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Published: 25 September 2021
Journal of Cleaner Production; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129096

Abstract:
This study aims to explore the circular economy concepts which are also sustainable and can be used for the 17th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by United Nations member countries. The study focuses on the urban mobility setting. The prioritization of the possible CE concepts for a planning authority in a big city is examined where the decision process is subject to certain restrictions such as existing natural resources, financial and human capital. A case scenario is used to illustrate the formulation and solution of the problem. The method used to solve the problem comprises two stages. First, the DIBR method (Defining Interrelationships Between Ranked criteria) is presented to determine the weights of criteria. Then second, the fuzzy Dombi based Combined Compromise Solution (D’ CoCoSo) is proposed for prioritizing the circular economy concepts for urban mobility. The proposed multi-criteria framework allows decision-makers to better perceive the relationship between the criteria, which contributes to rational reasoning and objective evaluation of alternatives. The DIBR method enables decision-makers to better perceive relationships between criteria, since it considers relations between adjacent criteria. Thus, it eliminates the problem of defining relations between remote criteria, which often decreases the consistency of results in subjective models. The results obtained for case scenario emphasize that among four alternatives “Building infrastructure for zero-emission vehicles and energy storage” should be prioritized over relatively cheaper remedies such as “Using big data solutions to optimize urban mobility systems”. In that respect, the planners are expected to be direct and long-term focused in choosing the CE concepts. The method used here can be extended for other decision-making problems of planners in achieving SDGs for urban planning.
Preeti Kumari, R.K. Gangwar, ,
Published: 25 September 2021
Materials Chemistry and Physics; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2021.125276

Abstract:
Barium titanate added MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–TiO2 (MAST) glass ceramic was prepared to obtain a range of dielectric constant 6–8 for microwave application using naturally occurring materials, e.g. talc, alumina and china clay. Firstly, the MAST glass was prepared by the conventional melt quench process. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder (5–30 wt%) was added to the obtained MAST glass frit. Ceramic pellets were prepared from homogeneously ground and mixed powders by uniaxial pressing. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered pellets (at 1200 °C) show well-defined peaks of cordierite, BaTi5O11 and Ba2Ti9O20, and some anorthite and magnesium titanium oxide phases. The evolution of BaTi5O11 and Ba2Ti9O20 compounds is very much desirable since they possess excellent microwave dielectric properties. Their high dielectric constant and high quality factor would increase the dielectric constant of the compositions without degrading the loss tangent value. The microstructure shows the crystalline and amorphous (glass) phases. The dielectric constant of the prepared glass ceramic samples varies in the range 6.0–8.0 with the tan delta of 10−2 in the X-band, depending on the composition, phase and microstructure of the specimens. The tailored dielectric constant glass ceramic will be useful for microwave device applications.
, , Haoge Li, Katsunari Oikawa
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
Investigations of the Fe-Mn-Cr system are not only significant for developing Cantor alloy but also valuable for designing low-cost, high-strength steel. In this study, we experimentally determined the phase equilibria of this system for establishing the thermodynamic database. Additionally, the influences of Mn on both the phase transformation and deformation behaviors of the Fe-Mn-Cr alloys were studied. Fe was found to solute into σHT phase with a large solubility at 1323 and 1473 K. A (βMn) single-phase region was initially discovered at 1473 K. The (βMn)+(γFe) and σHT+(Cr) two-phase regions were respectively found to be very narrow. During tensile testing, the transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP)- type was discovered to change from εα to (γFe)ε when Mn increased from 20 to 30 at. %. The stacking fault energy (SFE) was measured to be 8.1 mJ·m2 for 30Mn alloy. Contrarily, the stacking fault did not seem to occur during the tensile testing of 40Mn alloy. The 0.2 % proof stresses for Fe(90-x)MnxCr10 alloys were measured to be 633 (10Mn), 345 (20Mn), 166 (30Mn), and 188 MPa (40Mn), respectively. The TRIP effect was discovered in the tensile testing of 30Mn alloy, which exhibited an ultimate tensile strength of 755 MPa and a uniform elongation of 38.7 %. It is to be noted that no recovery of work-hardening rate occurred during the tensile testing of 40Mn alloy. The investigated phase equilibria and deformation behaviors of the Fe-Mn-Cr alloys are believed to accelerate the design of Cantor-alloy-related materials and Fe-Mn-Cr-based high-strength steel.
Jie Li, Ying Sun, Weiwei Kang, Pengna Wang, Huijun Zhang, Xueqin Zhang, Hong Yang,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
Natural polymer cellulose has been first employed to synthesize a thin (only 14.9 μm), lightweight (0.98 mg cm-2) and highly conductive (270.2 S cm-1) integrated film electrode by a green strategy in this report. Herein, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) is planned as coordination modulation to develop zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF8s) with great morphology at room temperature. Particularly, the puzzle that monodispersed metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are difficult to grow in aqueous solution is effectively solved. Moreover, the excellent film-formation and anisotropy of CNFs as well as the great mechanical properties of graphene oxide (GO) are exploited to constructed ingenious lamellar microstructure. Actually, the goal product carbonized-CNFs/GO/ZIF8 (CCGZ) with highly conductivity gets a “frame structure” belonging to architecture in part on the strength of the volume shrinkage of carbon material. Eventually, CCGZ with unique topology delivers a specific capacitance of 432.8 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1, and the all-solid-state device achieves a desirable energy density of 14.92 Wh kg-1 at 200 W kg-1. These electrochemical properties are ahead of similar materials and devices. Consequently, this green method without any toxic solvents expands the application of natural carbon materials, which also highly propels the industrialization of film electrode with complex microstructure.
Carla G. Real, Rafael Vicentini, Willian G. Nunes, Aline M. Pascon, Feik Amil Campos, , ,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
A novel and scalable method is reported to produce flexible and freestanding fabrics composed of high surface area activated carbon nanofibers (aCNF) for applications in supercapacitors. The electrochemical behavior of a symmetric supercapacitor using the aCNF electrodes and the operando Raman spectra study accomplished under polarization conditions are reported. The evolution of Raman spectra during polarization supported the aCNF stability and suggested the insertion of the HSO4 ions in carbon micropores. These findings evidenced a new symmetry at the aCNF/electrolyte interface, where electronic and ionic charges accumulate. The distributed capacitance in the time domain was studied by numeric differentiation of galvanostatic charge-discharge findings. The impedance behavior of the solid and liquid phases composing the aCNF/solution interface was modeled using a macro homogeneous description of two closely mixed phases represented by a single-channel transmission line incorporating the anomalous transport of the ionic charges in the disordered structure of aCNF. Electrochemical findings revealed outstanding charge-storage properties in neutral aqueous electrolyte resulting in long lifespan, low equivalent series resistance (12 mΩ g), high coulombic efficiency (∼99.8 %), a maximum distributed capacitance of 82 F g−1 (0.25 A g−1-1.1 V), maximum specific energy and power of 2.98 W h kg−1 and 72,672 W kg−1, respectively.
, Santanu Maity, Atanu Chowdhury, Apurba Chakraborty
Published: 25 September 2021
Microelectronics Journal; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mejo.2021.105267

