV. They consisted of 7 plants from C47-7 line, 11 plants from L84-2 line, 9 plants from L84-23 line, and 8 plants from L120-19 line. PCR analysis confirmed that the resistant plants obtained from this study were negatively infected by the virus. Since not all tested plants were resistant to virus infection, the PCNA gene allele in these resistant lines were most likely heterozigotes. Sequencing of PCNA gene of the resistant lines is needed to confirm that the resistance phenotypes obtained was due to mutation of the gene. Therefore, further selection needs to be performed to obtain stable and PepYLCV-resistant lines.
Wartono Wartono
Jurnal AgroBiogen, Volume 17, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v17n1.2021.p35-44

Abstract:
Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a vegetable commodity with high economic value which is widely cultivated by farmers in Indonesia. One of the obstacles faced in chili cultivation is stem rot disease. This study aimed to identify the pathogens that caused stem rot in chili plants obtained from one location in Sindangjaya Village, Cipanas District, Cianjur Regency, West Java Province based on morphological and molecular analyses. Pathogen identification was performed with morphological and molecular approaches. The morphological characters observed included colony shape, sporangium diameter, and mating type. The pathogenicity of the isolates was assayed by inoculating chili stems aged 40 days. Molecular identification was carried out using two pairs of primers for ITS regions and TEF-1 gene. Based on the results of morphological and molecular identification, as well as pathogenicity tests, it was confirmed that Phytophthora capsici pathogen was the causal agent of stem rot in chili plants collected from Sindangjaya Village. Further study is needed to determine the spread of the disease, damage, and yield loss caused by stem rot disease, as well as how to prevent and control the disease.
Andari Risliawati, Yusi N. Andarini, Rerenstradika T. Terryana, Kristianto Nugroho, Puji Lestari
Jurnal AgroBiogen, Volume 17, pp 25-34; https://doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v17n1.2021.p25-34

Abstract:
Pigmented rice is functional staple food that becomes popular because of its anthocyanin content which is beneficial for health. Studies on the diversity of the local variety of Indonesian pigmented rice accessions have been carried out, but are still limited to one region of germplasm origin. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of local varieties of pigmented rice collections of the IAARD-ICABIOGRAD Gene Bank. A total of 93 pigmented rice accessions from 16 provinces in Indonesia were analyzed using 15 functional molecular markers of SSR, STS, and indel. The total alleles detected were 115 with an average per locus of genetic diversity value of 0.71. There were five markers with PIC values >0.75, i.e. RM167, RM223, R8M33, R10M10, and GBSS1. The accessions were divided into two main groups based on their pericarp color. It is necessary to analyze the physicochemical content of the local rice accessions to complement the existing diversity information and identify potential pigmented rice accessions with high palatability.
Elga Renjana, Muhamad Nikmatullah, Elok Rifqi Firdiana, Linda Wige Ningrum, Melisnawati H. Angio
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p1-10

Abstract:
Tumbuhan telah dikenal sebagai sumber obat alami yang dapat menyembuhkan berbagai macam penyakit karena mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder dengan aktivitas biomedik. Tumbuhan paku merupakan kelompok tumbuhan tertua di bumi yang memiliki lebih dari 12.000 jenis. Tumbuhan paku mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder yang berpotensi obat berdasarkanstudi etnobotani dan farmakologi. Sebanyak 20 suku dan 38 marga tumbuhan paku dikoleksi dan dikonservasi secara ex situ oleh Kebun Raya (KR) Purwodadi. Nephrolepis merupakan salah satu marga dari koleksi tumbuhan paku KR Purwodadi dengan jumlah spesimen paling banyak. Nephrolepis termasuk kelompok tumbuhan paku epifit atau setengah epifit yang daunnya tersusunmenyirip tunggal seperti pedang. Selama ini Nephrolepis hanya dikenal sebagai bahan sayuran dan tanaman hias oleh masyarakat. Namun belum ada informasi mengenai potensi obat dari koleksi Nephrolepis tersebut. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menginventarisasi dan mengarakterisasi potensi koleksi Nephrolepis di KR Purwodadi sebagai tanaman obat. Metode yangdigunakan pada penelitian ini adalah inventarisasi data dari Sistem Informasi Katalog Koleksi Tanaman (SIKATAN), pengamatan langsung di rumah kaca, dan studi etnomedisin dan fitokimia berdasarkan literatur. Berdasarkan hasil inventarisasi, telah diperoleh 36 spesimen yang termasuk dalam 6 jenis Nephrolepis. Spesimen tersebut memiliki potensi mengobati berbagai macam penyakit, baik yang telah dikenal dalam pengobatan tradisional maupun dari hasil penelitian. Koleksi Nephrolepis tersebut mengandung berbagai senyawa, seperti alkaloid, flavonoid, dan terpenoid yang memiliki aktivitas farmakologi, di antaranya antioksidan, antiinflamasi, antimikroba, antivirus, dan antikanker. Di samping itu, jenis N. cordifolia merupakan koleksi yang paling potensialsebagai obat karena bagian daun, rimpang, hingga umbinya memiliki aktivitas antiinflamasi, antimikroba, antikanker, antimalaria, dan antioksidan.
Muhamad Sabda, Rizki Dyah Astuti, Higa Afza
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 29-42; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p29-42

Abstract:
Sumber daya genetik (SDG) yang dapat teridentifikasi dengan baik berperan penting sebagai cadangan sumber genetik untuk perakitan varietas. Karakter morfologi ubi jalar dapat mendeskripsikan suatu aksesi dan tingkat kemiripannya terhadap aksesi lain, baik yang berasal dari suatu lokasi yang sama ataupun dari lokasi lain. Identifikasi kemiripan morfologi SDG dilakukan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi pengelolaan SDG. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai identifikasi tingkat kemiripan berdasarkankarakter morfologi plasma nutfah ubi jalar yang dikoleksi dan dikonservasi oleh Bank Gen Pertanian Balitbangtan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan melakukan karakterisasi dan analisis kemiripan menggunakan program NTSYSpc versi 2.02i dengan metode UPGMA fungsi SimQual terhadap 122 aksesi ubi jalar yang berasal dari enam wilayah daerah asal, yaitu Sumatra, Jawa Barat, JawaTimur, Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), Sulawesi, dan Papua. Hasil analisis menunjukkan terdapat kemiripan tertinggi (89%) aksesi ubi jalar asal NTT, di antaranya akesi Helung (IB00182) dengan Dimpong (IB00187), yang besar kemungkinan aksesi tersebut adalah duplikat yang berbeda nama. Tingkat kemiripan 83% ditemukan pada aksesi asal Papua, yang juga merupakan duplikat yaitu aksesi Sengkerengke (IB00335) dengan Koboak (IB00410); Wortel B (IB00459) dengan Helalekue (IB00448); dan Kulim (IB00442) dengan Boneng Karison (IB00444). Koleksi asal Jawa Barat, terindikasi duplikat dengan kemiripan 83% yaitu pada aksesi Unknown (IB01510), Unknown (IB01509), dan Unknown (IB01521). Tingkat kemiripan 78% terlihat pada aksesi ubi jalar asal Sulawesi, yaitu aksesi Ima-19 (IB01186) dengan Unknown (IB01388) dan Ubi Maraya-10 (IB01201) dengan Lambuya-3 (IB01272). Kemiripan 67% teridentifikasi pada aksesi asal Sumatra, yaitu Gowilada-4 (IB00679) dengan Unknown (IB00677). Sedangkan kemiripan 56% teridentifikasi pada koleksi Jawa Timur, yaitu aksesi Lokal Jatim (IB01409) dengan Lokal Jatim (IB01410). Hasil ini dapat mendukung sistem pengaturan yang lebih efektif, menghindari duplikasi koleksi ubi jalar di Bank Gen Pertanian Balitbangtan.
Baiq Farhatul Wahidah, , Sri Mulyani
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 57-70; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p57-70

Abstract:
The efforts of Bamboo conservation have been conducted by botanical gardens in Indonesia, including the Indrokilo Botanical Garden, Central Java. Scientific information regarding the bamboo collection of the Indrokilo Botanical Garden, however, is not yet available. This study aimed to determine the diversity of the species, as well as, to provide a synopsis and the similarity analysis of the bamboo species in the Indrokilo Botanical Garden. Exploration and collection of bamboo specimens have been carried out by the Indrokilo Botanical Garden. Processing and identification of the specimens were carried out at Herbarium Bogoriense. A total of 27 morphological characters were used for similarity analysis using the UPGMA method with Nei & Li similarity coefficients. The data were analyzed descriptively. There are seven species of bamboo in the Indrokilo Botanical Garden: Bambusa glaucophylla, B. lako, B. multiplex, B. vulgaris, Dendrocalamus sp., Guadua cf. angustifolia, and Schizostachyum sp. A synopsis of the bamboo species and their identification keys to the species were provided. Based on the similarity analysis, bamboo in the Indrokilo Botanical Garden consists of five groups at a similarity index of 70%. The diversity of bamboo species in the Indrokilo Botanical Garden is relatively low compared to some botanical gardens in Indonesia.
Endang Gati Lestari, Media Fitri Isma Nugraha, Rossa Yunita, Alfia Annur Aini Azizi
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p11-20

