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Nisrina Zahira Putri Irawan, Muhaimin Muhaimin, Krisna Merdekawati
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 55-61; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art2

Abstract:
This study aims to determine whether there is a significant difference between the application of the 5E Learning Cycle model and conventional learning towards learning activities on salt hydrolysis subject material. The type of research used experimental research. The study population was all students of grade XI at SMA Negeri 1 Pakem in the academic year 2019/2020, totaling 5 classes. The research sample used XI MIPA 1 class as the experimental class and XI MIPA 2 class as the control class which was taken by purposive sampling technique. Data collection through non-test techniques in the form of questionnaires and observations. Data analysis techniques on learning activity variables used Parametric Statistics Independent Sample T-Test for observational data and Non-Parametric Statistics for the Mann-Whitney test for questionnaire data. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between students who take learning with the 5E Learning Cycle model and students who take conventional learning towards learning activities.
Paryati Paryati
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 62-68; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art3

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to improve the ability of teachers in preparing questions on google forms. Building teachers' practical ways of thinking in solving problems related to the preparation of HOTS questions, as well as increasing the professionalism of school principals in organizing In House Training (IHT) and increasing the motivation and competence of school principals during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research method is descriptive qualitative through school action research which further deepens the teacher development process related to writing HOTS questions on the google form. The data of this study are qualitative data, while the research subjects are Candirejo State Elementary School teachers, totaling 8 teachers consisting of 6 classroom teachers and 2 study teachers. The results showed that the teacher's ability to write written test questions was initially only 2 people (20%), after the research was carried out with the first cycle of activities from 2 teachers to 8 teachers (100%), while the research activities at the end the implementation of the second cycle of activities with an average score of 69.00 and an average score of 3.80, while based on presentation it reached 94.91%. As for the stage of the second cycle of meeting 1 the teacher's ability in preparing questions through In House Training (IHT) on Google Form there was an increase of 2.14% and at the second meeting of cycle II it rose to 91.79% in the "Very Good" category. And the average score increased in the second cycle of meeting 2 to 64.25 from 61.38. While the activities of IHT participants at the second meeting of the second cycle reached 22.50, the average value of the second cycle of the second meeting reached 3.75 while the percentage-based score reached 93.75% in the "Very Good" category. So that the research can be ended at the stage of cycle II for the second meeting.
Suprihatin Suprihatin
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 91-96; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art7

Abstract:
This study aims to determine and describe the teacher's ability to use the WhatsApp Voice Note application program in the distance learning process through integrated mentoring. The sample in this study was 9 teachers consisting of 6 classroom teachers and 3 subject teachers who were selected based on criteria using the WhatsApp Voice Note application program. This research was conducted in 2 cycles. Each cycle consists of 2 meetings and research procedures include; planning, implementation, observation and reflection. Meanwhile, to find out the teacher's activities at work, the researchers completed measuring instruments with observation instruments based on their ability to use the WhatsApp Voice Note application. The next aspect observed was the implementation of mentoring activities for researchers (principals). The results of the first cycle of research on the teacher's ability to use WhatsApp Voice Notes in Distance Learning obtained the lowest average score of the first cycle of 70.86%, the conversion value of 3, the "Good" category the highest average score of 77.55%, the conversion value; 3, category “Good”. The lowest average score in cycle II; 86.86%, value conversion; 4, “Very Good” category, the highest average score; 91.30%, value conversion; 4, “Very Good” category. As for the increase in the results of the first cycle to the second cycle; 13.75%. Furthermore, the results of the research cycle I the average score based on the percentage obtained the lowest average score of 82.04%, the conversion value was 3, the category "Satisfactory" while the highest average score reached 87.89%, the conversion value was 4, the category "Very Satisfactory" cycle II obtained the lowest average score of 89.72%, conversion value of 4, category "Very Satisfactory" the highest average score of 94.63%, conversion value of 4, category "Very Satisfactory". The results of the research cycle I and II there was an increase of 6.74%. The results of interviews with participants and researchers related to the implementation of the guidance program are contained in the interview transcript table for the WhatsApp Voice Note application program material considering that during the pandemic it was not only SD Negeri Borosuci Kalibawang that experienced difficulties, but every elementary school in the Kulon Progo Regency area. Research through integrative guidance is very helpful for teachers to add new knowledge about the WhatsApp Voice Note application. Furthermore, the principal also feels that it provides new experiences and is helped by all teachers who have a passion for learning to do distance learning in the era of the covid-19 pandemic.
Dwi Wahyuni
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 105-112; https://doi.org/10.20885//ijcer.vol5.iss2.art9

Abstract:
This research is motivated by teachers who are still not ready to face distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. To overcome this problem researchers take corrective actions through school action research which aims to improve the ability of teachers and researchers to provide personal assistance using the Google Classroom application program for learning. distance and improve school performance in order to be able to compete in the field of graduation. The research design uses a qualitative design, while the data collection technique uses the method of documentation and observation. The data analysis technique was carried out through a qualitative descriptive model consisting of data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The results of this study can be seen from the increase in the results of the ability of the participants in personal assistance and the implementation of activities by resource persons from before the action in cycles I and II. In the pre-cycle of participants who got an average score of 3.52, the percentage was 88.04% with the "Very Good" category, there was 1 person while the average score was 3.12, the percentage was 78.12%, the conversion value reached 3, the next 6 participants got a score of 2, the category "Quite Good". Based on the teacher's ability in the first cycle it reached 74.65% if converted the value obtained 3, with the "Good" category while in the second cycle it reached 87.49%, if the conversion value obtained a value of 4, with the "Very Good" category. Based on the implementation of mentoring by the resource persons in the first cycle, it reached 87.46%, if converted the value obtained 4, with the "Very Satisfactory" category while in the second cycle it reached 91.22% if converted the value obtained 4, with the "Very Satisfactory" category
Issa I. Salame, Shirley Dong
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 69-77; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art4

Abstract:
The preparation of a scientifically literate society is the main goal of science education throughout the world and this has resulted in the emphasis of nature of science in the curriculum. The purpose of this research project is to examine the aforementioned students’ views on NOS tenets, its relationship to their academic achievements and background, and how it changes through their study of science. The study took place at the City College of New York, an urban, commuter, public college, and minority serving institute. The research data was collected through the administration of a survey that contained three of the NOS questions and academic and background information about the students. The data suggest that students possess inadequate understanding of the nature of science when they begin their academic fields of science study. This inadequate understanding is resistant to change in traditional science teaching settings. The data provide evidence that the inadequate understanding of nature of science does not change as the result of exposure to science courses, the field of science studied, and the students’ academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Our data show that traditional instruction in college science courses does not address nature of science and does not cause a conceptual change in the students’ understanding of NOS. The lack of correlation between students’ understanding of nature of science and credits completed or grade point average could be attributed to students relying on rote-learning and algorithmic problem-solving to achieve high grades and succeed in science, which hinders their meaningful learning of science and the development of conceptual understanding. Thus, science teaching and instruction should address naïve conception on the NOS and changes the instruction methods to consider NOS naïve conceptions and learning challenges. Science teaching and learning curriculum and instruction should immerse students in science learning activities that nurtures their understanding of the nature of science through participating in novel science research and inquiry-based learning activities.
Asih Asih
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art1

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has had an impact on the education sector, especially elementary school education. Online learning is of course carried out with various platforms and media to support teaching and learning activities. This study aims to review the use of interactive videos with WhatsApp, the learning used in learning for students at the elementary school level, and determine the ability of teachers and the content of online learning videos used as learning media at SD Negeri Trayu Kapanewon Samigaluh during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research method uses qualitative descriptive research, namely describing the use of learning media with interactive video with WhatsApp used and its application in SD Negeri Trayu Kapanewon Samigaluh. Data collection techniques using observation, interviews, and documentation. The results of this study are media using WhatsApp as online learning in the form of interactive videos. The stages of making online learning videos are in the form of planning, procurement, storage, and evaluation in the learning media, and also explaining the contents of online learning videos, so it can be concluded that online learning videos contain the results of teacher videos in classroom teaching activities that are made by the teacher in turns. then shared via Whatsapp media. With this media, teachers are more confident and students become more confident and it seems as if they are studying in a normal school. So that students and parents understand the activities or material presented by the teacher in the video.
Francisca Saminem
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 78-83; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art5