Abstract:
Multiple Fins structured FinFET (M-FinFET) is a promising semiconductor device for future advancement of CMOS technology. In this paper, a new GaAs based M-FinFET structure is introduced that exhibits superior performance compared to other exiting FinFET structures. Here, a comprehensive study of device characteristics with stress analysis of the proposed device structure is explored for the first time. Besides that, various electrical characteristics of device physics like electron density, electron velocity, and electron mobility are studied to relate the output performance. Various important device electrical attributes like ION, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing, switching ratio, and major RF/analog parameters are evaluated and analyzed for various gate lengths in the presence/absence of stress effect. Result shows that the introduction of stress in M-FinFET enhanced the ION by 159.2%, device efficiency (TGF) gets improved by 49.36%, and intrinsic gain (Av) by 17.23% which would be very useful for low power application. Furthermore, several important linearity attributes are explored with stress effect.
, R.A. Basith, I. Hariyati, D. Ryangga, , , D.S. Soejoko
Published: 25 September 2021
Physica Medica, Volume 90, pp 91-98; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2021.09.002

Abstract:
Purpose This technical note presents an in-house phantom with a specially designed contrast-object module constructed to address the need for three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) testing. Methods The initial part of the study was a brief evaluation on the commercially available phantom used for 3DRA and computed tomography angiography (CTA) to confirm the need for a special phantom for 3D angiography. Once confirmed, an in-house phantom was constructed. The novel phantom was tested to evaluate the basic image performance metrics, i.e., unsharpness (MTF) and noise characterization (NPS), as well as to show its capability for vessel contrast visibility study. Results The low contrast objects in the commercially available tools dedicated for CT is found to yield significantly lower signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) when used for 3DRA, therefore deemed inadequate for 3DRA contrast evaluation. The constructed in-house phantom demonstrates a capability to serve for basic imaging performance check (MTF, NPS, and low contrast evaluation) for 3DRA and CTA. With higher and potentially adjustable visibility of contrast objects as artificial vessels, the in-house phantom also makes more clinically relevant tests, e.g., human- or model observer study and task-based optimization, possible. Conclusion The novel phantom with special contrast object module shows higher visibility in 3DRA compared to the currently available commercial phantom and, therefore, is recommended for use in 3D angiography.
Xiaoyan Zhang, Shufu He, Xinxing Wo, , Jerricia A.N.N. Kambonde, Jingbo Wu, Xinping Qiu,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
This work aims to explore the utility of the polyphosphazene-based nanomaterials as both negative and positive heteroatom-doped porous carbon materials in hybrid supercapacitors. To this end, carbonized Poly (hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene-co-bisphenol S) (PZS) microspheres at different temperatures were employed as negative materials and carbonized Ag nanowires/PZS nanocomposites (Ag NWs @ PZSC) were used as positive materials. The carbonized PZS microspheres at 900 oC (PZSC900) exhibited a lager surface area with more micropores than PZSC700 and PZSC800, endowing the former with a distinguished specific capacitance (193.2 F g−1) and an outstanding cycle stability (nearly 100% after 10000 cycles). The Ag NWs @ PZSC with an amorphous carbon coating layer outperforms the Ag NWs, reaching a specific capacity of 113.33 mAh g−1. Importantly, the optimized negative and positive materials were rationally assembled to an asymmetric cell in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte, which exhibited a cell specific capacitance of 76.6 F g−1 and a cycle stability of 92.11% after 10000 cycles. The findings demonstrate that PZS is a promising precursor for constructing high-performance hybrid supercapacitors.
Xiuxiu Teng, , Arun S. Mujumdar
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
Starch-based printed foods are very sensitive to rapid heating using microwaves because microwave energy accelerates gelatinization of starch and formation of the gel network, which enhances the ability of foods to hold water vapor, resulting in the over-puffing problem of printed samples. Insoluble dietary fiber extracted from soybean residue (SIDF, soybean insoluble dietary fiber) and modification of the internal structure provided a solution to the over-puffing problem. Experimental results showed that incorrect addition and particle size of SIDF caused excess puffing or hardening. SIDF addition of 10% (w/w) and particle size of 150–180 μm provided better crispness while maintaining the product shape. The effect of SIDF on expansion rate was attributed to reduced mobility of moisture, enhanced mechanical strength, and declined deformation ability of potato gel. Internal structures with parallel lines and high porosity should be selected and the maximum internal filling density was generally less than 70%. Besides controlling deformation, it added value of soybean residue by incorporating into 3D-printed puffed potato chips.
Linfei Xiong, Zhaohui Li, Guangming Li,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
This work designed a DNA dendrimer for the loading of signal molecule and the construction of amplified electrochemical immunosensing method. The DNA dendrimer was self-assembled by the hybridization of one couple of complementary oligonucleotides (DNA and cDNA) that were covalently conjugated to three arms of a Y-shaped cross-linker, tris(2-maleimidoethyl)amine (TMEA) respectively. The immunosensor was prepared by coating chitosan on glassy carbon electrode to covalently immobilize the capture antibody with glutaraldehyde as a linker. After the target protein was captured on the immunosensor, cDNA-labeled secondary antibody was bound on the surface via a sandwiched immunoreaction to introduce the DNA dendrimer onto immunosensor for loading abundant methylene blue as signal molecule, which amplified greatly the amperometric signal for immunoassay. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a model analyte, this proposed method showed a wide linear range from 1 pg·mL-1 to 10 ng·mL-1 along with a limit of detection down to 0.26 pg·mL-1. The designed strategy avoided complex synthesis of signal tags, and possessed excellent performance for analysis of practical samples, thus providing a new avenue for the development of signal amplification strategy and immunoassay methods.
Swathi Raman, Takshaka Patel, , Sarah Kling,
Published: 25 September 2021
Journal of Surgical Research, Volume 269, pp 171-177; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.08.017