Abstract:
Tanaman Bacopa australis dan Alternanthera reineckii mempunyai nilai ekonomi cukup tinggi sebagai tanaman hias akuatik, sehingga berpotensi untuk dikembangkan. Pertumbuhan minimal merupakan teknik penyimpanan in vitro yang banyak digunakan dengan menggunakan senyawa penghambat tumbuh seperti paklobutrazol (PBZ), sisosel (CCC), ansimidol, serta komponen osmotik seperti sorbitol dan manitol. Teknik kultur in vitro mempunyai peran penting untuk penyimpanan biakan, karena biakan dapat disimpan sampai beberapa bulan tanpa harus dilakukan subkultur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh zat penghambat paklobutrazol dan interaksinya dengan zat pengatur tumbuh benzil adenin (BA) untuk menghambat pertumbuhan biakan serta visual biakan selama penyimpanan. Bahan yang digunakan adalah tunas in vitro B. australis dan A. reineckii umur 4 bulan, media yang diuji adalah media dasar Murashige dan Skoog (MS) + PBZ (0,1, 0,3, 0,5, dan 0,7 mg/l) + BA (0 dan 0,1 mg/l). Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan BB Biogen pada bulan Januari sampai Juli 2019. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PBZ 0,1−0,7 mg/l dapat menghambat pertumbuhan tinggi tunas, jumlah tunas, jumlah akar, panjang akar, dan jumlah daun dari biakan in vitro B. australis dan A. reineckii demikian pula interaksinya dengan sitokinin BA 0,1 mg/l, yang membuat visual biakan tetap tegar sampai 6 bulan setelah tanam. Formula media yang diperoleh diharapkan dapat diaplikasikan untuk penyimpanan plasma nutfah tanaman akuatik yang sejenis.
Yusi Nurmalita Andarini, Andari Risliawati
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p43-50

Abstract:
Padi merupakan komoditas pertanian utama di Indonesia yang dapat tumbuh di berbagai ekosistem seperti lahan sawah, lahan rawa, dan lahan kering. Pemanfaatan lahan marjinal seperti lahan kering di bawah tegakan berpotensi untuk meningkatkanroduksi padi nasional, tetapi memerlukan genotipe padi yang adaptif pada kondisi tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi beberapa akskesi plasma nutfah padi gogo terhadap cekaman naungan. Sebanyak 19 aksesi padi gogo dievaluasi dalam rancangan tersarang faktorial tiga ulangan dengan taraf cekaman naungan 25%, 50%, dan tanpa naungan (kontrol). Plasma nutfah padi gogo yang dievaluasi toleransinya pada cekaman naungan menunjukkan keragaman fenotipe pada beberapa karakter yang diamati. Analisis klaster menghasilkan tiga klaster berdasarkan peubah dua komponen utama yang mampu menerangkan keragaman sebesar 76,2%. Klaster satu yang merupakan klaster dengan performa karakter tinggi tanaman, panjang malai, jumlah biji per malai, dan jumlah anakan produktif terbaik, terdiri atas tujuh aksesi yaitu aksesi Ndabulu, Sahang, Taun Suar, Ketan Tomang B, Umbang Putih, Umbang Hitam, dan Limar. Ketujuh aksesi ini performa tanamannya tidak berbeda nyata baik pada cekaman naungan 25 maupun 50%
Rafika Yuniawati, Alina Akhdiya
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p21-28

Abstract:
Simbiosis bakteri endofit pada tanaman nilam telah diketahui berpotensi untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyeleksi dan mengarakterisasi kemampuan bakteri endofit nilam (Pogostemon cablin B.) dalam menstimulasi pertumbuhan tanaman nilam. Bakteri endofit diisolasi dari beberapa sumber tanaman nilam, yaitu koleksi klon B6 (koleksi BB Biogen), varietas Sidikalang dan Patchoulina. Isolat bakteri endofit yang diisolasi dan diseleksi berdasarkan beberapa pengujian selanjutnya dikarakterisasi secara fisiologi, biokimia, dan genetik. Karakterisasi fisiologi dan biokimia meliputi uji aktivitas penghambatan bakteri fitopatogen, uji potensi fiksasi N dan pelarut fosfat, serta uji penghasil IAA-like compound, sedangkan karakterisasi genetik dilakukan berdasarkan analisis sekuensing 16srRNA. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan empat belas isolat terdeteksi menghasilkan IAA like compounds. Empat dari 29 isolat tidak berpotensi patogenik, yaitu isolat B63.8,B63.10, NSD 20, dan P 35. Isolat-isolat ini mampu memfiksasi nitrogen dan melarutkan fosfat. NSD 20 merupakan isolat yang paling potensial untuk dikembangkan sebagai kandidat biostimulan. Berdasarkan hasil karakterisasi genetik, isolat NSD 20 ini menunjukkan kemiripan tertinggi dengan Bacillus sp. Y14 (93,95%). Uji lanjut in planta di rumah kaca dan lapang diperlukanuntuk mengetahui kemampuan stimulasi pertumbuhan tanaman nilam oleh Bacillus sp. NSD 20.
Arrohmatus Syafaqoh Li'Aini, I Putu Agus Hendra Wibawa, I Nyoman Lugrayasa
Buletin Plasma Nutfah, Volume 27, pp 51-56; https://doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v27n1.2021.p51-56

Abstract:
Mimba merupakan tumbuhan daerah tropis dan subtropis yang telah banyak digunakan sebagai bahan obat tradisional sejak jaman prasejarah. Ekstrak mimba terbukti memiliki spektrum aktivitas biologi yang luas, antara lain antimikroba, antiinflamasi, dan antioksidan. Antioksidan merupakan senyawa kimia yang berfungsi untuk menghambat pembentukan radikal bebas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan daun mimba yang diperoleh dari Desa Jagaraga, Kecamatan Sawan, Kabupaten Buleleng, Bali. Pada penelitian ini, aktivitas antioksidan daun mimba diuji melalui metode 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) dengan mengukur daya serap larutan menggunakan spektrofotometer pada panjang gelombang 516 nm. Konsentrasiekstrak daun mimba yang digunakan adalah 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, dan 700 ppm. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi ekstrak berbanding terbalik dengan nilai daya serap larutan. Rendahnya nilai daya serap larutan menunjukkan tingginya aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak daun mimba. Larutan DPPH yang ditambahkan dalam ekstrak daun mimba juga menyebabkanperubahan warna larutan. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak, semakin tinggi pula aktivitas antioksidannya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan rerata nilai IC50 ekstrak daun mimba sebesar 51,74, sehingga dikategorikan memiliki aktivitas antioksidan kuat. Hasil karakterisasi ini merupakan informasi awal mendukung program sumber daya genetik lokal,khususnya di daerah Kabupaten Buleleng, Bali.
Ekwasita Rini Pribadi, Agus Wahyudi
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 32, pp 10-22; https://doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v32n1.2021.10-22

Abstract:
Indonesia is one of the major pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producer countries in the world. The main pepper products are distinguished into black and white pepper. Each region has a tradition to produce each of the products and influencing cultivation practices and cost structure. This research was aimed to analyze the cost of productions of black and white pepper and their relative competitiveness to the pepper price at the farm level with conventional and improved cultivation practices. The survey methods were used to obtain the primary data from respondents selected with the snowball sampling method. Lampung and Bangka Belitung Islands were chosen to represent the black and white peppers of smallholders, respectively. The result showed that the farms with conventional cultivation practices did not have sustainable relative competitiveness, indicating higher production costs than the lowest prices received in the long term. On the other hand, relative competitiveness was relatively better in farms that implemented improved cultivation practices. Therefore, to achieve sustainable relative competitiveness, pepper farms should apply improved cultivation practices. The relative competitiveness of white pepper was better than black pepper because the productivity of white pepper was higher even though the production cost was also a little bit higher than black pepper.
Rahma Widyastuti, Nurul Husniyati Listyana, Erri Setyo Hartanto
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 32, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v32n1.2021.23-30

Abstract:
Gotu kola is one of the medicinal plants that has begun to be cultivated by the Indonesian people. It’s cultivation needs to follow the GAP to produce the qualified yield, including the use of fertilizers. Biofertilizers have been widely developed to reduce adverse effects of chemical fertilizers to the environment, thus an organic cultivation method can be an alternative. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biofertilizer on growth and yield of gotu kola. This research was an experimental study with a completely randomized design (CRD) using 8 planting media treatments consisting of (a) Soil + manure + dolomite; (b) Soil manure + 1 g biofertilizer; (c) Soil + dolomite + 1g biofertilizer; (d) Soil + manure + 3 biofertilizer; (e) Soil + dolomite + 3 biofertilizer; (f) Soil + manure + 5 g biofertilizer; (g) Soil + dolomite + 5 g biofertilizer; and (h) Soil + 3 g biofertilizer. Parameters observed were leaf area, stem length, number of leaves, number of tillers, fresh weight, dry weight and asiaticoside content. The results showed that combination treatment of biofertilizer (1 g) with dolomite (30 g) gives better effect in increasing the number of tillers and number of leaves, while the combination of biofertilizer (5 g) and dolomite (30 g) is the best for asiaticoside levels in gotu cola.
Fauzy Rachman, Eris Septiana, Rika Damayanti, Nfn Yadi, Yatri Hapsari, Siti Irma Rahmawati, Fauzia Nurul Izzati, Nfn Bustanussalam, Partomuan Simanjuntak
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Volume 32, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v32n1.2021.1-9

Abstract:
Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a plant widely found in tropical regions such as Indonesia. Currently, people only consume the avocado flesh and dispose of the seed. This study aimed to examine the antioxidant activity, isolate and identify the active antioxidant structure from avocado seed extracts. The trial was conducted from January to June 2021 at the Chemical Laboratory of Natural Substance, Research Center for Biotechnology, LIPI. The avocado fruit used in this research was obtained from Cibitung Central Market, Bekasi. The solvents used in the extraction were n-hexane, ethyl acetate, 96% ethanol, and water with multilevel extraction. Antioxidant activity was tested using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method. The structure of the active compound was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and GCMS. The 96% ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity with EtOH.4.3.1 isolate as the most active antioxidant isolate with IC50 23,07±1,63 μg.ml-1. The identification results of isolate EtOH.4.3.1 of avocado seed extract with UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, and GCMS indicated 2-Ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate acting as an antioxidant. Further analysis with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry of protons and carbon is required to determine the number and position of protons and carbon in the chemical structure.
Cici Tresniawati, Nur Ajijah, Deden Sukmajaya, Dewi Sukma
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p59-66