Abstract:
This research was motivated by the regulation of the Ministry of Education and culture regarding the implementation of education during the Covid-19 pandemic which required distance learning using online learning media. Online learning is a learning method that aims to improve the ability of teachers to use the Zoom Meeting application program at SD Negeri Bendo Kapanewon, Samigaluh Kulon Progo during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research is a school action research to improve the ability of school principals in managing learning leadership through collaborative mentoring. The subjects in this study were SD Negeri Bendo teachers, totaling 8 teachers consisting of 6 classroom teachers and 2 subject teachers. The purpose of this study was to improve the ability of teachers in implementing distance learning by using the Zoom Meeting application for Bendo Elementary School teachers through collaborative mentoring activities. The results of preliminary observations show that the ability of teachers at SD Bendo Kapenewon, Samigaluh, Kulon Progo, using the Zoom Meeting application is still in the "Not Good" category with a percentage reaching 87.50%. The ability of teachers in the first cycle of research results obtained by research data based on the average number based on the presentation of the first cycle, the highest score was 83.72%, the conversion value reached 3, the "Good" category, while in the second cycle the average number based on the highest score percentage was 92, 43%, conversion value reached 4, the category “Very Good”. Through collaborative assistance, the principal can improve the ability of the principal in delivering the Zoom meeting application program. Collaborative mentoring cycle I observations based on the assessment of participants the average number of classes based on the presentation of the highest score of 89.58%, when converted into a score it reached 4, with the "Very Good" category, while in the second cycle the average number was obtained based on the percentage the highest score is 92.71% when converted into a value of 4, the category "Very Good", the results of the study show that there is an increase of 3.13% in the implementation of collaborative mentoring can improve the competence of the principal in delivering the Zoom meeting application program
Febrian Solikhin, Weni Inda Sari, Krisna Dewi
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 84-90; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art6

Abstract:
This research is a Classroom Action Research conducted at Public Senior High School 3 Bengkulu City, especially class XI MIPA 4. Online learning in this class reduces student learning activities. Many students are passive in learning. This affects decreasing their learning outcomes. For that, it is necessary to provide the appropriate treatment for solving the problem. This treatment is to apply a learning model that requires students to be more active in learning. One of them is the Numbered Head Together (NHT) learning model. This study aims to increase student activeness in the online learning process and improve student learning outcomes using the NHT model, especially chemical equilibrium material. The subjects of this study were 34 students of class XI MIPA 4. The instruments used were the student activeness observation sheet and the learning outcome test instrument. This research runs in 2 cycles, with each cycle consisting of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The results obtained, overall, there was an increase in student activity in the online learning process and student learning outcomes. The percentage of student activeness in online learning increased from 40.19% in cycle I to 85.29% in cycle II. Meanwhile, the percentage of student learning outcomes completeness was risen from 55.88% in the first cycle to 82.35%. Both have achieved the target set, which is 75%.
Suratmi Suratmi
International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, Volume 5, pp 97-104; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol5.iss2.art8

Abstract:
This study aims to increase the learning motivation of seventh-grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Ngaglik Sleman through "WhatsApp Group" in individual guidance. The population in this study was 369 students. The sample in this study was class VII SMP Negeri 3 Ngaglik Sleman totaling 128 which was divided into 3. The research method used in this study was Action research Guidance Counseling with the model developed by Kemmis and Mc. Taggart goes through four stages, namely planning, action, observation, and reflection. The research flow is carried out in two cycles. The results showed that the application of individual guidance through WhatsApp Group to the learning outcomes of Class VII students of SMP Negeri Ngaglik Sleman could increase. The average student evaluation results have exceeded the minimum value for each subject. As for the results after the students carried out mentoring activities for 3 cycles, as many as 5 students were in the very good category, and as many as 25 students were in a good category, and in the sufficient category as many as 2 students. Overall, the development of learning outcomes before being given action (pre-action) and after being given action for 3 cycles increased by 93.75%. Based on the results of the study showed that as much as 85% in the process of applying individual guidance through "WhatsApp group" on learning motivation can be used as an alternative in an effort to improve the process and learning outcomes of students.
Siti Prihatin, Muhammadiyah Surakarta University, Agung Sugiharto
IJCA (Indonesian Journal of Chemical Analysis), Volume 4, pp 58-63; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijca.vol4.iss2.art2

Abstract:
Usaha laundry merupakan usaha yang banyak ditemukan di Indonesia, usaha ini memiliki dampak negatif bagi lingkungan. Dampak negatif dari usaha laundry berupa limbah buangan deterjen yang dapat menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan. Pencemaran lingkungan yang disebabkan oleh limbah usaha laundry yang mengandung COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) dan fosfat yang tinggi melebihi baku mutu yang telah ditetapkan sehingga akan menyebabkan kerusakan pada ekosistem air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh koagulan kapur yang paling efektif dengan dosis 1,8 g, 2,2 g, 2,8 g, 3,2 g, dan 3,5 g waktu pengadukan 20 menit menggunakan metode koagulasi dalam menurunkan parameter COD dan fosfat pada limbah laundry sehingga memenuhi baku mutu yang telah ditetapkan. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa penurunan kadar COD yang efektif pada air limbah laundry terdapat pada penambahan dosis 3,5 gram koagulan kapur dengan presentase penurunan sebesar 88,89% dan untuk penurunan kadar fosfat yang efektif pada air limbah laundry terdapat pada penambahan dosis 1,8 gram koagulan kapur dengan presentase penurunan 99,66% karena pada dosis tersebut sudah mampu menurunkan kadar COD dan fosfat sesuai syarat baku mutu Perda Prov. Jateng No. 5 Tahun 2012 tentang baku mutu limbah industri deterjen.
Yusifa Arsy Variani, Lampung University, Endah Setyaningrum, Kusuma Handayani, Nismah Nukmal, Achmad Arifiyanto
IJCA (Indonesian Journal of Chemical Analysis), Volume 4, pp 64-71; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijca.vol4.iss2.art3

Abstract:
Serratia marcescens strain MBC1 merupakan bakteri gram negatif yang dapat menghasilkan beberapa senyawa bioaktif. Berdasarkan penelitian sebelumnya, diketahui bahwa bakteri ini mampu mendegradasi berbagai macam enzim dan memiliki berbagai macam aktivitas biologis seperti antibakteri, antikanker, biosurfaktan dan sebagai bahan obat-obatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada ekstrak metabolit sekunder Serratia marcescens strain MBC1. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan beberapa uji yaitu, uji fitokomia dan uji FT-IR. Hasil uji fitokimia menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak Serratia marcescens strain MBC1 mengandung senyawa golongan alkaloid dan saponin. Hasil uji FT-IR menunjukkan adanya kemiripan gugus fungsi yang dimiliki oleh ekstrak S.marcescens strain MBC1 dengan senyawa golongan alkaloid. Namun, perlu adanya penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai kandungan senyawa metabolit yang terkandung dalam ekstrak S. marcescens dan aktivitas biologisnya sebagai antimalaria, antibakteri, antifungi dan sebagai bahan obat-obatan.
Fahmi Puteri Perdani, Cucun Alep Riyanto, Yohanes Martono
IJCA (Indonesian Journal of Chemical Analysis), Volume 4, pp 72-81; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijca.vol4.iss2.art4