Abstract:
Background There is a wide range of social media adoption within medical specialties. The use of social media by endocrine surgeons has not been investigated. We undertook this study to describe the use of social media and other platforms by endocrine surgeons. Materials and Methods The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons' publicly available website was used to identify practicing endocrine surgeons in the United States. Surgeon demographics and practice characteristics were collected via internet query. Five social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube) were investigated for professional accounts. The presence of a non-institutional professional website, an active Healthgrades account, and presence in non-institutional YouTube videos were also queried. One point was assigned for presence on each of the eight platforms. A professional internet presence (PIP) score was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed on PIP scores to evaluate the relationship between surgeon and practice characteristics and PIP score. Results A total of 417 endocrine surgeons were studied. LinkedIn (222, 53.2%) and Twitter (110, 26.4%) were the most commonly used platforms. PIP scores were categorized into zero, one, two, and three or more accounts; 26.9% of surgeons had no professional internet presence. Academic surgeons had a significantly different PIP score than community-based surgeons (P< 0.01). There was no significant association between PIP score and surgeon sex, geographic regions, rural versus urban settings, and years of experience. Conclusions Self-identified US endocrine surgeons have low professional internet presence. Endocrine surgeons may consider bolstering their professional internet presence to disseminate medical information.
Mengxuan Sun, Qisheng Fang, , Chao Cai, Hao Li, , Wenzhong Shen, Terence Xiaoteng Liu,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
Ultra-fine CuCo2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile co-precipitation method assisted by NaBH4 and CTAB, and they were explored as supercapacitor electrode material to achieve a large specific capacity and a high rate capability. The synthesized CuCo2O4-250 nanoparticles had a large surface area of 159.6 m2 g−1, which provided numerous active sites to enhance their specific capacity. The abundant mesopores with a pore volume of 0.3599 cm3 g−1 effectively provided numerous channels for the electrolyte ions to diffuse onto the active surface of nanoparticles. The CuCo2O4-250 nanoparticles based electrodes exhibited both battery-type and capacitive-type behavior in the charging/discharging processes. It achieved a large specific capacity of 401.2 C g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1 in 2 M KOH electrolyte. Results showed that when the current density was increased from 1 A g−1 to 10 A g−1, a retained specific capacitance of 77.5% was achieved, indicating a good rate capability. An asymmetric supercapacitor with CuCo2O4-250 nanoparticles and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes exhibited a high energy density of 29.5 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 832.6 W kg−1 and a capacity retention of 72.7 % at 10 A g−1 after 10000 cycles.
, , Jelena Tomić, Mladenka Pestorić, Marijana Sakač, Anamarija Mandić
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
This study investigated different wholegrain wheat/wholegrain buckwheat blends to develop functional pasta with unique sensory properties. The impact of the buckwheat flour type (native or hydrothermally treated) and ratio between wholegrain wheat and buckwheat flour in pasta formulation on the sensory profiles and hedonic perception of pasta was studied. A range of techniques (principal component analysis, preference mapping, cluster analysis, penalty analysis) have evolved to combine data from sensory panel, data collected from consumers and data related to the product to provide valuable insights into the way in which sensory properties drive consumer preferences and how pasta can be design to give the sensory properties desired by the consumer. Generally, even though buckwheat flour incorporation decreased consumer acceptability, the results indicated that hydrothermal pre-treatment of buckwheat flour has promising potential to be implemented in the production process of buckwheat containing pasta, since this treatment was efficient in reducing pasta bitterness and grittiness which were negatively evaluated and strongly penalised by consumers.
, Parinaz Aghamohammadi, Esmail Vessally
Published: 25 September 2021
Journal of Molecular Structure; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2021.131534