Abstract:
Germination process of somatic embryos is one of critical steps in somatic embryogenesis. The conversion of somatic embryos into plantlets is still low and adding kinetin, ABA, NAA, and GA3 to the germination medium of cacao somatic embryos may increase it. The study aimed to investigate the effect of GA3 on somatic embryo germination at the cotyledonary phase. The study was conducted in the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) Tissue Culture Laboratory from May to November 2017. The study used a factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with seven replications. The first factor was the cacao genotypes, namely SCA 6 and MCC 02, and the second factor was four concentrations of GA3, namely 0.0; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 mg/l. Characters observed were the percentage of shooting cotyledonary embryos, the percentage of rooting cotyledonary embryos, the percentage of shooting and rooting cotyledonary embryos, percentage of browning cotyledonary embryos, root length, shoot length, and hypocotyl length at one and two months old. The results showed no interaction between genotypes and GA3 concentrations on all observed characters. Adding GA3 at 1,0 mg/l concentration tends to increase the percentage of shooting cotyledonary embryos of SCA 6 and rooting cotyledonary embryos of MCC 02. SCA 6 clone has a higher percentage of shooting cotyledone, shooting and rooting cotyledone, and browning cotyledone compared to those of MCC 02.
Nur Kholis Firdaus, Dibyo Pranowo, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 99-108; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p99-108

Abstract:
The growth media composition and cuttings material is considered one of the determining factors for a successful Robusta coffee plant propagation by cuttings. Information on the growth media composition and the ideal cutting material for Robusta coffee needs to be improved. The research was conducted at the Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory, Balittri, Sukabumi, from October 2020 to January 2021. The study aimed to investigate the effect of growth media composition and number of internodes on the growth of cuttings in three clones of Robusta coffee. The study was designed in a split-split plot with 2 replications. The main plot factor was 3 clones of Robusta coffee (BP 939, SA 203, and BP 308), the split plot factor was 5 compositions of growth media: sand, sand+chicken manure (1:1), sand+soil (1:1), soil+chicken manure (1:1), and sand+soil+chicken manure (1:1:1), and the split-split plot factor was the number of internodes (1 and 2 internodes). Variables observed were the percentage of survived, sprouted, and rooted cuttings, number and length of primary roots, and number of shoots, internodes and leaves. The results showed that sand and sand+soil (1:1) were the best media for root formations. For the growth of number and length of primary roots, the sand+soil (1:1) media was a more suitable for BP 939 and SA 203, while sand media was suitable for BP 308. Other result showed that two-internodes cuttings proved to be better in shoot, internode, and leaf growth than single-internode cuttings.
Nurheni Sri Palupi, Dase Hunaefi, Nugraha Susanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 87-98; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p87-98

Abstract:
Green tea contains polyphenols which are known as sources of antioxidants and contribute to a bitter and astringent taste. Optimization of green tea extraction to obtain sensory profiles that are acceptable for consumers is important. The study aimed to produce an optimal green tea extraction process based on polyphenols content and antioxidant activity, a sensory profile of the basic solution of green tea based on consumer expectations and preferences, and the ideal profile of green tea. This research was conducted by PT. XYZ – Jakarta and Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology IPB University – Bogor, West Java from October 2020 to April 2021. This study used data experiments on RSM by CCD method and consumer perception testing using Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method. The selection of consumer panelists and FGD participants was conducted in conjunction with the consumer survey. Optimum condition of methode extraction of green tea based on RSM methode was temperature at 78,43 OC for 21 minutes. Total of polyphenols, antioxidant activity based on IC50, and preference score was 588,58 mg/kg – 750 mg/kg; 14,48μL – 27,03μL; and 4,0 – 5,2, respectively. Green tea extract profile based on consumers preferences had the following profile sensory: burned aroma, floral aroma, tobacco aroma, animalic aroma, umami test, green flavor, astringent aftertaste, straw-like aftertaste; emotional profile: peaceful, adventurous, calm and satisfied; and attribute profile: packaging design: cold color, illustrations image, images of people, combination, high quality and warm color.
Saefudin Saefudin, Muhammad Syakir, Sakiroh Sakiroh, Maman Herman
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 79-86; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p79-86

Abstract:
The problem that often arises in the procurement of seeds is in selecting seeds that have high physiological quality. The Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) planting material is generally in the form of bulbils of varying sizes with a dormancy period of 4-5 months. One of the efforts to break seed dormancy is by soaking. This study aimed to determine the effect of bulbil weight and soaking duration on the viability and growth of porang. The research was carried out at the Pakuwon Experimental Station, Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from September to December 2020. The design used was a split plot with 3 replications. The main plot was the bulbil weight which consisted of 3 categories: (1) large size (12.66-16.96 g/seed), (2) medium (10.41-11.53 g/seed), and (3) small (5.63-7.11 g/seed). The sub-plots were the soaking duration in water which consisted of 4 levels: 0 hours (without soaking), and soaking for 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours. The variables observed were the viability, petiole length, and fresh weight of plants at 2 months after sowing. The results showed that there’s no interaction effect between bulbil weight and soaking duration for all variables observed. Bulbs with large and medium weights produced higher viability and petiole length compared to small bulbils, while the highest plant fresh weight was produced by large bulbil weights. The correlation results showed that the higher the viability of the seed, the longer the petiole, and the higher the fresh weight of plant.
Taufik Hidayat, Prasetyo Prasetyo, Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 8, pp 67-78; https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v8n2.2021.p67-78

Abstract:
Kepahiang Robusta coffee has received a Geographical Indication (GI) certificate. Maintaining the quality of green coffee bean has been achieved through the application of proper harvesting technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fruit maturity level when harvested on yield losses due to coffee berry borer (CBB) and the quality of green coffee bean. The research was conducted from December 2019 to August 2020 in Bukit Sari Village, Kabawetan District, Kepahiang Regency, Bengkulu Province. The harvested beans were categorized into 3 groups based on their maturity level, namely: red (K1), reddish yellow (K2), and yellowish green (K3). The parameters observed were the CBB infecteds, yield, physical quality of green coffee bean and chemical content. The results showed that the highest attack rate of CBB found in the red berry about 34.33%, whereas the highest rendement was 20.52% found in yellowish-green berry. The highest percentage of yield loss due to CBB attacks occurred in red berry at 30.23%. However, the best physical quality and chemical content was also found in the red berry.
Dian Hapsari Ekaputri, Endah Retno Palupi, Purwono Purwono, Sri Suhesti
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 27, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v27n1.2021.1-11

Abstract:
Sugarcane is propagated by stem cuttings, each stem consisted of 13-18 nodes. However, only 8 nodes at the middle part of the sugarcane stem are taken for cuttings/bud setts. The objective of the research was to investigate the possibility used of apical and basal stems as planting materials and to investigate dormancy breaking and stimulating bud growth methods of apical and basal stems. The research was arranged in a completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was the position of bud setts in a stem (apical, middle, and basal). The second factor was dormancy breaking and growth-promoting solutions (IAA 100 ppm, IAA 200 ppm, GA3 50 ppm, GA3 100 ppm, KNO3 3%, ZA 0.36% for 30 min. and hot water treatment (HWT) 500C for 1 and 2 hours). All the treatments were replicated three times. The result showed that soaking apical bud setts in IAA 100 ppm or water could increase 3 shooted bud setts, whereas basal bud setts soaked in KNO3 3% or water could increase 1 shooted bud setts. Soaking bud setts from the middle part of the stem in water, ZA 0.36% or KNO3 3% resulted in 6 shooted bud setts. Bud setts from apical and basal stems could be used as planting materials, which increase the multiplication index to 1:11, higher than the current procedure (1:6). Soaking into the water for 30 minutes recommended for dormancy breaking and stimulating apical and basal bud setts.Keywords: Auxin, basal, bud setts, multiplication index, nitrogen AbstrakSTUDI PEMATAHAN DORMANSI DAN PERCEPATAN PERTUNASAN RUAS BATANG ATAS DAN BAWAH TEBU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN FAKTOR PENANGKARANTebu diperbanyak menggunakan setek batang, setiap batang terdiri dari 13-18 ruas, tetapi hanya 8 ruas yang digunakan untuk setek batang satu mata/bud setts. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan informasi potensi pemanfaatan batang atas dan batang bawah tebu sebagai sumber benih dan mendapatkan metode perlakuan benih untuk meningkatkan viabilitas benih yang berasal dari batang atas dan bawah tebu. Rancangan penelitian yaitu Rancangan Acak Lengkap 2 Faktor. Faktor pertama yaitu bagian batang (atas, tengah dan bawah). Faktor kedua adalah pematahan dormansi dan percepatan pertunasan dengan perendaman dalam larutan IAA 100 ppm, IAA 200 ppm, GA3 50 ppm, GA3 100 ppm, KNO3 3%, ZA 0,36% selama 30 menit, hot water treatment (HWT) 500C selama 1 dan 2 jam. Semua perlakuan diulang 3 kali. Perendaman bud setts batang atas dalam larutan IAA 100 ppm atau air menghasilkan tambahan 3 bud setts, sedangkan perendaman bud setts yang berasal dari batang bawah dalam larutan KNO3 3% atau air menghasilkan tambahan 1 bud setts. Perendaman bud setts yang berasal dari batang tengah dalam air, ZA 0,36% atau KNO3 3% menghasilkan 6 bud setts. Penggunaan batang atas dan bawah sebagai bahan tanam dapat meningkatkan faktor penangkaran menjadi 1:11 (jika berdasarkan Standar Operasional Prosedur 1:6). Perendaman dengan air selama 30 menit direkomendasikan untuk pematahan dormansi dan percepatan pertunasan bud setts asal batang atas dan bawah tebu.Kata kunci : Auksin, batang bawah, bud setts, faktor penangkaran, nitrogen.
Taufiq Hidayat Rahman Side, Retno Mastuti, Athifah Rosi Widiani
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 27, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v27n1.2021.34-43