Abstract:
Unsur karbon yang cukup tinggi pada kulit singkong membuat peneliti memanfaatkannya sebagai karbon aktif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahmenentukan karakteristik karbon aktif kulit singkong (KASP) berdasarkan konsentrasi H3PO4 dan lama waktu aktivasi pada suhu 600 °C. Sintesis KASP menggunakan tahap karbonisasi pada suhu 500 °C, impregnasi menggunakan karbon:H3PO4 1:5 (b/b) dengan variasi konsentrasi yaitu pada 10-50%, aktivasi pada suhu 600 °C selama 2 jam. KASP dengan konsentrasi optimal kemudian diaktivasi menggunakan variasi waktu 1-3 jam pada suhu 600 °C. Selanjutnya KASP dikarakterisasi menggunakan FTIR, XRD, dan SEM-EDX. Morfologi permukaan KASP menunjukkan permukaan yang berongga yang dominasi oleh unsur C(55,20%), O(28,86%), N(8,00%), P(6,22%), dan Na(1,72%).
Adeline Novianti Putri, Muhammadiyah Surakarta University, Siti Fatimah
IJCA (Indonesian Journal of Chemical Analysis), Volume 4, pp 47-57; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijca.vol4.iss2.art1

Abstract:
Banyaknya produksi tahu di Indonesia menyebabkan melimpahnya pula limbah cair tahu. Limbah tersebut jika tidak diolah akan mencemarkan lingkungan sekitar yang nantinya akan menimbulkan dampak yang buruk bagi masyarakat. Salah satu pengolahan limbah cair tahu adalah dengan membuat Nata de Soya. Artikel ini merupakan hasil penelitian mengenai pengolahan limbah cair tahu menjadi Nata de Soya dengan penambahan ekstrak jeruk nipis dan gula dari bakteri Acetobacter xylinum. Selama proses fermentasi, metabolisme Acetobacter xylinum dipengaruhi oleh keasamaan media. Penambahan asam yang digunakan yaitu asam sitrat yang terdapat dalam jeruk nipis. Asam sitrat ini juga digunakan untuk membentuk asam glukonat dengan bantuan bakteri. Selain penambahan ekstrak jeruk nipis, adanya penambahan gula pada pembuatan Nata de Soya akan berpengaruh terhadap karakteristik ketebalan, berat dari Nata de Soya, kadar air, kadar serat, kadar vitamin C dan rendemennya. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa Nata de Soya dengan konsentrasi jeruk nipis 10 mL dan gula 28 (g/L) mempunyai kadar air tertinggi sebesar 98,86%, pada uji kadar serat hasil tertinggi yaitu pada kadar gula 42 (g/L) dan jeruk nipis 10 mL dengan perolehan kadar serat sebesar 1,18%, uji kadar vitamin C tertinggi yaitu pada kadar gula 42 (g/L) dan ekstrak jeruk nipis 30 mL sebesar 7,40%. Pada hasil berat nata didapatkan hasil tertinggi yaitu pada ekstrak jeruk nipis 10 ml dan kadar gula 42 (g/L) sebesar 0,55 mm dan untuk uji berat nata didapatkan hasil tertinggi sebesar 44,87 cm untuk konsentrasi jeruk nipis 10 mL dan gula 42 (g/L). Untuk hasil uji rendemen tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 7,40% pada konsentrasi jeruk nipis 10 mL dan gula 42 (g/L).
Aurelia Urbaninggar, Muhammadiyah Surakarta University, Siti Fatimah
IJCA (Indonesian Journal of Chemical Analysis), Volume 4, pp 82-91; https://doi.org/10.20885/ijca.vol4.iss2.art5

Abstract:
Nata termasuk makanan yang mempunyai morfologi dengan tekstur kenyal, warna putih, agak transparan, aromanya asam dan memiliki rasa tawar atau sedikit manis. Nata terbentuk dari aktivitas bakteri Acetobacter Xylinum pada medium berupa cairan dengan kandungan gula yang cukup tinggi. Gula akan ditransfigurasi menjadi nata melalui proses fermentasi. Penamaan produk nata disesuaikan dengan bahan apa yang digunakan, Nata de Soya adalah nata yang dibuat dari limbah cair tahu. Kandungan protein dan karbohidrat dari air limbah tahu (whey) sangat tinggi sehingga dapat dijadikan media pertumbuhan yang menunjang bakteri Acetobacter Xylinum dalam proses pembuatan nata. Penambahan ekstrak kulit nanas bisa dijadikan pilihan sebagai media pertumbuhan Acetobacter Xylinum. Kulit nanas dapat dijadikan sebagai media untuk pertumbuhan Acetobacter Xylinum karena memiliki air, karbohidrat dan mineral dalam substrat sebagai nutrisi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengolah limbah cair tahu menjadi Nata de Soya dengan metode fermentasi dan mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi gula dan ekstrak kulit nanas pada karakteristik Nata de Soya. Variasi penambahan konsentrasi sukrosa adalah 28 g dan 42 g dengan ekstrak kulit nanas sebesar 30 mL dan 40 mL. Hasil Nata de Soya dilihat dari tingkat kadar air yang maksimal diperoleh 99,24 % dengan konsentrasi gula 28 g dan ekstrak kulit nanas 30 mL. Kualitas Nata de Soya terbaik adalah pada konsentrasi gula 42 g dan ekstrak kulit nanas 40 mL dengan kadar serat 1,32 %, vitamin C 13,80 mg/100 g, rendemen 49,09 %, tebal 1,5 cm dan berat 527,27 g.
Hambali Yusuf, Topo Santoso, Nashriana Nashriana
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 481-504; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art2

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to first, find the argument that forgiveness and punishment are needed as an alternative to other sanctions from imprisonment for the crime of murder. Second, to explain the criminal system in the application of forgiveness and punishment to ordinary murders in Islamic criminal law. Third, outlining/analyzing the policy of criminalizing the sanctions of Forgiveness and Diat on the crime of murder in the renewal of criminal sanctions. This type of research is a normative research. The approach is a statutory approach and a comparative approach as well as a philosophical approach. The results of the study conclude that first, an alternative to imprisonment is needed for ordinary murder. The application of forgiveness and punishment as an alternative to imprisonment for the crime of murder has a strong basis, both theoretically, philosophically, juridically, sociologically, and even the constitutional basis of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Second, in the application of forgiveness and punishment, the judge will apply it if there is forgiveness from the family victim. Third, as a renewal of sanctions, forgiveness and punishment are not a guide for judges, but as reasons for not imposing imprisonment, and choosing to impose an alternative fine to imprisonment, it is necessary to include it in the Draft Law on the Criminal Code which will be discussed. by the legislature.
Muhammad Arif Setiawan, Mahrus Ali
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 459-480; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art1

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the application of participating perpetrator in court decisions in corruption cases. The research question is whether the double intention as a condition for participating perpetrator in the decision of a corruption case is fulfilled? As a normative legal research, the study in this research is focused on the ratio of four decisions on corruption cases, especially the concept of criminal participation. The results of the study concluded that the double-intentional evidence as a condition for participating perpetrator so was ignored by the panel of judges. The role of involvement of each defendant in the offense of participating perpetrator in the ongoing decision is not described. The judge is not even able to distinguish between the conditions of a person as a perpetrator and the participating perpetrator. In the decisions studied, the judges also mixed the concepts of ordering, advocating, and participating in committing criminal acts of corruption. The judge's inaccuracy in the use of double intention resulted in the emergence of an unfair sentence. Therefore, this study suggests that the Supreme Court should make guidelines for the application of participating perpetrator in corruption cases.
Umbu Rauta, Titon Slamet Kurnia
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 527-549; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art4