Abstract:
An efficiently, magnetically retrievable Fe3O4@SiO2@NH2@Pd(OCOCH3)2 nanoparticles was successfully synthesized and affirmed by several physicochemical characterization tools, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-disoersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and power X-ray diffraction. Thereafter, the catalytic performance of this environmentally benign nanocatalyst was investigated in the one-pot multicomponent synthesis of biologically important 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran, tetrahydro-4H-chromenes and spiro-2-oxindole derivatives. The reaction was simply achieved via one-pot three-component reaction of arylaldehydes, malononitrile and dimedone/isatins/methylaceto acetate ethanol at room temperature, with excellent yields and high purity. A new catalytic system, recyclability of reaction medium, little reaction times and excellent yields with easy workup render this protocol more attractive and economically viable.
Siwei Shen, Chuang Zhou, Yuanbo Zeng, Haitian Zhang, Alomgir Hossen, Jianwu Dai, Suqing Li, Wen Qin,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
In this study, Panax notoginseng polysaccharides (PNPS) were extracted using ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE). Based on single-factor experiments, ultrasonic duration, ultrasonic power, microwave duration, and microwave power were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated that the optimal extraction parameters were an ultrasonic duration of 10 min, ultrasonic power of 50 W, microwave duration of 4 min, and microwave power of 540 W, which resulted in the highest extraction rate of PNPS at 11.03 ± 0.16%. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that PNPS exhibited a porous and rough structure. The chemical structure of PNPS was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The molecular weight of PNPS was measured to be 4.148 × 105 Da; moreover, PNPS was found to be composed of glucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose, mannose, and ribose. The DPPH scavenging efficiency of PNPS (5 mg/mL) was evaluated to be 65.74%. Upon in vitro simulated saliva–gastrointestinal digestion, partly digested PNPS was obtained. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and rheological testing results indicated that PNPS exhibited high thermal stability and favorable rheological properties. Therefore, PNPS extracted using UMAE exhibited broad application prospects for functional foods and pharmaceuticals.
Xiuping He, , Xiaotong Li, Jiuming Wang, Ming Xin, Xia Sun, Wei Cao,
Published: 25 September 2021
Abstract:
The occurrence, spatiotemporal variations, influence factors and environmental risks of eight common neonicotinoids (NEOs), fipronil, and three fipronil metabolites (fipronil and its metabolites are collectively referred to as FIPs) in different seasons from the estuary to the inner area of Jiaozhou Bay, China were comprehensively investigated. First- and second-generation NEOs were found to be the predominant pesticides in this area. The average contents of ∑NEOs and ∑FIPs from the estuary to the inner bay decreased from 12.99 ng/L to 0.82 ng/L and from 1.10 ng/L to 0.17 ng/L, respectively. NEO and FIP concentrations were higher in summer and autumn. High ∑NEO content is distributed in main inflow rivers, such as Dagu River and Licun River, which are influenced by pesticide application. NEO concentrations in all rivers were high upstream and low downstream because of the influence of heavy rainfall and seawater dilution in summer. NEO concentrations were high along the coast and low at the mouth and center of Jiaozhou Bay in summer and autumn and evenly distributed in winter and spring. Temperature has a great influence on most NEOs and FIPs owing to its effect on their degradation. Nitrogen-containing nutrients have an important influence on the distribution of fipronil and acetamiprid, which may be due to the activity of nitrogen-containing functional groups in their structure. Only Licun River, Dagu River and Haibo river sewage treatment plant in summer posed a certain risk of chronic toxicity for NEOs using the new threshold established by the species sensitive distribution (SSD) method for Chinese native aquatic lives. These findings should arouse people's attention.
Brian D. Ross, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The field of molecular imaging continues to innovate advancing new strategies for detection of molecular and cellular events in intact living subjects. As the molecular underpinnings of biology and pathology are more fully delineated, additional opportunities to develop novel molecular imaging MI techniques continue to emerge. The next generation of innovations are anticipated to further advance unique capabilities for noninvasive interrogation of molecular events in intact subjects. Interdisciplinary contributions are required from diverse biomedical and scientific disciplines to fuel continued advances in molecular imaging. This chapter provides a foundational overview of molecular imaging concepts and strategies used to probe both simple and complex processes while cells reside in their native relevant biological context.
Maryellen L. Giger
Published: 24 September 2021
Molecular Imaging pp 1691-1702; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-816386-3.00052-1

Abstract:
Artificial intelligence (AI), or machine intelligence, can be broadly viewed as the use of computers, instead of humans, to learn from data input to a computer, and then, based on that learning, to problem-solve specific tasks. In medical imaging, the image data serve as the inputs to the AI system. While AI has been investigated over decades for the interpretation of medical images, it has only been in the recent decade that it has been greatly embraced by academia, industry, and the public. AI applications are being demonstrated in multiple areas of medical imaging including the clinical tasks of disease detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic patient management, with algorithms of segmentation, computer-extraction of characteristics of abnormal and normal structures, radiomics, and deep learning. The potential practice-changing advances in AI have also yielded discussions on ethics and its effect on healthcare costs and workforce. A major concern in using AI is that some systems present as “black boxes” that, while yielding a correct prediction of a medical condition, lack the corresponding explanation on why the AI-reported decision was made. Overall, many are now viewing AI as ultimately a new “tool” in healthcare that will eventually enable the clinician to be more effective and efficient, as opposed to being replaced.
Cristiane J. Da-Silva, Luciano Do Amarante
Published: 24 September 2021
Nitric Oxide in Plant Biology pp 241-260; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-818797-5.00009-1

Abstract:
Flooding is a key limiting condition affecting the growth and productivity of several crop species cultivated in low-lying rainfed areas. During flooding, the oxygen rapidly depletes in the soil, which impairs mitochondrial ATP production and induces NADH accumulation in the roots. Thus, the root metabolism is shifted from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important component of the plant cell signaling conferring increased tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including flooding. In this chapter, we describe the main NO biosynthetic pathways and the functioning of the phytoglobins–NO cycle—an important NO scavenger pathway in plants under low oxygen conditions. We also address the roles of NO in plant tolerance to low oxygen environments such as inducing anaerobic ATP production, NAD+ cycling, oxygen sensing, and aerenchyma formation. Finally, we briefly describe the signaling pathways of NO that result in metabolic and morphological changes in plants under hypoxia and anoxia.
Daqing Zhang, Youwei Zeng, Fusang Zhang, Jie Xiong
Published: 24 September 2021
Contactless Vital Signs Monitoring pp 231-255; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-822281-2.00020-2