Abstract:
The kenaf seeds have a hard seed surface structure, seed trichomes, and attached hilum cap tightly that can inhibit the kenaf seed germination process and become one of the causes of physical dormancy. Physical dormancy can be broken by scarification techniques. There are three scarification techniques, namely mechanical, physical, and chemical scarification. This study aimed to determine which scarification techniques were effective against the breaking of kenaf seed dormancy. The research was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of the Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute in January-May 2019. The research method used a randomized block design consisting of seven scarification treatments with four replications. The treatment consists of mechanical treatment, water soaking treatment at 70ºC for 3 hours, water soaking treatment at 80ºC for 3 hours, water soaking treatment at 90ºC for 3 hours, H2SO4 98% soaking for 5 minutes, H2SO4 98% soaking for 10 minutes and H2SO4 98% soaking for 15 minutes. The results showed that the scarification technique had a significant effect on increasing the viability of kenaf seeds. Scarification treatment with H2SO4 98% soaking for 5 minutes effectively broke the dormancy of kenaf seed. It could improve the germination of kenaf seeds up to 6%, reduce the number of seed trichomes, and effectively exfoliate the hilum cap. The study suggest that soaking the kenaf seeds in H2SO4 98% for 10 minutes could be adopted to break the seed dormancy to improve the germination.Keywords: dormancy, Hibiscus cannabinus, hilum cap, scarification, seed trichome ABSTRAKEFEKTIVITAS TEKNIK SKARIFIKASI UNTUK MEMATAHKAN DORMANSI BENIH KENAF (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)Benih kenaf memiliki struktur permukaan yang keras, trikoma, dan penutup hilum yang menempel kuat. Hal ini dapat menghambat proses perkecambahan benih kenaf dan menjadi salah satu penyebab dormansi fisik. Dormansi fisik dapat dipatahkan dengan teknik skarifikasi. Terdapat tiga teknik skarifikasi, yaitu skarifikasi mekanik, fisik, dan kimia. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui teknik skarifikasi yang efektif terhadap pematahan dormansi benih kenaf. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Benih Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat pada bulan Januari-Mei 2019. Metode penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok yang terdiri atas tujuh perlakuan skarifikasi benih kenaf dengan empat ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari perlakuan mekanik, perendaman air suhu 70ºC selama 3 jam, perendaman air suhu 80ºC selama 3 jam, perendaman air suhu 90ºC selama 3 jam, perendaman H2SO4 98% selama 5 menit, perendaman H2SO4 98% selama 10 menit dan perendaman H2SO4 98% selama 15 menit. Banyaknya benih tiap perlakuan adalah 400 biji. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teknik skarifikasi berpengaruh nyata terhadap pematahan dormansi benih kenaf. Perlakuan skarifikasi dengan perendaman H2SO4 98% selama 5 menit efektif mematahkan dormansi benih kenaf dan meningkatkan daya berkecambah benih kenaf hingga 6% dan mampu mereduksi jumlah trikoma benih dan efektif dalam pengelupasan hilum cap. Metode pematahan dormansi benih kenaf perlu dikembangkan untuk meningkatkan efektifitasnya.Kata kunci : dormansi, Hibiscus cannabinus, hilum cap, skarifikasi, trikoma benih
Nurwulan Agustiani, Sujinah Sujinah, Indrastuti Apri Rumanti
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.21082/ijas.v22n1.2021.p1-7

Abstract:
Stagnant flooding (SF) stress has contributed decreasing rice production in Indonesia. The study aimed to explore critical variables of rice growth that contribute to the decreasing grain yield under SF conditions and a common irrigation system (control). The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized block design with four replications to test 10 rice genotypes (Inpari 30 Ciherang Sub-1, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 8, IRRI119, IRRI154, IR42, IR14D121, IR14D157, and Tapus). The water depth was managed according to the farmer’s practices for control, while for SF plots the standing water depth was gradually increased from 35 days after transplanting and was maintained at 50 cm until harvest. Results showed that plant height, tillering ability, leaf greenness, panicle number per hill and grain filling percentage were critical growth variables that affect grain yield at optimal conditions. The yield of the 10 genotypes decreased by 25–50% under SF conditions. Inpara 3 had the stable yield in those two watering conditions. Therefore, it could be used as a check variety for SF condition. Inpara 9 and IRRI119 experienced decreased yield of more than 50% under SF conditions. The key factors determining the decreased yield were tillering ability and green leaf level. Optimization of the two variables at SF conditions will largely determine rice yield associated with panicle number per hill and grain number per panicle. Results of the study are useful as preliminary recommendations for designing new variety and cultivation techniques to reduce the impact of SF stress on rice yield.
Lina Herlina, Bonjok Istiaji, Dodin Koswanudin, Sutoro Sutoro
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 39-57; https://doi.org/10.21082/ijas.v22n1.2021.p39-57

Abstract:
Increasing productivity of soybean has often been constrained by pod sucking bugs (Riptortus spp.) which caused a serious damage and yield losses up to 80%. Breeding for obtaining soybean variety resistant to pod suckers needs the availability of soybean germplasm resistant to the pest. The study aimed to obtain a candidate for soybean variety resistant to Riptortus spp. through the selection of 100 accessions of soybean. The study included the preparation of test plants and test insects, pest infestations, observations, and looking for a practical screening method for pod sucking pests. The experiment used a completely randomized design for two treatments (infested and non-infested Riptortus spp.). Cikuray variety and PI-092734 accession were used as a control. Results showed that there was a very low correlation among variables observed. Twelve soybean accessions showed a resistance to Riptortus spp., i.e. C7301-113AC-POP, Lokal Madiun-3549, Lokal Klungkung, ML.2974, Singgalang, Lokal Jepara, Lokal Jatim, Lokal Trenggalek, Lokal Tulungagung, Lokal Tabanan, Lokal Blitar, and Lokal Kuningan 10. These accessions were more resistant than the popular released variety such as Wilis, Grobogan, Detam 2, and Gepak Ijo. Small seed size was not a major determinant of soybean resistance to pod suckers. The addition of observational components, i.e. probing preference and oviposition, indicated that crop damage was indirectly influenced by the high frequency of probing and oviposition, although its relation to plant tolerant mechanisms still needs further investigation. Indeterminate plant types require further validation as to whether they contribute significantly to plant resistance against pod sucking insects.
Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Maman Herman, Edi Wardiana, Dibyo Pranowo
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 27, pp 12-21; https://doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v27n1.2021.12-21

Abstract:
Genetic diversity analysis is the first step to determine the level of genetic diversity of kemiri sunan accessions. High genetic diversity in generative propagated germplasm collection is a basic foundation to develop new high-yielding varieties. The research aimed to detect the genetic diversity of kemiri sunan population in NTT based on RAPD markers. The study was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory, Balittri, Sukabumi from May to July 2019. A total of 32 kemiri sunan accessions were obtained from a private plantation owned by PT BHLI in Bajawa, Flores, NTT analyzed its genetic diversity using 40 RAPD markers. Markers that produced polymorphic bands were scored in binary data format and were then used for genetic diversity analysis using the NTSYS program. Results showed that 11 RAPD markers were polymorphic and generated a total of 41 bands consisting of 32 polymorphic bands (78.05%) and 9 monomorphic bands (21.95%). The genetic diversity analysis with a genetic similarity value of 0.737 showed that the 32 kemiri sunan accessions were divided into 2 clusters. Among those, two accessions (T2 and T4) can be selected as candidates for new high-yielding varieties, because they are located in different groups and showed high per plant fruit number. The result of the study also obtained the genetic distance value between kemiri sunan accessions varies from 0.00 to 0.46. The combination of two kemiri sunan accessions with a high genetic distance value should be useful as parents to obtain F1 progeny with a high heterosis effect.Keywords: Accesion, genetic diversity, parental selection, RAPD marker, Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy ShawAbstrakANALISIS KERAGAMAN GENETIK POPULASI KEMIRI SUNAN DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR BERDASARKAN MARKA RAPDAnalisis keragaman genetik merupakan langkah awal untuk mengetahui tingkat keragaman genetik dan hubungan kekerabatan dari setiap aksesi kemiri sunan. Keragaman genetik yang tinggi pada koleksi plasma nutfah yang diperbanyak secara generatif merupakan modal dasar dalam upaya untuk merakit varietas unggul baru. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendeteksi keragaman genetik populasi kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) di Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) berdasarkan marka RAPD. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Terpadu, Balittri, Sukabumi mulai bulan Mei sampai Juli 2019. Sebanyak 32 aksesi kemiri sunan yang diperoleh dari perkebunan swasta milik PT BHLI di Bajawa, Flores, NTT, dianalisis keragaman genetiknya menggunakan 40 marka RAPD. Marka yang menghasilkan pita polimorphic diskoring dalam format data biner dan digunakan untuk analisis keragaman genetik menggunakan program NTSYS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 11 marka RAPD bersifat polimorfik dengan jumlah pita sebanyak 41 yang terdiri dari 32 pita polimorfik (78,05%) dan 9 pita monomorfik (21,95%). Sementara, hasil analisis keragaman genetik membagi 32 aksesi kemiri sunan menjadi 2 kelompok pada nilai kesamaan genetik 0,737. Berdasarkan hasil analisis diperoleh dua aksesi kemiri sunan (T2 dan T4) yang dapat dipilih sebagai kandidat varietas unggul baru, karena terdapat pada kelompok yang berbeda dan mempunyai jumlah buah yang banyak. Dari hasil penelitian juga diperoleh nilai jarak genetik antar aksesi kemiri sunan yang bervariasi, yaitu 0,00-0,46. Kombinasi dari dua aksesi kemiri sunan dengan nilai jarak genetik yang tinggi dapat digunakan sebagai tetua persilangan untuk mendapatkan keturunan F1 yang lebih unggul.Kata kunci : Aksesi, keragaman genetik, marka RAPD, Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw, seleksi tetua
Herni Shintiavira, Endang Sulistyaningsih, Aziz Purwantoro, Rani Agustina Wulandari
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 27-38; https://doi.org/10.21082/ijas.v22n1.2021.p27-38