Abstract:
This article discusses the Supreme Court Decision Number 29 P/HUM/2019 on the Judicial Review of Article 7 and Article 9 paragraph (1) of Governor of Bali Regulation No. 97 of 2018 on Restrictions on the Generation of Single-use Plastic Waste. The Supreme Court (MA) rejected the applicant's application with a dedicendi ratio that the a quo Governor's Regulation was justifiable as it was based on the principle of decentralization and the impact of single-use plastic waste that pollutes or damages the environment. The legal issues highlighted relate to how the relationship between legal products in the form of legislation and regulations should be, as well as whether the Supreme Court's judicial considerations in its decisions are appropriate according to the law. The research method is done with conceptual and case study approaches. The results of the study that: First, legal products in the form of regulations are an elaboration of legislation, so that regulations may not create new legal norms. Second, the Supreme Court's judicial opinion is incorrect as it does not distinguish between legislation and regulation products, so there is an impression that everything can be regulated by regional legal products provided that it is in accordance with the regional conditions. In addition, the act of limiting Human Rights is only carried out through legislative products in the form of legislation (laws).
Dahliana Hasan
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 505-526; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art3

Abstract:
Constitutional Court Decision No. 15/PUU-XV/2017 opens up opportunities for the imposition of taxes on heavy equipment with a new legal basis through amendments to Law no. 28 of 2009 on Regional Taxes and Levies. Therefore, legislators need to think about the right concept of tax on heavy equipment, especially with regard to the environmental impacts caused as a result of its operation. This is a normative legal research using case study and conceptual approaches wtih qualitative analysis. This study concludes that the proposed heavy equipment tax concept is directed at restructuring the fuel tax policy and formulating a new concept for heavy equipment tax or registration fees that can become agents of pollution behavior change. However, both legislators and executors need to anticipate the main challenges that may arise in restructuring and implementing the tax policy.
Entol Zaenal Muttaqin, Ahmad Zaini
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 657-676; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art10

Abstract:
This paper aims firstly, to identify the background of how the Vrijwillige Onderwepping and Toepasselijk Verklaring policies are made. Second, to explore the influence of the policies of Vrijwillige Onderwepping and Toepasselijk Verklaring in realizing legal unification in the Dutch East Indies. The method used is normative juridical with statutory and historical approaches. At the end this paper concludes that, First, the vrijwillige onderwepping and toepasselijk verklaring policies were made to bridge two different perspectives even though the ultimate goal is unification. Second, this policy greatly influenced the submission of the natives to European law although complete unification was never achieved due to the arrival of the Japan in 1942.
Mirza Satria Buana, Wahyudi Djafar, Ellisa Vikalista
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 572-595; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art6

Abstract:
This article analyzes normative issues in various laws and regulations governing the handling of freedom of peaceful assembly. The formulations of the problems analyzed in this article are: first, whether the regulation and limitation of the right to peaceful assembly in Indonesia are in line with international human rights ideals. Second, how are the arrangements and restrictions on the right of assembly from other countries, which can provide constructive input on the norms for regulating and limiting the freedom of peaceful assembly in Indonesia? This article uses normative legal research and a comparative approach to constitutional law, by looking at concepts and practices from other countries. The conclusions of this study are: first, the regulation and restriction of the freedom of peaceful assembly is still far from the ideal of international human rights. There are still ambivalent and discriminatory arrangements. Second, the conclusion from the results of the comparative study found that there are many variants of gathering activities that are not accommodated by Indonesian legislation, such as: sudden gatherings, continuous and scheduled gatherings, and reciprocal gatherings.
Devi Andani, Wiwin Budi Pratiwi
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 635-656; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art9

Abstract:
This study aims to determine firstly, the application of simple evidenciary in the application for Postponement of Debt Payment Obligations (PKPU) and secondly, the comparison of the concept of simple evidenciary in PKPU. The research method used is normative legal research, data is collected by means of literature studies and documents written descriptively and analyzed qualitatively. The results of this study show that first, simple evidenciary provision in Article 8 paragraph (4) in conjunction with Article 2 paragraph (1) of the Bankruptcy Law and PKPU, regulates that simple evidenciary applies to applications for bankruptcy statements. Whereas in the PKPU petition, in fact the Bankruptcy Law and PKPU do not require the application of simple evidenciary which states that the petition for a declaration of bankruptcy must be granted if there are facts or circumstances that are simply proven that the requirements for bankruptcy are declared. Second, although the Bankruptcy Law and PKPU do not regulate the principle of simple proof that can be applied in a PKPU application, judges can apply the simple evidenciary principle by taking into account the principles of simple, fast, and low-cost justice and the objectives of the Bankruptcy Law and PKPU can be achieved.
Ni'matul Huda
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 550-571; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art5

Abstract:
The obesity of regulations at the central and regional levels lead to problems in structuring legislation. The various ministerial regulations make it difficult for local governments to follow up. The problems studied in this research are first, what is the position and content of ministerial regulations in the perspective of legislation and the presidential system in Indonesia? Second, how to avoid obesity in the formation of ministerial regulations in the administration of government? The two problems will be analyzed in descriptive-qualitative manner, using statutory and conceptual approaches. The results of this study conclude that first, ministerial regulations are essentially not included in the hierarchy of laws and regulations, yet they can be issued by the minister as long as there is an authority or order from a higher law to regulate it and only applies internally for the benefit of the present institution. However, the ministers in the presidential system are not responsible to the parliament but to the president, hence the right person to stipulate the laws and regulations should be the president; second, to avoid the occurrence of obesity in the formation of ministerial regulations, the president only needs to form a Government Regulation or Presidential Regulation, and does not need to delegate it to the minister to form implementing regulations.
Rahayu Rahayu, Diastama Anggita Ramadhan, Pulung Widhi Hari Hananto
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 614-634; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art8

Abstract:
The employment sector is the most severely affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, including in Indonesia. More than 2 million people have lost their jobs, meaning they no longer have the income to make ends meet. This study aims to identify and analyze the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the employment status of workers in Semarang City, as well as the efforts made by the Semarang City Government to carry out its obligations to fulfill the rights of these workers. This research is a qualitative research with a doctrinal approach, and uses secondary data obtained through literature study in the form of regulatory and policy instruments as well as relevant scientific concepts. This study concludes that the Covid-19 pandemic has an impact on the employment status of some workers in the city of Semarang, namely experiencing termination of employment (PHK) or being ‘sent home'. Regarding this situation, the Semarang City Government is trying its best so that the rights of workers affected by the Covid-19 handling policy can be fulfilled by the company by encouraging an agreement to be reached between the parties. For workers who are affected, the Semarang City Government also provides various stimuli and social assistance.
Alan Bayu Aji, Kartika Dwi Chandra Sari
Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, Volume 28, pp 596-613; https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol28.iss3.art7

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This research departs from the use of village funds which are still oriented towards infrastructure development in the midst of the low Human Development Index in Banyumas Regency which is influenced by the level of community health. The purpose of the research is to identify first, the authority of the Village Government in the use of village funds for health sector activities according to applicable regulations. Second, the role of the Village Government in utilizing village funds for health sector activities in Banyumas Regency. Third, the Village Fund utilization model for future public health activities. The research method used is normative juridical with statutory, case and conceptual approaches. The results of the study show that first, the authority of the village government for the utilization of village funds in the health sector is regulated in the Minister of Village Regulation Number 01 of 2015. Second, it was found that the role played by the village government in 50 villages in Banyumas is still lacking, it is proven that only 6% allocation of village funds for health. Third, the model that will be built in the future is the use of a bottom-up system in village development planning, health census, formation of peer education as well as socialization and periodic monitoring from the government.
Awanis Linati Haziroh, Febrianur Ibnu Fitroh Sukono Putra, Risanda Alirastra Budiantoro
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 116-127; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art4