Abstract:
Human respiration monitoring plays an important role in healthcare applications, such as sleep apnea detection and sleep-stage recognition. We have witnessed a diversity of approaches developed for respiration monitoring, ranging from contact-based pulse oximeter to contact-free camera and CW (Continuous Wave) radar solutions. Recently, WiFi CSI-based contact-free sensing solutions have attracted a tremendous amount of research attention due to the pervasive deployment of WiFi infrastructure. In this chapter, we first present an overview of WiFi based-human respiration monitoring techniques, covering both pattern-based and model-based approaches. By introducing the Fresnel reflection and diffraction models, we then show how human respiration sensing is achieved using WiFi signals and why “blind spots” occur sometimes using WiFi CSI amplitude. To address the “blind spots” and short sensing-range issues, we further develop a series of solutions for single-person respiration monitoring. Finally, we also present a state-of-the-art solution for multi-person respiration sensing.
Mukesh Kumar Singh, Annika Singh
Published: 24 September 2021
Characterization of Polymers and Fibres pp 359-385; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-823986-5.00013-0

Abstract:
Wetting properties of various natural and synthetic fibers have garnered the interest of scientists and researchers. The wettability of textile surfaces chiefly depends on surface characteristics. A number of scientists have reported different contact angle estimation theories and their application to quantify the surface energy of various textile surfaces. This chapter will provide the requisite information regarding the wetting of surfaces and its measurement by contact angle theory.
Jean M. Bokelmann
Published: 24 September 2021
Medicinal Herbs in Primary Care pp 263-267; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-323-84676-9.00034-9

Abstract:
Calendula (Calendula officinalis) is a species of plant in the daisy family. It is also known as marigold but should not be confused with the common flowering plant of the same name. Calendula has nourishing benefits for skin and is used topically for treating wounds due to its soothing and antimicrobial properties. It may also be beneficial for gingivitis, radiation mucositis, vaginal candidiasis, episiotomy healing, chronic prostatitis, diaper dermatitis, leg ulcers (venous and neuropathic), and radiation dermatitis. It has antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, and antitumor properties. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on calendula, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of the herb’s use in treating dermatologic as well as oral and dental disorders. Finally, the chapter presents a list of calendula’s Active Constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a Section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
Steven D. Waldman
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The ischial bursa is vulnerable to injury from both acute trauma and repeated microtrauma. Acute injuries are often caused by direct trauma to the bursa from falls onto the buttock and from overuse, such as prolonged riding of horses or bicycles. Running on uneven or soft surfaces such as sand also may cause ischial bursitis. If inflammation of the ischial bursa becomes chronic, calcification may occur
N.F. Islam, Rupshikha Patowary, Hemen Sarma
Published: 24 September 2021
Assisted Phytoremediation pp 399-414; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-822893-7.00003-3

Abstract:
Heavy metals and aromatic compounds in water and soil pose serious environmental threats. The widespread use of pesticides, industrial effluents, oil spills, accidental leakage during transport is one of the major reasons for the infiltration of these compounds into the environment. Organic and inorganic pollutants are both carcinogenic and neurotoxic, and their complex heterogeneity and persistence harm all forms of life. These pollutants reduce soil fertility, impede seed germination, and decrease plant growth and productivity. Various technologies have already been introduced for the remediation of organic and inorganic contaminants, although biosurfactant-assisted phytoremediation is one of the most prominent approaches. We focus in this chapter on different aspects of biosurfactants-assisted phytoremediation and their role in the management of heavy metals and petroleum-contaminated soils.
, W. Grira, A. Terzi, N. Khessairi, I. Oueslati, M. Yazidi, F. Chaker, M. Chihaoui
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82, pp 312-313; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.161

Abstract:
Les bisphosphonates représentent une pierre angulaire dans le traitement des hypercalcémies sévères. Toutefois, leur utilisation n’est pas dénuée d’effets indésirables. Nous rapportons le cas d’une hypocalcémie iatrogène post traitement par bisphosphonates chez un patient suivi pour hyperparathyroïdie primaire.
, L. Bouys, A. Vaczlavik, K. Perlemoine, L. Guignat, G. Assié, L. Groussin, A. Berthon, B. Ragazzon, B. Terris, et al.
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.180

Abstract:
L’hyperplasie macronodulaire bilatérale primitive des surrénales (HMBPS) est une cause rare de syndrome de Cushing ACTH indépendant [Kamilaris et al., 2020]. Sa présentation est hétérogène sur le plan clinique, radiologique, biologique et thérapeutique (la chirurgie ne sera proposée qu’aux patients les plus symptomatiques). La découverte de mutations inactivatrices du gène ARMC5 [Assié G et al., 2013] chez certains patients, traduit également une hétérogénéité génétique. Les descriptions microscopiques des surrénales opérées sont très peu nombreuses [Kirschner et al., 1964, Swain et al., 1998, Hayakawa et al., 2011]. L’objectif de ce travail était de rechercher, dans une série de HMBPS, une hétérogénéité morphologique et de corréler les résultats au profil génétique.
, S. Dada, I. Chaabene, R. Klii, S. Hammami, M. Kechida, I. Khochtali
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.375

Abstract:
Le lupus érythémateux systémique (LES) est une connectivite caractérisée par son polymorphisme clinique, l’association à une endocrinopathie est fréquente, nous rapportons le cas d’un lupus associé à une hyperprolactinémie.
, I. Lahouel, Y. Soua, H. Marmouch, H. Belhadjali, M. Youssef, J. Zili
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82, pp 373-374; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.336