Abstract:
Higher temperature and light intensity at the medium upland elevation decrease the number of blooming flowers, flower diameter, and red color flower intensity of Chrysanthemum morifoliumcompared to that at the high upland elevation. The environmental modification was needed during the flower development phase to improve the quality of chrysantheum at a medium upland elevation. The study aimed to find the suitable screen house environmental modification for increasing the chrysanthemum quality at the medium upland elevation. The study consisted of two factors. First, environmental modification of a screen house, such as (1) control, (2) the addition of shading net on the rooftop of the screen house, (3) the addition of a misting system in the screen house, and (4) the addition of a combination of shading net on the rooftop and misting system in the screen house. Second, the chrysanthemum varieties, including (1) Yastayuki (white flower), (2) Arosuka Pelangi (yellow flower), and (3) Socakawani (red flower). Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Data were analyzed by combined ANOVA. The results showed that either the addition of a shading net or misting system reduced the number of flower buds growing. The competition among flower buds was found to be reduced by decreasing the number of flower buds. Consequently, the number and diameter of the blooming flower increased. The addition of a shading net on top of the screen house was the most suitable environmental modification to increase the chrysanthemum quality at the medium upland elevation.
Nurya Yuniyati, Trikoesoemaningtyas Trikoesoemaningtyas, Sri Suhesti
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 27, pp 22-33; https://doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v27n1.2021.22-33

Abstract:
The mutation could improve plant genetic variability. Some putative sugarcane mutants originating from the PS 881 variety have been produced through mutation induction using colchicine. The study aimed to determine the effect of colchicine induced on genome size and agronomical traits, and its correlation with sugarcane putative mutants production. The experiment was conducted at the UPBUP of IAARD, Bogor, July 2018-April 2019. The research was carried out in an augmented design in randomized complete block design, using 35 genotypes of the first generation G0 (30 putative mutants from colchicine 0.03 and 0.05%, five check varieties). The genome size, agronomical traits, i.e. stem number, length, diameter, and weight per meter; internode number and length; brix, and production, were evaluated. This result showed that colchicine increased 5.03-13.64% genome size of putative sugarcane mutants compared to the original variety PS 881. It is significantly different for almost all of agronomical traits. The genome size was significantly correlated very positively with brix and significantly positively with stem length and diameter, and production. Path analysis showed that stem (weight per meter and length) has a direct effect on production, in contrast, genome size, stem diameter, internode number, and brix have an indirect effect through stem weight per meter to production. Indirect selection to obtain high production can be done through stem (weight per meter and length), consider for genome size, stem diameter, internode number, and brix. This is experimental preliminary information, validation on field is needed among direct and indirect of production components to production.Keywords: agronomical traits correlation, colchicine, path analysis, sugarcane production AbstrakPENGARUH KOLKISIN TERHADAP UKURAN GENOM DAN KARAKTER AGRONOMI SERTA HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN PRODUKSI MUTAN PUTATIF TEBUPeningkatan keragaman genetik dapat dilakukan melalui mutasi. Sejumlah mutan putatif tebu yang berasal dari varietas PS 881 telah dihasilkan melalui induksi mutasi menggunakan kolkisin. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kolkisin terhadap ukuran genom dan karakter agronomi, serta hubungannya dengan produksi mutan putatif tebu. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Unit Pengelola Benih Unggul Pertanian (UPBUP), Badan Litbang Pertanian, Bogor, Juli 2018-April 2019. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan augmented dalam rancangan acak kelompok lengkap, dengan 35 genotipe generasi awal G0 (30 mutan putatif tebu hasil perlakuan kolkisin 0,03 dan 0,05%, serta lima varietas pembanding). Karakter yang diamati adalah ukuran genom dan karakter agronomi (jumlah, panjang, diameter, dan bobot batang per meter; jumlah dan panjang ruas; brix; serta produksi). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan kolkisin meningkatkan ukuran genom mutan putatif tebu 5,03-13,64% dibandingkan tetua PS 881 dan mengakibatkan perbedaan yang nyata pada hampir seluruh karakter agronomi. Ukuran genom berkorelasi positif sangat nyata dengan brix dan nyata dengan panjang dan diameter batang, serta produksi. Analisis lintas menunjukkan karakter bobot batang per meter dan panjang batang berpengaruh langsung pada produksi, sedangkan karakter ukuran genom, diameter batang, jumlah ruas, dan brix berpengaruh tak langsung pada produksi melalui bobot batang per meter. Seleksi tak langsung untuk mendapatkan produksi tinggi terutama melalui karakter bobot batang per meter dan panjang batang dengan mempertimbangkan karakter ukuran genom, diameter batang, jumlah ruas, dan brix. Hasil penelitian merupakan informasi awal yang memerlukan validasi hubungan pengaruh langsung dan tak langsung komponen produksi terhadap produksi di tingkat lapangan.Kata kunci : analisis lintas, kolkisin, korelasi karakter agronomi, produksi tebu
Marida Santi Yudha Ika Bayu, Yusmani Prayogo, Gatut Wahyu Anggoro Susanto
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.21082/ijas.v22n1.2021.p8-16

Abstract:
The main constraints to increase mungbean production in Indonesia are pests and diseases. The application of integrated biological agents can improve the efficacy of controlling the mungbean pests and diseases. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of integrated biological agents to suppress mungbean pests and diseases. This field research was conducted from May to July 2018 using a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replicates. The treatments were: T1 = Trichol + NSP, T2 = Trichol + SlNPV, T3 = Trichol + NSP + SlNPV, T4 = Trichol + NSP + SlNPV + BeBas, T5 = Trichol + NSP + SlNPV + BeBas + GE, T6 = chemical pesticides, and T7 = control. The results showed that the highest efficacy occurred in T4 and T5 treatments which saved the yield loss from major pests and diseases attack, and did not differ significantly with chemical pesticides (T6). Treatments T4 was able to reduce the development of soil borne diseases by 3% and suppress Spodoptera litura attack by 9.8% as compared to chemical treatment. T4 was also more efficient than T5 because it uses less biological agents. The advantage of biological agents is compatible if they were used together with predators such as Oxyopes sp., Paederus sp. and Coccinella sp; and also Telenomus sp. and Trichogramma sp. parasitoids. On the other hand, the chemical pesticides (T6) killed all existing natural enemies. Therefore, T4 could be recommended for controlling mungbean pests and diseases.
Amit Gnawali, Roshan Subedi
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 22, pp 17-26; https://doi.org/10.21082/ijas.v22n1.2021.p17-26

Abstract:
Germination is a portentous yield determining factor that is a challenge in the low water potential environment due to disrupted imbibition. Hormonal seed priming can markedly increase the germination on maize even in such a stressful environment. Therefore, research was aimed to analyze the application of gibberellic acid (GA3) priming to maize seeds to minimize the deleterious effects of reduced water potential. GA3 priming was done at 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm for 12 hours and subjected to drought levels of 0, 0.15, 0.50, 1.05, and 1.75 MPa by using NaCl solution. Different germination parameters, i.e., germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index, relative water content, seedling vigor index, root length, and shoot length, were determined on the final day of the experiment. The results showed that all germination parameters were adversely influenced by low water potential. Every level of GA3 priming has hastened all parameters. GA3 priming at 100 ppm decreased the mean germination time by 35 hours under 1.75 MPa compared to non-primed seeds. GA3 priming increased the shoot length of maize seedlings with a shoot length of 2.9 cm in non-primed seedlings compared to 6.4 cm in 200 ppm GA3 priming under 1.05 MPa. GA3 priming is the best method for the early establishment of maize seedlings in low water potential conditions. As a result, it may be utilized as a low-cost and straightforward approach for establishing maize crops under saline and drought conditions.
Agus Kardinan, Elna Karmawati
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri, Volume 27, pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v27n1.2021.44-50

Abstract:
Fruit flies (Bactrocera spp) can cause yield losses of 30-40% of the horticultural product and even crop failure. One way to control is to use an attractant with the active ingredient methyl eugenol. The objective of the research was to identify the catching ability and the durability of the formula on trapping fruit flies. It was conducted from October 2020 to March 2021 in orchards in the Bogor area, designed in a randomized block with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of oils: (1) nutmeg, (2) cloves, (3) citronella, (4) palm, (5) melaleuca + nutmeg, (6) melaleuca + cloves, (7) melaleuca + citronella, (8 ) melaleuca + palm (1:1 ratio). As much as 1 ml of oil is dropped on a cotton swab in a trap bottle and hung on a fruit tree. Observations were made every 5 days by counting the number, type of flies, and sex of the flies trapped. It showed that nutmeg and clove oil were able to trap 5 and 7 fruit flies in the first 5 days, but subsequently no flies were trapped, while citronella and palm oil were unable to trap fruit flies. A mixture of melaleuca oil containing 84.86% methyl eugenol with nutmeg, citronella, and palm oil was able to trap fruit flies for about 3 months with a total catch of 2.479; 2.434; and 2.487, respectively, while the mixture of melaleuca+cloves was able to trap fruit flies for 4 months and was able to trap 2 female flies.Keywords: Attractant, Bactrocera spp., Melaleuca bracteata, methyl eugenol AbstrakEfektivitas Formula Minyak Melaleuca bracteata Terhadap Daya Tangkap Hama Lalat Buah (Bactrocera spp.)Lalat buah (Bactrocera spp) dapat menimbulkan kehilangan hasil sebesar 30–40% pada produk hortikultura, bahkan gagal panen. Salah satu cara pengendaliannya adalah dengan menggunakan atraktan (pemikat) berbahan aktif metil eugenol (C11H14O2). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui daya tangkap dan daya tahan formula dalam memerangkap hama lalat buah. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2020 sampai Maret 2021 di kebun buah-buahan (rambutan, jambu biji, dan jambu air) di Bogor, dengan rancangan acak kelompok 8 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari minyak : (1) pala, (2) cengkeh, (3) serai wangi, (4) sawit, (5) melaleuca + pala, (6) melaleuca + cengkeh, (7) melaleuca + serai wangi, (8) melaleuca + sawit (dengan perbandingan 1 :1). Sebanyak 1 ml minyak diteteskan pada kapas di dalam botol perangkap dan digantungkan pada pohon. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap 5 hari terhadap jumlah, jenis dan jenis kelamin lalat yang terperangkap. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa minyak pala dan cengkeh mampu memerangkap lalat buah sebanyak 5 dan 7 ekor berturut-turut pada 5 hari pertama, namun selanjutnya tidak ada lalat yang terperangkap, sedangkan minyak serai wangi dan sawit tidak mampu memerangkap lalat buah. Campuran minyak melaleuca yang mengandung metil eugenol 84,86% dengan minyak pala, serai wangi dan sawit mampu memerangkap lalat buah selama sekitar 3 bulan dengan total tangkapan sebesar 2,479; 2,434; dan 2,487 ekor per perangkap berturut-turut, sedangkan campuran Melaleuca dengan cengkeh mampu memerangkap lalat buah selama 4 bulan dan mampu memerangkap 2 ekor lalat betina, walaupun dengan jumlah tangkapan yang lebih rendah (2,078 ekor) daripada perlakuan lain.Kata kunci : Atraktan, Bactrocera spp., Melaleuca bracteata, metil eugenol
Meldy L.A. Hosang, Nfn Rahma, Lidyana M. Gosal, Marco M. Supit, Oskar Saka
Buletin Palma, Volume 22, pp 22-30; https://doi.org/10.21082/bp.v22n1.2021.22-30