Abstract:
The lecturer performance appraisal system is the work of lecturers within the scope of their responsibilities which refers to a formal and structured system used as an instrument to measure, assess, and influence work-related traits, control lecturer behavior, including absenteeism rates and work results. Lecturer professionalism must, of course, be related and built through mastery of fundamental competencies in carrying out and completing their duties and work as lecturers, such as professional competence, social competence, and personal competence. The low performance of lecturers is suspect of having reasons such as lack of attention and concern from leaders, for example, less effective leadership styles, less communicative work relationships, lack of harmony, lack of welfare, lack of motivation, lack of a comfortable work environment, and lack of satisfaction felt by the lecturers. Based on these reasons, further research is needed on the influence of leadership style and work environment on lecturer performance in carrying out the teaching and learning process at private universities in Semarang. This research is a quantitative study with a sample of 127 permanent lecturers in the management department of private universities in Semarang. The analytical technique used in this study is path analysis with the results. Among others, leadership style, information technology support, and work environment significantly affect lecturer performance. Furthermore, the work environment can mediate the relationship between leadership style and information technology support on lecturer performance.
Ahmad Musodik, Arrum Puspita Sari, Ida Nur Fitriani
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 165-175; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art8

Abstract:
Investment is a tool for investors to get more profit than what has been invested. Investors must be able to predict the possibilities that occur when investing. Capital Asset Pricing Model is a tool to predict the development of investment in a particular company used to calculate and determine the Expected Return in minimizing risk investments. The authors conducted research using a sample of 5 companies in the automotive industry, namely PT Astra International Tbk, PT Indokordsa Tbk, PT Indomobil Sukses Internasional Tbk, PT Astra Otoparts Tbk, and PT Gajah Tunggal Tbk. This study uses a descriptive quantitative approach with Microsoft Excel 2016 analysis tools. This study aims to determine Portfolio Analysis with the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) approach which is used as the basis for making stock investment decisions in automotive industry sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Use from the results of the analysis of the results by comparing the value of E(Ri) has a directly proportional relationship, meaning that the higher the value of, then the stock return (E(Ri)) will be high as well. Of the 5 companies, there are 2 companies that are in the Undervalued category and 3 companies that are in the overvalued category. This means that investors who will invest in companies engaged in the automotive industry can decide to buy shares of the companies PT Indomobil Sukses Internasional Tbk and PT Gajah Tunggal Tbk, because they are classified as undervalued. Meanwhile, investors who want to invest in shares are not advised to buy company shares that are in the overvalued category, but are advised to sell them to investors who already have shares in the company.
Ehsanullah Oria, Mirwan Surya Perdhana
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 105-115; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art3

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to review empirical researches on role of customer in marketing and development (RCMD) and betterment of the firm’s performance and pave the way for future researches. This article is a cumulative literature review of empirical articles on (RCMD). In previous empirical studies two units of analysis has been conducted (individual and firm unit) which includes two viewpoints: The customers' viewpoint and the firms’ viewpoint. The customers’ viewpoint that consider RCMD issues from customer perspectives and stresses on practices of customers in marketing and development. The company's viewpoint looks at RCMD issues from firms' perspectives and analyzes company's action of including customers and how RCMD may influence firm’s performance. During the investigation it was found that RCMD comprises of different streams of literature that follow various conventions and remain very detached from one another. However, there are some common themes between these two streams of researches. For instance, customer knowledge and experience has all seems to be vital for RCMD from the two points of view, learning capacities of a customer and of a firm have both been discovered to be exceptionally important for RCMD. It was also found that significantly less exploration is done from the firm's viewpoint to understand what drives firms to receive RCMD and what prepares them to effectively preform it. Ultimately, there was absence of hypothetical improvement in all subareas. This article goes beyond existing researches by uniting various streams of studies, evaluating key differences related to the concept and findings on antecedents and outcomes of RCMD. This article suggest that future studies ought to embrace a consistent and predictable conceptualization of RCMD and restrain using wide terms.
Ardiana Nur Maulida H, Indarto Indarto, Aprih Santoso
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 128-143; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art5

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to analyze the effect of financial knowledge on financial behavior with financial attitudes and self-efficacy as mediating variables. The population of this research is that all students in Semarang are unknown. The number of respondents to 96 people. The sample selection method is purposive sampling, namely: students have taken courses in financial management and intermediate financial accounting and the analytical tool used in this study was Warp PLS version 5.0. The results showed that financial knowledge has a positive and significant direct effect on financial attitudes, self-efficacy and financial behavior of students in Semarang City, so that the proposed hypothesis can be accepted. Financial attitudes and self-efficacy have a positive and significant direct effect on the financial behavior of students in Semarang City, so that the proposed hypothesis can be accepted. Financial attitudes and self-efficacy do not mediate the effect of financial knowledge on financial behavior of students in Semarang City.
Zarra Zettina Wiji Riniardi, Trias Setiawati
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 144-154; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art6

Abstract:
The study purposes were to understand the background of women scientist (WS) in studying science, what motivate them to choose science and technology field, exploring their achievement, understanding their social support, exploring their problems. This research was qualitative case study approach. The key informant were four who come from Industrial Engineering and Mathematics and Science Faculty of Universitas Islam Indonesia. The data collection method used depth interviews, observation and documentation. The data test method used triangulation while analysis uses reduction-display-conclusion. The research found that WS studied science because of their interest of internal factor and the environment role of external factor. Their motives also gave benefit for others and increase their networking that is bit similar to McClelland’s Theory. WS had high excellent achievement in functional and structural positions, they received awards from their university until international award which are related to their research result. They also occupied important university structural position. They faced role conflict problem which similar to Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) Theory which increase their behavior changing. They faced marginalization because of their marital status and fear of success tendency which are losing cooking skills and having risk of not having friends which similar to Shaw and Costanzo (1982) Theory.
Danang Satrio, Siti Yunitarini, Nila Rizqiani
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 81-94; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art1

Abstract:
Public awareness in Indonesia in responding to global warming has increased significantly. Increased public awareness plays an important role in providing challenges and opportunities for companies that provide goods or services to create products that are in accordance with their wishes. The challenge is to guarantee that the goods or services provided are safe for consumers and friendly and do not damage the environment. The concept of green marketing mix refers to the satisfaction of customer needs, wants, and desires in relation to the maintenance and preservation of the environment. Discussions on environmental issues in developed countries have been initiated and developed since the 1990s. Green marketing is a marketing concept used by companies to achieve the main goal of making a profit. Green marketing in the process is an act of integrating broad activities, which include product modifications, changes to the production process, changes to packaging, to changes to advertising. Based on this phenomenon, this study aims to find out how much influence the application of the green marketing mix has on sales.
Antonius Satria Hadi
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 95-104; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art2

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of product attribute on repurchase intention, the effect of promotion mix on repurchase intention, the influence of distribution channel on repurchase intention, and the effect of price on repurchase intention, both partially and simultaneously. Respondents in this study were 99 students from several universities in Yogyakarta. The analytical technique used in this research is multiple linear regression analysis, F test and t test. All tests using IBM SPSS software version 23. The results of this study prove that product attribute has a positive effect on repurchase intention, price has a positive effect on repurchase intention, and promotion mix has a positive effect on repurchase intention. Each of hypotheses discussed in detail into this article.
Aprih Santoso, Audi Redha Sispradana
Asian Management and Business Review, Volume 1, pp 155-164; https://doi.org/10.20885/ambr.vol1.iss2.art7

Abstract:
The problem with this research is that there is a tendency to decrease demand for Hemart brand cooking oil in 2018-2019. This makes it a challenge for the Hemart cooking oil product distributor company to find out the factors that influence the decline in purchases. This study aims to analyze brand image, product quality, promotion and knowledge of sales promotion on the purchasing decisions of PT. Transfarma Semarang Branch. The population in this study were all consumers of PT. Transfarma Semarang Branch, which amounted to 566 consumers, while the sampling technique used was a non-probability sampling technique with purposive sampling and the analytical tool used in this study was multiple linear regression. The results showed that the variables of consumer confidence, consumer experience and sales promotion had a positive and significant effect on purchasing decisions of PT. Transfarma Semarang Branch and the results of the adjusted R square value in the regression model were obtained at 0.584, which means that 58.4 percent of the purchasing decision variables can be explained by the variables of consumer confidence, consumer experience and sales promotion while the remaining 41.6 percent is explained by other variables outside of this study.
In Rahmi Fatria Fajar, Dewi Rahma Fitri, Nisa Fitriyani, Michael Chuanvin
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art1