Abstract:
Le prurit chronique est un motif de consultation fréquent. Il constitue un symptôme qui peut révéler plusieurs maladies sous-jacentes. Nous rapportons un cas d’une patiente ayant une insuffisance antéhypophysaire révélée par un prurit généralisé.
, A. Safer-Tabi, Z. Arbouche
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.355

Abstract:
L’abcès hypophysaire est une infection intrasellaire rare, potentiellement mortelle en absence de traitement. Sa présentation clinique est polymorphe d’où le retard diagnostique fréquent. Nous rapportons un cas d’abcès hypophysaire chez une adolescente diabétique diagnostiqué par imagerie (imagerie par résonance magnétique [IRM]).
, A. Khellaf, A. Adimi, S. Azoug, Z. Arbouche
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.522

Abstract:
Le syndrome d’Allgrove est une affection rare, autosomique récessive, liée à des mutations du gène ALADIN (alacrimia, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency neurologic disorder), localisé sur le bras long du chr12 (12q13).
, L. Chouchane, M. Bellakhdher, J. Houas, M. Omri, Y. Hasni El Abed, A. Meherzi, W. KermaniDr, M. Abdelkefi
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.434

Abstract:
Évaluer les principales caractéristiques du nodule thyroïdien chez l’enfant.
, M. Korbi, H. Belhadjali, Y. Soua, M. Youssef, J. Zili
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.627

Abstract:
Les perturbateurs endocriniens (PE) sont des composés exogènes qui altèrent la biosynthèse des hormones, ayant des effets néfastes sur la santé humaine, sur ses gonades ou sa progéniture.
F. Mahjoub, , N. Ben Amor, R. Khalaf, H. Jendoubi, I. Lahmer, H. Jamoussi
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.735

Abstract:
La dénutrition hospitalière est un vrai problème de santé publique de par sa fréquence et de ses multiples conséquences. L’objectif de ce travail était de dépister la dénutrition chez des patients diabétiques de type 2 hospitalisés. Une étude transversale descriptive a été menée concernant 40 diabétiques de type 2. Le dépistage de la dénutrition a été réalisé à l’aide du Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) pour les adultes et le Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA SF) pour les sujets âgés. Le diagnostic de la dénutrition a été retenu sur les critères diagnostiques de la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) de 2007 et de 2019 pour les sujets âgés et adultes respectivement. L’âge moyen des patients était de 59,6±11,59 ans avec une légère prédominance féminine (53 %). L’ancienneté du diabète était de 10,83 ans. Le test de dépistage NRS-2002 effectué pour 32 patients était positif chez 18 d’entre eux. Le test de dépistage MNA-SF a été réalisé pour 8 patients : six patients avaient un état nutritionnel normal et deux patients avaient un risque de dénutrition. Le diagnostic de dénutrition a été retenu chez 25 % des patients (n=10) : deux patients étaient âgés de plus de 70 ans et huit âgés de moins de 70 ans. La dénutrition était sévère chez la moitié des patients dénutris. Le diabétique de type 2 est un patient fragilisé et potentiellement à haut risque de dénutrition. Ceci souligne l’impératif du diagnostic nutritionnel à l’admission afin de diminuer la morbi-mortalité et la durée du séjour hospitalier.
Published: 24 September 2021
Actualités Pharmaceutiques, Volume 60, pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpha.2021.09.001

, N. Messaoudi, I. Ziani, Y. Laalaoua, S. Rouf, H. Latrech
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.586

Abstract:
Le syndrome de Turner, est une affection génétique rare, résultant d’une absence complète ou partielle du chromosome X, il est le plus fréquent des anomalies chromosomiques survenant exclusivement chez la femme. Nous rapportons le cas d’une patiente âgée de 37 ans, admise au service d’endocrinologie-diabétologie-nutrition au CHU Mohammed-VI-Oujda pour un syndrome de Turner.
, S. Jdira, S. Daadaa, I. Bayar, B. Ben Amor, H. Sayadi, H. Marmouch, I. Khochtali
Published: 24 September 2021
Annales d'Endocrinologie, Volume 82; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2021.08.682

Abstract:
Décrire les particularités clinicobiologiques et étiologiques de la cétose diabétique (CD) dans le contexte gériatrique.
Roberta Cardani, , Philipp Pfeiffer, Lukas Vogel
Journal of International Money and Finance; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jimonfin.2021.102509

Abstract:
Estimated DSGE models tend to ascribe a significant and often predominant part of a country's trade balance (TB) dynamics to domestic drivers (“shocks”), suggesting foreign factors to be only of secondary importance. This paper revisits the result based on more agnostic approaches to shock transmission and using “agnostic structural disturbances”. We estimate multi-region models for Germany and Spain as countries with very distinct TB patterns since 1999. Results suggest that domestic drivers remain dominant when theory-based restrictions on shock transmission are relaxed, although the transmission of foreign shocks is strenghtened.
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 137; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2021.106211

Abstract:
Three-dimensional (3D) stacked complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors require reduction in leakage current due to interface state defects at the SiO2/Si interface. Hydrocarbon molecular ion implanted silicon wafers have identified the hydrogen termination effect of such wafer, contributing to high performance of CMOS image sensors. However, recently, low-temperature heat treatment during a device process has been shown to reduce the concentration of hydrogen diffusing from the hydrocarbon-molecular-ion-implanted region. Thus, a new method of molecular ion implantation with phosphorus added has been developed. In this paper, we present the results of our analysis of the diffusion behavior of hydrogen in a hydrocarbon molecule with phosphorus (CH2P) by reaction kinetic analysis and TCAD simulation. The results of reaction kinetic analysis show binding energies of 0.76 eV (C–H2 binding state) and 0.45 eV (P–H binding state). TCAD simulation results show that the 0.76 eV binding energy indicates that hydrogen is adsorbed in a carbon and silicon self-interstitial cluster (C/I cluster). On the other hand, the binding energy of 0.45 eV indicates that hydrogen is trapped in phosphorus complexes. Hydrogen in the CH2P-implanted region diffuses owing to the difference in between these binding states. Thus, a reduction in the interface state density of Si/SiO2 can be expected.
Jinghong Min, , Shuaishuai Huang, Rongrong He, Zheng Xu, Jean Philippe Bouillon,
Published: 24 September 2021
Green Synthesis and Catalysis; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gresc.2021.09.003