Abstract:
Kumbang Cyrtotrachelus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) dikenal sebagai kumbang moncong rebung bambu (bamboo shoot weevil), kumbang moncong bamboo (Bamboo weevilatau bamboo snout beetle), kumbang moncong bambu raksasa(Giant Bamboo Weevil) atau kumbang palma bertungkai depan panjang (Long Armed Palm Weevil). Kumbang Cyrtotrachelus sp., pertama kali ditemukan merusak dan mematikan tanaman muda atau bibit kelapa yang berumur > 1 tahun, dan kerusakannya mirip dengan kerusakan akibat hama Rhynchophorus spp. pada tanaman muda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kumbang yang merusak tanaman kelapa. Survei dilakukan pada lokasi pembibitan kelapa umur 1-3 tahun di Kebun Percobaan Mapanget, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma(Balit Palma) di Manado, Sulawesi Utara. Pengamatan lapangan meliputi gejala serangan, populasi larva, pupa dan imago, sedangkan pengamatan laboratorium difokuskan pada ciri morfologi imago. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kumbang yang merusak kelapa di Kebun Percobaan Mapanget, Balit Palma, di Sulawesi Utara adalah kumbang Cyrtotrachelus sp. Kumbang ini pertama kali ditemukan pada tahun 2018 sebagai hama pada tanaman kelapa. Dari 207 tanaman kelapa yang diobsevasi, ternyata 10,63% terserang atau mati akibat serangan Cytrotrachelus sp., hal ini sangatmerugikan bagi petani atau pengusaha kelapa karena hama ini merusak bagian pucuk sehingga tanaman mati. Berdasarkanhasil penelitian ini maka perlu dipelajari lebih lanjut bioekologi dan teknik pengendalian yang sesuai untuk hama Cyrtotrachelus sp.
Bedy Sudjarmoko, Nfn Harianto
Buletin Palma, Volume 22, pp 43-51; https://doi.org/10.21082/bp.v22n1.2021.43-51

Abstract:
Perkembangan perkebunan kelapa sawit yang cepat dan dalam waktu yang relatif pendek diduga dapat menimbulkan berbagai permasalahan, salah satunya adalah konversi lahan perkebunan non-sawit menjadi perkebunan sawit. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tahun 2019, ditujukan untuk menganalisis pengaruh harga minyak sawit dan perkembangan luas area sawit terhadap kinerja perkebunan kelapa. Kinerja perkebunan kelapa diwakili oleh luas area tanaman kelapa dan tingkat produksi kelapa. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deret waktu dari tahun 1992 sampai tahun 2016. Model ekonometrik disajikan untuk menghubungkan kinerja perkebunan kelapa sawit dengan faktor yang memengaruhinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekspansi luas area kelapa sawit tidak berpengaruh negatif terhadap kinerja perkebunan kelapa. Namun perkembangan harga sawit, meskipun secara statistik tidak signifikan, berpengaruh negatif terhadap kinerja perkebunan kelapa. Penurunan kinerja perkebunan kelapa terutama dipengaruhi oleh peningkatan upah perkebunan dan tingkat suku bunga. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disarankan bahwa pembangunan perkebunan kelapa dalam arti luas perlu memanfaatkan dengan baik momentum yang ditimbulkan oleh perkembangan perkebunan sawit.
Agus Eko Prasetyo, Nanang Supena, Agus Susanto
Buletin Palma, Volume 22, pp 52-61; https://doi.org/10.21082/bp.v22n1.2021.52-61

Abstract:
Praktek penunasan berat pelepah kelapa sawit bertujuan untuk menghasilkan bunga jantan sehingga kebutuhan polen dan kumbang Elaeidobius kamerunicus dapat terpenuhi sehingga penyerbukan alami dapat menjamin pembentukan fruit set tandan yang normal. Penunasan berat dilakukan mulai tanaman umur 2 tahun dengan perlakuan penunasan hingga menyisakan hanya satu lingkar pelepah muda (8 pelepah/tanaman) dan sisa 2 lingkar pelepah muda (16 pelepah/tanaman) setiap bulan. Sebagai kontrol digunakan tanaman dengan penunasan normal yakni menyisakan 48-56 pelepah/tanaman. Hasil pengamatan selama 48 bulan menunjukkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan jumlah bunga jantan pada kedua perlakuan penunasan berat, jumlah produksi bunga jantan pada penunasan berat dengan menyisakan 8 pelepah/tanaman. Namun ukuran bunga jantan yang terbentuk lebih kecil (menurun sebesar 30,15-51,11%) bila dibandingkan dengan kontrol sehingga jumlah polen yang dihasilkan juga lebih sedikit dengan penurunan sebanyak 28,59-38,28%. Bahkan viabilitas polen kelapa sawit pada perlakuan penunasan berat juga berkurang 12,58-15,51%. Penurunan kualitas bunga jantan ini diikuti dengan penurunan jumlah kunjungan kumbang E. kamerunicus sebesar 22,63-31,01% dan penurunan jumlah kemunculan kumbang baru dari tandan bunga jantan lewat mekar sebanyak 40,89-49,40%. Kualitas bunga jantan pada kedua perlakuan penunasan berat tidak berbeda. Aplikasi penunasan berat pelepah kelapa sawit berdampak pada peningkatan kuantitas bunga jantan tetapi memiliki kualitas yang menurun bahkan kurang menarik bagi E. kamerunicus untuk berkembang biak.
Hengky Novarianto, Meity A. Tulalo
Buletin Palma, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21082/bp.v22n1.2021.1-10

Abstract:
The desirable future coconut variety characteristics should include (1) short trunk and low height increment, (2) early bearing, (3) high nut yield, and (4) high neera (coconut sugar sap). High yoelding but short coconut palm statures make it easy to harvest the nuts and tap the neera. The Dwarf coconut varieties are generally early bearing with a low height increment and plenty nuts per fruit bunch. The Bido tall coconut bears fruits as early as three years after planting and with high nut yield, a low height increment and a very short trunk. This study aims to evaluate early vegetative growth (2 – 3 years after planting) of eight coconut hybrids derived from combinations of Dwarfs x Bido tall hybridizations. The arrays of hybrid coconuts consisted of hybridization between three Dwarf coconut varieties by Bido tall generated in 2016, and those between five Dwarf coconut varieties by Bido tall generated in 2017. The KHINA-1 hybrid was used as the standard hybrid control. Results of the evaluation showed the evaluated Waingapu Red Dwarf x Bido tall hybrids have the largest stem girth and the highest plant heightOn the other hand, Aromatic Green Dwarf x Bido tall hybrids showed the highest leaf numbers. However, all hybrid combinations showed the same stem girth diameter at two years after planting. At two and three years after planting, the Raja Brown Dwarf x Bido tall hybrids were the tallest, while the Nias Yellow Dwarf x Bido tall coconut hybrids have the highest leaf number. All of the Dwarf x Bido tall coconut hybrids showed good vegetative performance at two and three years after planting. The differences in early vegetative performances among the evaluated Dwarf x Bido tall might indicate the differences in early bearing, high nut yield and high neera characters of the hybrids.
Linda Trivana, Nugraha E. Suyatma, Dase Hunaefi, S. Joni Munarso
Buletin Palma, Volume 22, pp 31-42; https://doi.org/10.21082/bp.v22n1.2021.31-42

Abstract:
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is high quality coconut oil and categorized as the healthiest oil and functional foods. Based on these benefits, the development of a VCO in emulsion product might increase the human consumption of coconut oil because consumers dislike the only taste of pure VCO. The aim of this study was to develop the water compatible form of VCO through nano-emulsification. The effect of different types and amounts of surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 80) on the physio-chemical characteristic of emulsion containing VCO was investigated. VCO based emulsions were prepared with the aid of Ultra-Turrax homogenizer. Emulsions were developed by adding and mixing VCO with surfactants. The ratio of Tween 80 and Span 80 used were 0:10, 2.5:7.5, 5:5, 7.5:2.5, and 10:0. The droplet size of nanoemulsions consisting of Tween 80:Span 80 (0:10, 2.5:7.5, 5:5, 7.5:2.5, and 10:0) were 1.343, 0.606, 0.829, 1.439, and 2.506µm, respectively. Based on the TEM analysis and polydispersity index (PDI) >0.5 showed the oil droplets are in not uniform shape, indicating a unstable emulsion. VCO emulsion with ratio Tween 80:Span 80 (0:10) obtained a homogeneous emulsion (stable) compare than that of others and w/o type emulsion. The stability of emulsion is evaluated by turbidity measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with wavelength 502 nm. A combination of treatments (ambient condition, thermal treatmeant (40°C)), and centrifuge) of VCO emulsion has resulted on thermal treat, the turbidity measured from the emulsion was higher than the other emulsion, reflecting the presence of the smaller droplets in this emulsion.
Alfred P. Manambangtua, Semuel D. Runtunuwu, Sesilia A. Wanget
Buletin Palma, Volume 22, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.21082/bp.v22n1.2021.11-21