Abstract:
Background: Tespong herbs (O. Javanica DC.) contain numerous chemical compounds considered beneficial for medications, including flavonoids, phenols, and tannins, which can function as antioxidants. Nanoparticles are materials with a size range of 1-1000 nanometers which can increase the bioavailability of drugs, thus accelerating the drug delivery system in the body. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of herbal extract and nanoextract of Tespong and to compare their antioxidant activity. Methods: Extraction of tespong herbs was done using maceration for three days, nanoextract was formulated using the ionic gelation method with herbal extract of tespong, chitosan, and Na-TPP. Antioxidant activity testing was carried out using the DPPH method. Results: The water content of tespong herbal extract was 1.78%, and the total ash content was 4.95%. The tespong herbal nanoextract was 148.1nm in diameter with a polydispersity index of 0.362 and a zeta potential value of -39.16 mV. The IC50 values of tespong herbal extract and nanoextract were 65.424 ppm and 97.106 ppm, respectively, which fell into the strong category. Conclusion: Tespong herbal extract had a higher antioxidant activity compared to its nanoextract. Keywords: Tespong herb, nanoextract, chitosan, Na-TPP
Oki Nugraha Putra, Surabaya Universitas Hang Tuah
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 34-45; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art4

Abstract:
Background: The main modality in HIV patients is the administration of long-treatment antiretroviral therapy (ARV). One of the problems from the use of ARV therapy is the side effects that can reduce patient compliance in taking medication, which has the potential to cause treatment failure. Objective: This study aims to examine the side effects and their causality in the use of ARVs in outpatient HIV patients at the VCT Clinic, Bhayangkara H.S. Hospital. Samsoeri Mertojoso Surabaya. Methods: This research was a prospective observational study with a cross-sectional design. Side effect data were taken from HIV patients by interview using the Naranjo algorithm. HIV patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study sample using consecutive sampling. This research was conducted from January to March 2020. Results: There were 72 outpatient HIV patients who met the inclusion criteria. The most opportunistic infections found in HIV patients are tuberculosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia. The results showed that the most common side effects experienced by patients were dizziness (43%), nausea and vomiting (31%), and rash (11%) with the highest Naranjo score being in the probable category of 86%. The Naranjo score in HIV patients with opportunistic infections and with comorbidities was significantly smaller than those in HIV patients without opportunistic infections or without comorbidities with independent t-test (P <0.05). Conclusion: The side effects in HIV patients while undergoing treatment with antiretroviral therapy are classified as a minor side effect and the cause of the side effects that occur is thought to be due to the probable category of ARV therapy. Keywords: HIV Patients, Antiretroviral, Side Effects, Naranjo's Algorithm.
Bambang Hernawan Nugroho, Rika Artikawati, Suparmi Suparmi
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 64-73; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art7

Abstract:
Background: Silver nanoparticle could be developed by natural reducing agent like Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) of banana leaves (Musa sapientum) as bioreductor in biosynthesis. Objective: This study aimed to examine the formulation and characterization of silver nanoparticles using the combination of banana leaf (M. sapientum) extract containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for biosynthesis. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is eco-friendly and low energy process. Method: Each formula was added with 500microlitre AgNO3. Identification of nanoparticles was characterized by duration of its discoloration, its absorbance using UV/Vis spectrophotometer and FTIR, its particle size using PSA, and its morphology under TEM. Result: The silver nanoparticle formation need less than 15 minutes. The measurement of its absorbance showed the wavelength of this silver nanoparticles are in the range of 410-480nm. Characterization using FTIR showed a decrease in absorption of the functional -OH group spectrum. This particle has the smallest particle size in value of 57.16 ± 0.40 nm in spherical shape. Conclusion: Nanosilver could be prepared using banana leaf extract using low energy biosynthesis process. Keywords: characterization, nanosilver, banana leaf (M. sapientum)
Sani Ega Priani
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 46-55; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art5

Abstract:
Background: Enhancing the immune system is very important during the Covid-19 pandemic to prevent infections and reduce the risk of disease severity. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural products with an immunostimulant effect. In Islam, there is a system of treatment or disease prevention based on Al-Quran and Hadith, which is called Tibb an-Nabawi or prophetic medicine. Objective: This research aims to conduct a literature study of Tibb an-Nabawi, which has proved to be able to increase the immune system, based on Islamic and scientific approaches. Method: The research was based on a systematic literature review using research articles from the last ten years. The inclusion criteria were articles discussing the immunostimulatory activity of Tibb an-Nabawi, while the exclusion criteria were immune system enhancing herbs that were not Tibb an-Nabawi. Results: Based on the literature studies, it is known that at least six natural products based on Tibb an-Nabawi have scientifically proved to increase the immune system, namely black cumin, honey, dates, ginger, garlic, and pumpkin. The mechanism of immune system enhancement is different in each substance, but in general, they can increase humoral or cellular immunity. The active compounds contained in each of these ingredients contribute to the resulting immunostimulant activity. Conclusion: Black cumin, honey, dates, ginger, garlic, and pumpkin are natural products based on Al-Quran and Hadith, which have scientifically proved to enhance the immune system. Keywords: Tibb an-Nabawi, Thibbun Nabawi, immune system, immunostimulant, pandemic
Rike Syahniar, Fakultas Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan Departemen Mikrobiologi Dan Parasitologi, Audia Nizhma Nabila, Dayu Swasti Kharisma, Muhammad Afif Akbar
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 56-63; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art6

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Background: Pneumonia causes high mortality, hospitalization costs and health services. There is some growing debate regarding the efficacy of different treatment management approaches. The use of certain antibiotic regimens combination and monotherapy have been associated with improved outcomes. Objective: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of monotherapy and combination therapy on length of stay. Method: This retrospective study included patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) who received empirical therapy between January - December 2017 at Jakarta Islamic Hospital of Cempaka Putih. Two hundred and ninety four subjects were included in this study. Results: Subjects who received monotherapy and combination therapy were 73.8% and 26.2%. Mean length of stay was 5 days. The most widely used antibiotic in this study was ceftriaxone with levofloxacin (35%) for combination therapy and levofloxacin (38,2%) for monotherapy. There is a relationship between comorbidities and long-term hospitalization (p=0.008). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between combination therapy and monotherapy with length of stay (p=0.277). Keywords: Pneumonia, monotherapy, combination therapy, Jakarta Islamic Hospital of Cempaka Putih
Pratiwi Apridamayanti
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 96-106; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art10

Abstract:
Background: Bamboo leaves (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad ex.J.C) are plants that are known to have pharmacological activity, one of which is to have antibacterial activity. Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU) is one chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. DFU is open sores on the surface of the skin that can be accompanied by local tissue death. Infection that is not appropriately treated in patients can cause amputation. Improper use of antibiotics can cause resistance events. A resistance that occurs in Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli in isolates from DFU patients encourages researchers to look for alternative antibiotics from natural resources. Objective: Determine the profile of secondary metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, foam index, total phenols, total flavonoids and the antibacterial activity of bamboo (B. vulgaris) through the antibacterial with clear zone value of bamboo leaf ethanol extract against bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis. Method: Phenol, flavonoid, and triterpenoid test using TLC method. Saponin tests were carried out using foam index, fish index, and hemolytic index test methods. Total flavonoid testing using Chang method and total phenol method using the Follin Ciocalteau reagent then proceed using a spectrophotometer. Test the antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion method. Results: Chromatographic profile, phenol, flavonoid, and triterpenoid compounds were obtained; saponin index obtained foam index of 333; fish index of 200; and the hemolytic index of 1,111. The total phenol test was 16.052 ± 3.12 % and the total flavonoid was 2.42 ± 0.44 %. Antibacterial activity test obtained MIC values of 60 mg/ml for E. coli bacteria; 100 mg/ml for the bacterium P. aeruginosa; and 30 mg/ml of P. mirabilis. Conclusion: The content of secondary metabolites found in the ethanol extract of bamboo leaves were flavonoid, phenol, saponin and triterpenoids. Ethanol extract of bamboo leaves has a the potential to produce antibacterial activity against gram-negative pathogenic bacteria isolated from diabetic wound patients Keywords: Bambusa vulgaris Schrad ex.J.C, total phenol, total flavonoid, MIC
Madyawati Latief, Muhaimin Muhaimin, Hilda Amanda, Indra Lasmana Tarigan, Siti Aisyah
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art2