Abstract:
The first and environmentally benign oxidative cross coupling of stable trimethylsilylalkynoate with different arylboronic acids was developed. This reaction proceeded efficiently in the presence of Cu(OAc)2 at room temperature through the activation of Si-C bond by catalytic Cs2CO3, providing various methyl arylpropiolates in good yields with a broad substrate scope under mild conditions.
, Yuan Zhu, Huaju Song, Ying Wang,
Published: 24 September 2021
Materials Chemistry and Physics; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2021.125275

Abstract:
Spin-related electronic structure plays an important role in designing new-type spintronic devices. Herein, we unravel the ferromagnetic and optical behaviors of double-faced FeReS3 with asymmetric defects based on the density functional theory. Different from conventional two-dimensional materials, the spontaneous spin polarization strongly relates with the spatial distribution of anion defects. The superficial and intrastratal S defects make the occupation of Fe-3d orbital unfilled, leading to a distinguishable spin polarization. Our results indicate that structural deformation can regulate the strong exchange interactions between spin sites for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism; interestingly, the S defects at opposite surface cannot give rise to this behavior. We propose to identify the types of S defects in double-faced FeReS3 by comparing their absorption fingerprints.
Dong Hong Yu, Niu Ying, Zhang Hong Lian,
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Recent studies have revealed that gut microbiota play an important part in the regulation of the immune function. With the development of newer detection methods, our cognition of the human gut microbiota continues to evolve with startling speed, but our understanding of the changes in the structure and function of gut microbiota before and after renal transplantation and the practical applications of this knowledge are still in their infancy.
Yaochen Liu, , Wei Ren, Wenhai Xu
Published: 24 September 2021
Infrared Physics & Technology; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2021.103916

Abstract:
For infrared and visible image fusion technology, it has always been a challenge to effectively select useful information from the source image and integrate them because the imaging principle of infrared and visible images are widely different. To solve this problem, a novel infrared and visible image fusion algorithm are proposed, which includes the following contributions: (i) an infrared visual saliency extracting scheme using global measurement are presented, (ii) a visible visual saliency measure scheme by a local measurement strategy are proposed, and (iii) a fusion rule based on orthogonal space is designed to combine the extracted saliency maps. Specifically, in order to make humans pay attention to infrared targets, coarse-scale decomposition is performed. Then a global measurement strategy is utilized to get saliency maps. In addition, since visible images have rich textures, fine-scale decomposition can make the visual system pay attention to tiny details. Next, the visual saliency is measured by a local measurement strategy. Different from the general fusion rules, the orthogonal space is constructed to integrate the saliency maps, which can remove the correlation of saliency maps to avoid mutual interference. Experiments on public databases demonstrate that the fusion results of the proposed fusion algorithm are better than other comparison algorithms in qualitative and quantitative assessment.
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The development of an environmentally friendly agricultural system as opposed to conventional methods using chemical fertilizers and pesticides for improved crop productivity is a promising aspect of modern agricultural biotechnology. Current research has focused on using free-living microbes that can colonize the plant endosphere as a means of enhancing crop productivity. In the plant rhizosphere, the complex root matrix facilitates microbe-microbe, microbe-plant, and soil-microbe interactions in establishing microbial communities, which precede endophytic colonization of the plant by some of these microbes. Endophytic microbes play an important role in plant growth promotion, as they employ direct or indirect mechanisms to facilitate plant growth by producing phytohormones and various secondary metabolites. The roles of endophytic microbes in sustaining plant growth under biotic and abiotic stresses through these mechanisms can provide insights into their envisaged putative functions in establishing host plant interactions for maximum use in the agricultural sector as an ecofriendly alternative tool to improve crop yield. In addition, a better understanding of endophytic bacteria functions in agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, and industry may enable scientists to unlock several opportunities by exploring valuable endophytic bioproducts in the recent application as bioinoculants, biostimulants, and environmental safety in pollution control and phytoremediation. Furthermore, the genomic insights into endosphere biology can provide detail structural diversity and functional profiling of endophytic microbiome for possible recommendations in future agriculture as a source of the organic amendment. Hence, this review emphasis on the root-colonizing endophytic bacteria and their importance in modern agricultural biotechnology.
, Dawn Adams, Kate Simpson
Published: 24 September 2021
Clinical Psychology Review; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.102086

Abstract:
Anxiety is the most common co-occurring condition in children on the autism spectrum but the potential impacts of anxiety on social and academic outcomes of children on the autism spectrum have not been systematically examined. In this review, 50 studies were identified that explore the relationship between anxiety and scores on social or academic measures in children on the autism spectrum. Social competence was frequently measured, and the findings of these studies were mixed. While other social constructs have received little attention, associations were found between anxiety and victimisation, and anxiety and social relationships. Only three studies focused on the impact of anxiety on scores on academic measures, highlighting the need for further research in this area. Anxiety was most frequently measured using subscales from broader behavioural instruments, which may not capture the range of anxiety symptoms of children on the autism spectrum. Future studies that include multi-informant methodologies and proportional representation of females and children with intellectual disability will further knowledge of the impact of anxiety in children on the spectrum.
Daniel A. Butcher, Kelli J. Brandis, Haolu Wang, Liam Spannenburg, Kim R. Bridle, Darrell Hg. Crawford,
Published: 24 September 2021
European Journal of Surgical Oncology; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.09.017