Abstract:
Kelapa merupakan tanaman serba guna, kelapa genjah sesuai dijadikan sebagai kelapa muda segar dan lebih potensial disadap niranya. Indonesia memiliki kondisi iklim yang unik, menyebabkan kekeringan. Kelapa genjah rentan terhadap kekurangan air, sehingga perlu dilakukan upaya mengatispiasi kekeringan. Salah satu upaya dalam menghadapi kekeringan dengan pemberian unsur kalium. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh dosis pemberian pupuk kalium terhadap respon pertumbuhan beberapa varietas kelapa genjah di pembibitan dalam menghadapi kekeringan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma (Balit Palma) di Mapanget, Sulawesi Utara. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Mei sampai November 2020. Menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) Faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah 4 varietas kelapa genjah. Faktor kedua adalah 5 perlakuan dosis pupuk KCl. Hasil penelitian diperoleh pemberian dosis pupuk kalium 110 g KCl menunjukan kecenderungan lebih baik pada parameter pertambahan tinggi tanaman pada 1 dan 2 bulan kekeringan. Dosis pupuk kalium 165 g KCl (P3) menunjukan kecenderungan lebih baik pada parameter pertambahan diameter batang pada 2 bulan kekeringan dan volume akar. Perlakuan kalium tidak berpengaruh nyata pada pertambahan diameter batang pada 1 bulan kekeringan, penambahan jumlah daun pada 1 dan 2 bulan kekeringan, kandungan klorofil, berat kering tajuk, dan berat kering akar. Pada perlakuan Varietas kelapa genjah tidak terdapat perbedaan yang nyata antara varietas pada semua parameter pengamatan dan hanya berbeda nyata pada kandungan klorofil.
Abdullah Bin Arif, Kirana Sanggrami Sasmitaloka, Imia Ribka Banurea, Wahyu Diyono, Agus Budiyanto, Christina Winarti
Informatika Pertanian, Volume 30, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21082/ip.v30n1.2021.p1-10

Abstract:
Sorgum merupakan salah satu komoditas serealia yang potensial untuk dikembangkan. Namun, biji sorgum mudah terserang kutu sehingga tidak dapat disimpan dalam waktu yang lama. Serangan kutu dapat menyebabkan kerusakan dan kehilangan hasil pada sorgum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bahan-bahan ekstrak nabati dan kemasan plastik yang dapat mudah didapatkan oleh petani dengan harganya murah untuk memperpanjang penyimpanan biji sorgum sebelum disosoh. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dalam pola faktorial, terdiri dari dua faktor, yaitu jenis kemasan plastik sebanyak (PE dan PP) dan jenis ekstrak nabati (tanpa perlakuan, bawang putih, cabai, cengkeh, kayu manis, ketumbar, kopi, lada, lengkuas, dan ragi tape). Setiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak 2 kali. Variabel pengamatan pada penelitian ini adalah jumlah kutu, susut bobot, densitas kamba, proksimat, kadar pati, kadar amilosa, dan kadar amilopektin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan penyimpanan biji sorgum yang belum disosoh dengan plastik PP dan ekstrak cengkeh dapat mencegah terjadinya serangan kutu/Sitophilus SP yang ditunjukkan dengan jumlah populasi kutu yang paling kecil, susut bobot yang terendah, susut karbohidrat terendah, dan kadar air yang terkecil.
Nita Kartina, Yuni Widyastuti
Informatika Pertanian, Volume 30, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.21082/ip.v30n1.2021.p11-20

Abstract:
In the early plant breeding experiments usually are not possible to use an appropriate experimental design. The number of large genetic materials and seeds is limited so environmental heterogeneity cannot be controlled. The augmented design could be used to do this approach. The research aims were to study the use of augmented design and evaluate the yield and its yield component of hybrid rice genotypes and check varieties, in the early evaluation. The research was conducted in the second season of 2015 (October 2015 to March 2016) in Sukamandi Experimental Station of Indonesia Center for Rice Research (ICRR), Subang, West Java Province. The experiment used 455 hybrid rice genotypes and four checks varieties, namely Hipa 8, Hipa Jatim 2, Inpari 31, and Ciherang. Based on the statistic analysis, the yield of hybrid rice ranges from 9.09 t/ha (GMJ13/CRS1268) to 10.77 t/ha (GMJ13/CRS1284), with heterosis to yields of 5.83% to 44.95%. Some hybrid rice genotypes showed better agronomic traits than check varieties. The augmented design allows for the interpretation of statistically valid data. Character data obtained are corrected data (adjusted), which have been adjusted to check varieties.
Adnan Nur Avif, Ardhi Billih Yaqhsa
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 31-36; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.31-36

Abstract:
Ketepeng cina Senna alata L. is one of the plant species growing in the tropical climate whose leaves have various bioactive components. It has been used as a traditional medicine to treat skin diseases. Ketepeng cina has been cultivated in several regions in Indonesia and the results are exported abroad to be used as medicinal raw materials. So far, the plant extraction process is still using the maceration method. This method is simple but has weaknesses in time consumption making it less efficient. The extraction method by ultrasonic waves promises more efficient extraction process than the maceration method. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in extraction techniques and solvent concentration on the concentration of phytochemical constituents in ketepang cina leaves. The research design used a completely randomized design with two factorial patterns. The first factor was the technique of extracting Ketepeng cina leaves (maceration, ultrasonication), and the second factor was the concentration of solvent/ethanol (40%, 70%, 96%) The observation parameters included analysis of the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. The results showed that the use of the ultrasonication technique provided efficiency in extraction time compared to the maceration technique. The use of 70% ethanol resulted in higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (28,17 mgGA/g) and (17,61 mgQE/g), but the highest concentration of tannins produced by 96% ethanol solvent was 6,78 mgAT/g.
Sri Wahyuni, Ranti Selvina, Puspa Julistia Puspita, Haryo Tejo Prakoso, Priyono Priyono, Siswanto Siswanto
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.45-56

Abstract:
Black Soldier Fly (BSF) farming showed an increasing trend in the past 5 years. The production process generates a leftover, that is the exuviae which are still untapped. BSF exuviae contain chitin and chitosan which can be utilized in various fields, one of which is fruit preservatives. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) is known to have many benefits and has a content of vitamins A, B, C, and E but it has a short shelf life. The purpose of this study was to characterize chitosan from BSF exuviae and choose the best edible coating method to be applied to grapes to prolong the grape’s storage time. Characterization includes physical condition, percent solubility, degree of deacetylation, and yield of the chitosan. Then, edible coating tests were carried out with 2% acetic acid solvent followed by two different methods, namely dyeing method with 5, 10 and, 15 minutes immersion time and spray method with a chitosan solution concentration of 0,5%, 1%, 1,5%, 2 %, and 2,5%. The results showed that chitosan extracted from BSF exuviae produced a physical appearance in the form of white brown powder with 55% solubility and a degree of deacetylation of 91,88%. The chitin yield is 16,2%, followed by the chitosan yield of 4,8%. The best edible coating method which can maintain the physical appearance of grapes and inhibiting fruit decayed was obtained by dipping method at a concentration of 2,5% for 10 minutes. Based on the overall observations, however, the results obtained from the dip and spray method were not significantly different.
Stp Ermi Sukasih, Nfn Widaningrum, Nfn Setyadjit, Winda Haliza
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 9-20; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.9-20

Abstract:
The banana of CV. Mas Kirana off-grade can be processed into banana flour with high resistant starch content which functions as a prebiotic. This study aims to optimize the content of resistant starch (RS) type 3 in the produce of banana flour. Modified banana flour cv. Mas Kirana with highest RS content will then be used to substitute skim milk in making prebiotic banana yogurt and are analyzed for its sensory properties. Data were processed using design expert 11.0 with three factors, namely X1 (Lactic acid bacterial concentration (LAB), X2 (fermentation time), X3 (retrogradation time). The optimization result was 109 CFU/mL of lactic acid bacteria concentration, 24 hours of fermentation time, and 37,60 hours of retrogradation time. The resulting banana flour cv Mas Kirana has 83,95% of resistant starch, 29,24% of yield, 3,60 of logarithmic lactic acid bacteria, and 4,49 of pH value. Its application to the production of banana yoghurt prebiotic replacing 80% skim milk, was acceptable to panelists in terms of color, aroma, viscosity, taste, and overall acceptance.
Fenny Aprilliani, Dheni Atmiasih, Andika Ristiono
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.1-8

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between the maturity level of avocado and color changes using simple device such as smartphone camera. Avocado with 3 different maturity level A1:<80%, A2:80-85%, and A3:>85% were collected from local farmer in Bandungan, Central Java. The quality evaluation was carried out on 99 avocado (weight of 366±16 g) which included the evaluation of mass loss (%), firmness (kg/mm2), total soluble solids (°brix), and color changes (picture of fruit were taken using smartphone camera and analyzed using Photoshop CC 2019 from Adobe and converted into HSI values). The data were analyzed using two-factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with factor design are the level of maturity and storage time of the avocado. The results indicated that the maturity level were significantly different (p≤0.05) for mass loss, firmness and total soluble solids (TSS) of avocado during storage. The relationship between maturity level and color changes shows the MAPE (mean absolute percent error) value for hue, saturation, intensity ranges between 3,31-6,11%; 11,12-15,79%, and 6,10-6,49% with the light intensity of 527,77 lux. The results indicate that the image processing on smartphone camera is able to describe the level of maturity based on the color changes of avocado during storage with the same treatment conditions.
Zukryandry Zukryandry, Beni Hidayat, Shintawati Shintawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.21-30

Abstract:
Part of the cassava that can be used as a food product is usually starch and and the waste is cassava bagasse. Fermented cassava bagasse flour is a modified semi-solid fermentation product using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has almost the same quality as modified cassava flour (mocaf), but fermented cassava bagasse flour has advantages compared to mocaf flour, namely high protein content and cheaper production costs. Fermented cassava bagasse flour has various functions which can be used as raw material for the manufacture of various processed products, one of which is cassava stick. The research objective was to see the formulation of fermented cassava bagasse flour to the sensory characteristics of the resulting cassava stick. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) including 5 treatment methods, namely cassava starch substituted by fermented cassava bagasse flour 5% (B1), 10% (B2), 15% (B3), 20% (B4) and 25% (B5), each treatment was repeated 3 times. Based on the sensory results, it was obtained that 15% (B3) fermented cassava bagasse flour substitution treatment was the best choice of cassava stick product by panelists. The results of the analysis of cassava stick products were hardness test 3,77 µ (kg / cm2) ; swelling ratio 18,33% ; moisture content 2,20% ; ash content 0,14% ; protein content 10,00% ; fat content 21,00% ; fiber content 0,17%; carbohydrate content 66,49% and total dietary fiber 21,24%.
Ita Yustina, Ana Nurhasanah, Ss. Antarlina
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 18, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v18n1.2021.37-44