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Background: Exploration of the chemical contents and bioactivities of mangrove plants is important to discover new therapeutic agents for society and to develop its medicinal values. Objective: This study aims to isolate alkaloid compounds from the ethanol extract of Sonneratia alba root which is likely to have an antibacterial activity. Methods: Isolation was carried out using fractionation and chromatography, while antibacterial activity test was performed using the disc diffusion methods. Results: Our phytochemical screening shows that the ethanol extract has a high concentration of alkaloid compounds. The alkaloid which contain in isolate (F4) is further confirmed through UV-Vis Spectra and FT-IR spectra. The ethanol extract exhibits the antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli with the inhibition zone of 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Alkaloid compound has been isolated from Sonneratia alba and has potential as antibacterial agent. Keywords: mangrove perepat (Sonneratia alba), alkaloid, antibacterial agent
Novi Dwi Rugiarti, Atika Nurul Hidayati, Dian Medisa, Diesty Anita Nugraheni
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 74-79; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art8

Abstract:
Background: Evaluation of drug storage in a primary health care is an important process in drug management. Evaluation use with indicators. Some of indicators are Percentage of expired date drugs, percentage of stockout and Turn Over Ratio (TOR). Objective: This study aimed to know the efficiency of drug storage in Mlati II primary health care Methods: This observation research use retrospective data. Results: Percentage of expired date drugs was 2.45% and percentage stockout was 2.45% and Turn Over Ratio was 5.2 times Conclusion: Drug storage has not efficient yet. Keywords: Evaluation, drug storage, primary health care
Hasria Alang, Stkip-Pembangunan Indonesia Makassar Prodi Pendidikan Biologi, Hastuti Hastuti, Muhammad Sri Yusal
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 19-33; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art3

Abstract:
Background: Traditional medicine knowledge is one of the local wisdoms and is passed down from generation to generation. Traditional medicine needs to be preserved in order to maintain the continuity of this knowledge; besides that, it requires a balance between modern medicine and herbal medicine. Herbal medicine is easy to obtain in the surrounding environment, at affordable prices and guarantees the safety of medicinal chemicals that are harmful to the body. The use of drugs for a long period of time is a habit that is harmful to the body organs because they contain certain chemical compounds that are not safe for human vital organs, so it is necessary to make an inventory effort by digging up information from traditional healers. This research is expected to make a significant contribution so that the role of herbal plants can be maintained and developed in the future. Objective: to inventory the plant species which useful as traditional medicines used by traditional healers of the Tolaki tribe in Puundoho village. Method: The method used in this research is a qualitative exploration, through an emic approach or a community and ethical perspective supported by scientific literature. The use of qualitative methods in this study is intended to describe people's knowledge Results: The interview results with three traditional healers (mbu'wai) in Puundoho village about plants that can be used as traditional medicines. It can be found on the side of the road, garden and yard. The part of the plant used is the whole plant or part of the plant such as roots, stems, or leaves. The method to blend it is boiled or mashed. The use of traditional medicines is applied orally or topically. Conclusion: The types of traditional medicinal plants used by the Tolaki tribe in Puundoho village can be obtained from yards, gardens, and roadsides including sidaguri, ciplukan, jeringan, bangle, purslane, bandotan, boborongan, turi, meniran, ­­­­banjar berrywit, mesoyi, ketepeng, guava, ginger, kencur, blechnum nails and ketepeng Keywords: Herbal medicine, inventarytation, medicinal plants, traditional medicine
Indri Nuraeni Pratiwi, Widhya Aligita, Marita Kaniawati
Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, Volume 17, pp 80-95; https://doi.org/10.20885/jif.vol17.iss1.art9

Abstract:
Background: Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting more than 10 million people worldwide. This disease is characterized by progressive dopaminergic neuron damage in the substantia nigra. This damage can be triggered by aging and the presence of oxidative stress because of free radicals. Antioxidants can inhibit the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress, so they can be used as an alternative treatment for Parkinson's disease. Objective: This review article aimed to provide information about the antioxidant effects of selected herbal plants on Parkinson's disease. Method: This study used literature study methods sourced from national and international scientific journals published in the last 5 years (2016-2020). Literature search were carried out using databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and Garuda Portal. Results: The high content of antioxidants in plants could protect nerve cells from oxidative damage and reduce symptoms such as tremors, muscle stiffness, impaired coordination and motor balance in test animals. Conclusion: Natural antioxidants from herbal plants proved to be able to prevent oxidative stress caused by free radicals and reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, antioxidants, oxidative stress, herbal plants
Suci Miranda, Universitas Islam Indonesia Teknik Industri, Elisa Kusrini
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 92-102; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art6

Abstract:
Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) called MARS Genuine Leather is one of the SMEs under the guidance of the Department of Industry and Trade (Disperindag) in the Sleman region, Yogyakarta. In 2018, MARS and 10 other SMEs in Sleman and Bantul Regency have involved in research with the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Islamic University of Indonesia regarding supply chain performance analysis using the Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) Model. The results showed that MARS had the lowest supply chain value among the 5 SMEs in the Sleman region. Continuing the results of the research, improvements were made through Community Service activities regarding the implementation of 5S in MARS. the Department of Industry and Trade (Disperindag) of Sleman has provided several pieces of training on the implementation of 5S for SME owners. However, this training has not been applied directly to each IKM. Therefore, this service activity aims to provide hands-on training on the implementation of 5S at IKM MARS as well as one of the improvements that can be made to the results of previous supply chain performance analysis research. The results of this service are in the form of direct training guidance at IKM, videos of the first 3S implementation (Seiri, Seiso, Seiton), and a checklist form that can be used by IKM as an internal audit. The 5S knowledge and skills that have been applied in MARS are expected to help the enterprise to reduce waste as well as increase productivity in the future.
Yuant Tiandho, Fakultas Teknik Jurusan Fisika, Herman Aldila, Yekti Widyaningrum, Tri Kusmita, Anisa Indriawati, Widodo Budi Kurniawan, Fitri Afriani
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 60-69; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art2

Abstract:
As an archipelago, handling plastic waste in the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands is an aspect that needs to be taken seriously. Apart from being focused on developing tourist areas, plastic waste will easily be carried to the sea and prone to be degraded into microplastics, often consumed by marine animals. This community service activity focuses on Penyak Village, Kec. Koba, Kab. Central Bangka, Bangka Belitung Islands. To solve the plastic problem in that location, the community service team conducted training for the community, especially for Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (PKK) members, related to processing plastic waste into various recycled creations such as bags, pencil cases, and different kinds of souvenirs. The training program is carried out by providing materials and direct training to increase the understanding and skills. To broaden people's insights, the team conducted training with the Ecoplantstic start-up, which focuses on developing waste-based products. Through the evaluation, it is known that the training provided can improve the knowledge and skills of the community in processing plastic waste into various recycled creations, and several participants plan to develop the skills acquired for entrepreneurial purposes.
Shannaz Mutiara Deniar, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang Program Studi Hubungan Internasional, Yeyen Pratika, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang Program Studi Manajemen
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art4