Abstract:
Objectives The aim of this meta-analysis was to conduct a contemporary systematic review of high quality non-randomised controlled trials to determine the effect of pre-liver transplantation (LT) transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) on long-term survival and complications of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Background TACE is used as a neoadjuvant therapy to mitigate waitlist drop-out for patients with HCC awaiting LT. Previous studies have conflicting conclusions on the effect of TACE on long-term survival and complications of HCC patients undergoing LT. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science were systematically searched. Baseline characteristics included number of patients outside Milan criteria, tumour diameter, MELD score, and time on the waiting list. Primary outcomes included 3- and 5-year overall and disease-free survival. Secondary outcomes included tumour recurrence, 30-day postoperative mortality, and hepatic artery and biliary complications. Results Twenty-one high-quality NRCTs representing 8242 patients were included. Tumour diameter was significantly larger in TACE patients (3.49 cm vs 3.15 cm, P = 0.02) and time on the waiting list was significantly longer in TACE patients (4.87 months vs 3.46 months, P = 0.05), while MELD score was significantly higher in non-TACE patients (10.81 vs 12.35, P = 0.005). All primary and secondary outcomes displayed non-significant differences. Conclusion Patients treated with TACE had similar survival and postoperative outcomes to non-TACE patients, however, they had worse prognostic features compared to non-TACE patients. These findings strongly support the current US and European clinical practice guidelines that neoadjuvant TACE can be used for patients with longer expected waiting list times (specifically >6 months). Randomised controlled trials would be needed to increase the quality of evidence.
Qiuyue Ding, Guifang Tian, Xianghong Wang, Wenyi Deng, Kemin Mao, Yaxin Sang
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
In this study, scallop mantle protein has been treated by ultrasound at different power, and then analyzed by ANS fluorescent probes, circular dichroism spectroscopy, endogenous fluorescence spectrum, DNTB colorimetry and in-vitro digestion model to elucidate the structure-function relationship. The results indicated that ultrasound can significantly affect the secondary structure of scallop mantle protein like enhancing hydrophobicity, lowering the particle size, increasing the relative contents of α-helix and decreasing contents of β-pleated sheet, β-turn and random coil, as well as altering intrinsic fluorescence intensity with blue shift of maximum fluorescence peak. But ultrasound had no effect on its primary structure. Moreover, the functions of scallop mantle protein were regulated by modifying its structures by ultrasound. Specifically, the protein has the highest performance in foaming property and in-vitro digestibility under ultrasonic power of 100 W, oil binding capacity under 100 W, water binding capacity under 300 W, solubility and emulsification capacity under 400 W, and emulsion stability under 600 W. These results prove ultrasonic treatment has the potential to effectively improve functional properties and quality of scallop mantle protein, benefiting in comprehensive utilization of scallop mantles.
Michael Farrell, , Russell Jame, Stanimir Markov
Published: 24 September 2021
Journal of Financial Economics; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfineco.2021.07.018

Abstract:
We study the effects of social media on the informativeness of retail trading. Our identification strategy exploits the editorial delay between report submission and publication on Seeking Alpha, a popular crowdsourced investment research platform. We find the ability of retail order imbalances to predict the cross-section of stock returns and cash-flow news increases sharply in the intraday post-publication window relative to the pre-publication window. The findings are robust to controlling for report tone and stronger for reports authored by more capable contributors. The evidence suggests that recent technology-enabled innovations in how individuals share information help retail investors become better informed.
, Alexander Amundsen, Bo S. Olsen, Jeppe V. Rasmussen
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Background The use of the reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) has increased within the last decades, but there is still limited information about the long-term outcome and how it performs in comparison with hemiarthroplasty (HA). The aim of this study was to compare the long-term patient reported outcome of RSA and HA for CTA. Methods We included all patients with CTA, who according to the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry (DSR) underwent either HA or RSA between 2006-2010. Patients who were alive were sent the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder (WOOS) questionnaire in 2020. 120 (65%) patients returned a complete questionnaire. The linear regression model was used to compare RSA and HA. Sex, age, and previous surgery were included in the multivariable model Results 42 HAs and 78 RSAs were evaluated with a mean follow-up time of 11.5 and 10.6 years. The mean WOOS score was 66.7 for HA and 71.7 for RSA. The difference of 5.0 was neither statistically significant nor clinically important (95% CI: -4.3 to 14.2, p=0.17). Nor were there any significant risk of a worse WOOS score for sex, age or previous surgery. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the long-term patient-reported outcomes of HA and RSA for CTA. Our results indicate that RSA is a reliable and durable treatment option for CTA with good long-term results. Based on this observational study it is not possible to make safe estimates about the effect of RSA compared with HA, but like RSA, HA was associated with relatively good long-term results.
, Yosuke Mori, Yasutaka Fukuda, Noriaki Iwao, Michiaki Koike, Masaaki Noguchi
Published: 24 September 2021
Leukemia Research Reports; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrr.2021.100269

Abstract:
Although a previous autopsy series demonstrated that pulmonary leukemic infiltration (PLI) is a major pulmonary complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an antemortem diagnosis of PLI is rare. Diverse pulmonary complications cause acute respiratory failure (ARF) in patients with AML undergoing chemotherapy. This article reports two elderly patients with AML who presented with ARF due to PLI mimicking severe pneumonia during induction chemotherapy. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of PLI was almost impossible without pathological examination since the clinical course was not typical of PLI. We recommend considering PLI in patients with AML who have an unknown etiology of ARF.
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