Abstract:
By processing sorghum grains into flour, the use of sorghum grains to support food diversification can be made more varied. The research objective was to determine the physical and chemical properties of sorghum muffins and changes of physical properties of sorghum muffins during storage. The research uses a completely randomized design with two factor, grain soaking duration (hours) and ratio of concentration of whole sorghum flours with gluten flour (%) and consists of nine treatments combination. The result shows that treatment has a significant effect on the power expansion, degree of brightness, fat, and preference for organoleptic properties. The best treatment was 24-hours of soaking, 25% whole sorghum flour, 75% gluten flour that produces expanded power at 138,83%, degree of brightness (L) at 67.03, redness (a) at +4.33, yellowness (b) at +27.37, water content of 12.59%, protein content of 6.95%, fat content of 2.46%, score of color at 3.20, texture score at 3.13, aroma score at 3.16, taste score at 3.24, and for overall acceptance at 3.53 (like). Changes of physical properties of sorghum muffins during storage for 3 days can be explained with the linear equation. For all parameter (weight loss, volume loss, brightness loss), the value of constant a in the equation of sorghum muffin was lower than control muffin that indicated quality loss of sorghum muffins is higher than control muffin. Increasing the concentration of sorghum flour resulted a decrease in the quality of the muffins. The soaking treatment of the seeds in making sorghum flour can maintain the quality of the muffin.
Hamyana Hamyana, Agus Cahyono, Ainu Rahmi
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 5, pp 79-90; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p79-90

Abstract:
One of the problems faced by maize farmers in Sumberpucung District, Malang, East Java, is the relatively small scale of the business, which has implications for high production costs. Efforts that can be taken to resolve these problems include a partnership pattern. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a partnership pattern and to analyze its effect on the income of maize farmers in Sumberpucung District. The research method is survey. Marginal benefit cost ratio (MBCR) analysis aims to determine the feasibility of partnership pattern farming and simple linear regression analysis is used to determine the effect of partnerships on income. The research object is the maize farmers who have partnered and who have not partnered in Sumberpucung District. The sampling technique used stratified proportional random sampling with a sample size of 76 people who were determined using the Slovin formula. The results showed that the income of partnership-patterned maize farmers was greater than that of non-partnership maize farmers with a difference of Rp. 7,573,000 / ha. Analysis of the marginal benefit cost ratio (MBCR) with a value of 9.98 (> 1) proves that the partnership pattern of maize farming is feasible to apply. This means that each additional cost of Rp. 1 will increase the benefits of farmers by 9.98. Regression analysis shows that the partnership has a significant effect on the income of maize farmers. Hypothesis testing shows the significance value of the partnership variable is 0.000 (<0.05). Thus H_1 is accepted, which means that the partnership has a significant effect on farmers’ income.
Wasis Senoaji, Bambang Tri Rahardjo,
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 5, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p25-36

Abstract:
Nephotettix virescens is the most effective vector for transmitting tungro disease to rice plants. Two different viral particles cause Tungro transmission. Disease control was often not anticipated in the field, especially when planting is asynchronous, that cause been detected lately. At the cellular level, vector interactions with viruses indicate vector proteins response to viral in the body of vector insects which involved in virus transmission in plants. This study aims to describe the relationship between the differentiation of N. virescens vector protein profiles on the types of tungro symptoms resulting from the transmission to develop techniques for early detection and control of the transmission process. The workflow of this study is screening on vector insects to obtain protein candidates thought to have a role in tungro transmission that had never been previously reported. The results of this study suggested that proteins with estimated molecular weights of 132, 73, and 49 kDa are candidates for proteins that can be used for screening purposes or virulent vector tracing as an early warning alternative to control tungro disease in endemic areas.
Sawitania Situmorang, Setia Sari Girsang
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 5, pp 69-78; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p69-78

Abstract:
Stapple food subsector is the second largest contributor after plantations subsector to Indonesian gross domestic product (GDP). However, since 2015, the productivity has been declining, though still provides a positive value. To anticipate the simultaniously decline of the productivity, the government has socialized the Seed Self Sufficiency Village (3SV) Programe with paddy. One of the provinces that has has been received the implementation of this 3SV programe is North Sumatra. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the economic performance of 3SV fostered village’s rice seed growers such as: production costs, profitability and business efficiency as well as the factors that affect the fostered paddy seed’s growers. This research was conducted using a survey method from August to November 2019. Data was collected through interviews with 30 fostered paddy seed’s growers in the districts of Deli Serdang, Batu Bara, Langkat, Serdang Bedagai, Simalungun, and South Nias. The location was chosen deliberately while the respondent farmers were chosen by judgmental method. The level of profitability is calculated using Gross Profit Ratio (GPR) while technical efficiency is analyzed using the Stochastic Frontier Production Function. The results showed that the rice seedling business in the observed area was strongly influenced by area of land, the amount of use of seeds and additional fertilizers. Meanwhile, increasing the use of labor, basic fertilizers, Growth Regulator (GR), and pesticides will reduce the performance of the rice seedling business. The availability of irrigation water and farmer groups has a big influence in reducing technical inefficiencies.
Rima Purnamayani, Adhe Phoppy Wira Etika, Haris Syahbuddin
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 5, pp 47-58; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p47-58

Abstract:
Ncreasing the cropping index is a strategic policy and program to increase the efficiency of available land use. Referring to the potential and constraints of cropping index improvement, it is necessary to review the supporting components that affect cropping index implementation improvement in some agroecosystems. The purpose of this study was to aims to analyze the components of farming that support the implementation of increased cropping index in upland, rainfed lowland, and swampy land. This activity was carried out in five provinces namely Banten, West Java, DI Yogyakarta, East Nusa Tenggara, and South Sumatra from August to December 2018. The site selection was done purposively based on agroecosystems. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative approaches then interpreted descriptively and analyzed with multiple linear regression analysis. The dependent variable (Y) is the cropping index and the independent variables (xi) are labor, water availability, demonstration plot capital availability, water resources, supervisory, and extension media. The results of the combined linear regression analysis showed that water availability and supervisory were the supporting components that have a significant effect on every agroecosystem. Meanwhile, water, capital and labour availability were variables that have a significant effect on the implementation of increased cropping index in upland agroecosystems. The dissemination media has a significant effect only on rainfed lowland, while the capital availability and water sources were supporting components that have a significant effect at swampy land.
Slamet Bambang Priyanto, Roy Efendi, Muhammad Azrai
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 5, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p1-14

Abstract:
Low maize yields due to low nitrogen generally occur on marginal land. Maize development in Indonesia is directed at marginal land due to limited fertile land, especially in other lands in Indonesia besides Java. Therefore, the assembly of low N tolerant maize varieties plays an important role in increasing production on marginal land. Therefore, the improvement of low N tolerant hybrid maize was required. Information on the combining ability of inbred lines was important in the hybrid maize breeding program. This research aims were to determine genetic parameters, general combining ability, specific combining ability of maize lines and at three levels of N fertilization. This research was conducted at the Bajeng Experimental farm South Sulawesi from August to November 2019. The research was arranged in a split-plot design with two replications. The main plots were three nitrogen levels i.e. 0 kg N/ha, 100 kg N/ha, 200 kg N/ha and the subplots were 36 hybrids formed from a half diallel cross and its parents. The results showed that compared to yield at 200 kg N/ha, yield at 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha reduced 18,80% and 38,69% respectively. ear number, ear weight, shelling percentage and number of seeds per row were controlled by non-additive genes, while moisture content, 100 seeds weight, ear length and number of rows per ear were controlled by additives gene. Lines AVLN 118-7 and AVLN 83-2 have good GCA for yield grain overall levels of fertilization. Crosses AVLN 83-2/AVLN 124-4, AVLN 83-2/AVLN 32-8, and AVLN 122-2/AVLN 124-9 have the good combining ability under both low and high N conditions. They could be used to develop low N tolerant varieties.
Chanifah Chanifah, Ekaningtyas Kushartanti, Raden Heru Praptana, Parti Khosiyah
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 5, pp 59-68; https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v5n1.2021.p59-68

Abstract:
Jarwo super technology is a combination of superior rice farming technology, including the 2:1 paired rows planting system, high yield potential varieties, bio-decomposers, biological fertilizers, bio-pesticides, and agricultural mechanization application. The assessment aims to determine plant diversity, production increase, and financial feasibility of jarwo super technology rice farming. The assessment was conducted on March-Juni 2017 with the “demplot” method of applied jarwo super technology in Karanganyar Regency, Center of Java. Primary data is growth, production, and rice farming performance at the “demplot”, as well as existing farmer data. Samples were collected purposively, it’s the farmers who carried out the “demplot” and the farmers around the “demplot”, which meant 30 farmers. Data were descriptively analyzed using the average value, RCR, MBCR, net profit value, and BEP. The results showed that the rice yields with jarwo super was 15.63%higher than the existing farmers. Jarwo super rice farming is more efficient and economically feasible with RCR 1.44 value. MBCR is 11.6 value, it that each additional cost of implementing jarwo super rice farming of 1.000 IDR increases income by 11.600 IDR. Proportion of costs increase in jarwo super rice farming is 350.000 IDR, but profits reached 4.077.083 IDR. Net profit value of 1.7 shows that jarwo super rice farming can increase profits. Production level and dry grain harvested price on farmers level were 30.76%higher compared to BEP production and BEP price. Jarwo super rice farming is feasible to develop that because can increase farmer’s production and profits.
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