Abstract:
Batu City is one of the tourist destinations in Indonesia. In addition to very diverse tourist destinations, Batu City also has cultural characteristics that are very close to the community so that it can be used as an identity. For this reason, this community service focuses on the development and preservation of cultural products found in Batu City. This program associates with the Paguyuban Sangga Braja. This association has a very high concern for cultural products, especially the traditional headband or known as udeng. Udeng designed by the community is based on the history, philosophy, topography and local wisdom of Batu City. Although this udeng has received recognition from the local government, but the information and public awareness about this udeng is still very lacking. In fact, this association expects that this product can be used as a characteristic of Batu City as a tourist city that has a cultural identity. To overcome this problem, the solution offered is to digitalize this batik pattern of udeng and the registration for copyright.
Rizky Pradana, Riri Irawati, Agnes Aryasanti, Dwi Achadiani, Hendri Irawan
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 70-78; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art3

Abstract:
The current prolonged pandemic requires every individual to do social distancing and physical distancing. This made a difference study and work patterns. In order to overcome this and prepare workforce in the future, it requires an habituation of learning patterns and work through devices you own from your home or residence. To improve the performance of the learning process, an additional learning mechanism is needed on the use of technology, especially in the field of digital calculations. In order to solve this problem on the partner's side, the team made a solution, namely in the form of provisioning with a training pattern using Microsoft Excel which is the basis for a general calculation pattern commonly used both in the world of education and in the world of work and also the use of Google Spreadsheets. The method used in this debriefing is learning by doing, which is a method where every student who follows it will go directly to practice by following instructions from the training instructor from the PKM team. Based on the training provided, the average post test result is 76.6 from the 0-100 range, or increasment 23,28% at from Pre Test to Post test
Nur W. Rahayu, Prodi Informatika Universitas Islam Indonesia, Nanum Sofia
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 50-59; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art1

Abstract:
Young people could learn and use technology in formal, informal and nonformal education effortlessly. As a legal nonformal education, homeschooling programs become more popular because the programs demonstrate some advantages, such as customized learning materials, personalized learning methods, and flexible learning schedules. However, some homeschooling communities face several problems related to digital literacy skill because of lack of teachers’ capacity and tools. To support digital literacy, a series of training has been conducted for teachers and students at Salihah Homeschool, Yogyakarta. It consisted of training of modern computer technology for teachers and multimedia training for students and parents. The second training taught students on how to make digital posters, videos, animations, and games related to Covid-19 pandemic. Survey showed half of the students were happy with the training activities. Furthermore, the most preferred lessons were animation and digital posters, while game and video tutorials were perceived difficult. Nevertheless, student participation showed a declining trend since the second day of training. Moreover, some parents expressed happiness with the training contents, but there were also parents who found difficulty as the parents were novice users. It implies future efforts to promote positive awareness of the ease of using IT and continuous monitoring to improve digital literacy.
Maria Isfus Senjawati, Program Studi Teknologi Industri Agro/politeknik Ati Padang, Maryam Maryam, Fera Afriyuni
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 103-110; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art7

Abstract:
We are currently faced with the problem of the Covid 19 pandemic and no cure has been found. One of the efforts made by the community is to implement health protocols to the recommendations from the government and increase the body's resistance to prevent this Covid 19 attack. Indonesia has a wealth of spices that are quite large in number and type. According to some studies that this spice can increase the body's resistance because it contains antioxidants and active compounds that can ward off free radicals. This is one of the business opportunities as well as an effort to increase the body's endurance if consumed. Community service activities organized by ATI Padang Polytechnic, Agro Industry Engineering Study Program aims to provide technology for processing instant spice drinks based on red ginger. The spices used are red ginger, cinnamon, cloves and lemongrass. The product produced is instant red ginger. Partners of this activity are UKM/communities in Bungo Pasang Subdistrict, Koto Tangah District, Padang. The method used is to deliver processing technology through virtual training and practice independently. After attending virtual training and independent practice using equipment and materials that have been assisted by team, participants submitted their products that have been packaged as evaluation materials. It is hoped that with this activity, UKM/communities can produce this product in order to increase the resilience of the family as well as their business choice. The processing of spices into instant beverage products is expected to be widely marketed, more durable and provide added value to spice commodities. Kata kunci : Minuman instan, rempah, daya tahan tubuh
Fetty Tri Anggraeny, Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Informatika, Henni Endah Wahanani, Fawwaz Ali Akbar, Mohamad Ilham Prasetyo Raharjo, Sandy Rizkyando
Journal of Approriate Technology for Community Services, Volume 2, pp 86-91; https://doi.org/10.20885/jattec.vol2.iss2.art5

Abstract:
During the COVID-19 pandemic, teaching and learning activities must be carried out online from home. The development of technology today really helps the online teaching and learning process, there are many tools / software that can be used. Tools / software commonly used in online teaching and learning activities are Ms. Word, Ms. Power Point, and Virtual Lab. Another impact of technological developments coupled with pandemic conditions has led to more interactions between humans being carried out online through internet intermediaries on cellphones or computers. Currently cellphones do not only function as a medium of communication, some work that was previously completed using a computer / laptop can now be completed using a smart phone. So that cellphones can be used for more positive activities and support the teaching and learning process, sharing is carried out with students through sharpening design creativity through mobile applications on smart phones. In this activity, students hone graphic design skills using the CANVA application to support the teaching and learning process. The enthusiasm of students is quite high, as evidenced by the work produced in the form of personal profile designs, extracurricular activities and logos. Students can practice well the material presented. The school welcomes this activity, and wants to form an extracurricular Graphic Design at SMA Dharma Wanita so that it becomes a forum for student creativity in graphic design.
Rheyza Virgiawan, Universitas Islam Indonesia Fakultas Ilmu Agama Islam, Shubhi Mahmashony Harimurti, Universitas Islam Indonesia Fakultas Matematika Dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
Refleksi Pembelajaran Inovatif, Volume 3, pp 365-384; https://doi.org/10.20885/rpi.vol3.iss1.art5

Abstract:
Tujuan pelaksanaan penelitian ini adalah untuk memaksimalkan pemanfaatan media dalam jaringan (daring) pada mata kuliah islam rahmatan lil alamin. Selain itu juga untuk meningkatkan kualitas bahan ajar yang akan diterapkan dalam aktifitas perkuliahan daring pada mata kuliah ini. Inovasi yang diterapkan adalah penyusunan rencana pembelajaran semester yang komperhensif yang mencakup beberapa point seperti aktifitas sinkron dan asinkron yang lebih detail, materi pembelajaran yang disertai dengan materi pemantik dan juga metode assessmen yang jelas. Disisi lain penyediaan bahan ajar berbasis video dan powerpoint juga menjadi inovasi yang diusung pada mata kuliah ini, sehingga pengampu mata kuliah sejak awal sudah menyiapkan seluruh materi ajarnya dalam bentuk video yang diunggah melalui kanal-kanal online. Kegiatan yang dilaksanakan dalam penelitian ini dimulai dengan menyusun rencana pembelajaran smester sebanyak 14 pertemuan dengan rangkaian aktifitas yang bervariasi. Kegiatan perkuliahan ini akan diawali dengan kontrak belajar, dimana dosen dan mahasiswa menyepakati hal-hal yang terkait dengan proses pembelajaran dari awal hingga akhir. Penyampaian materi yang dibuat secara flipped dan pemanfaatan media zoom sebagai wadah untuk berdiskusi Bersama mahasiswa terkait tema ataupun topik tertentu. Beberapa hal yang dapat jadikan cacatan adalah literasi, Watak dan sikap mahasiswa yang berbeda-beda untuk masing-masing program studi dikarenakan mahasiswa belum terbiasa tergabung didalam satu kelas Bersama dengan mahasiwa dari program studi lain.
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