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Emily A. Dewald-Wang, Nicole Parr, Katie Tiley, Alina Lee, Britt Koskella
Published: 14 September 2021
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/717181

Rachel Penczykowski, Marta S. Shocket, Jessica Housley Ochs, Brian C. P. Lemanski, Hema Sundar, Meghan A. Duffy, Spencer R. Hall
Published: 14 September 2021
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/717175

Jenalle L. Eck, Benoit Barrès, Samuel Soubeyrand, Jukka Sirén, Elina Numminen, Anna-Liisa Laine
Published: 14 September 2021
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/717179

Eleanor Harrison-Buck
Published: 13 September 2021
Current Anthropology; https://doi.org/10.1086/716726

Abstract:
I outline a relational economy model that is broadly applicable to a range of economies both past and present. A relational economy begins from the basic premise that all economic transactions are social and interpersonal relations. I apply this model to reciprocal gift economies, specifically the Classic Maya of Mesoamerica (ca. AD 250–850). For my case study, I present evidence from archaeological contexts including the Bonampak murals and hieroglyphic texts to show how marriage and war were in many instances paired acts, simultaneously dissolving former alliances and cementing new social relations. Prestige goods including cacao (chocolate), jade, feathers, and cotton mantles were exchanged in both marriages and warfare. I show how marriage partners, captives, and prestige goods were not objectified in these reciprocal exchanges but were gendered and personified (human and nonhuman) beings. I present a posthumanist approach to a relational economy and suggest that prestige goods are perhaps best understood as relational beings or persons that were mutually constituted and generative. From a relational perspective, these transactions did not embed the social into the economic but were inherently emotional and interpersonal transactions and, therefore, simultaneously social and economic relations in ancient Maya society.
Daniel Alexander Herrmann, Brian Skyrms
The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science; https://doi.org/10.1086/717161

Hermann Genz, Alexander Ahrens
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research; https://doi.org/10.1086/716612

Abstract:
While Early Bronze Age glyptic finds from the southern Levant as well as from Syria have received considerable attention in the scholarly literature, unfortunately the same cannot be said about the glyptic material from Lebanon. For a long time, Byblos was the only site with a considerable number of Early Bronze Age glyptic finds, but the often unclear stratigraphic and contextual situation of the material hugely diminished its scientific value. Fortunately, in recent years more clearly stratified material has emerged from Sidon, Tell Arqa, and Tell Fadous-Kfarabida, which for the first time enables us to better define the glyptic styles in use in the central Levant during the 4th and 3rd millennia b.c.e. The paper presents the glyptic finds from Tell Fadous-Kfarabida, located on the Lebanese coast just 12 km north of Byblos, with a special emphasis on the iconography of the seals and seal impressions, as well as their contribution towards the external relations of the site.
Nicola Lacey
Published: 10 September 2021
Crime and Justice; https://doi.org/10.1086/715030

Abstract:
Conceptual debates about proportionality and its moral and political force need to be placed in historical and institutional context. Conceptual, moral, political, and practical questions about proportionality are inextricably linked. This insight should lead us away from the dominant conception of proportionality as a moral precept and toward a political conception of proportionality that is inevitably shaped by prevailing conceptions of what proportionality is for and, in modern democracies, is grounded in democratic practices and the institutional structures of democratic states. This insight has important implications for the prevailing disciplinary division of labor, calling into question the tendency to separate conceptual and philosophical from social theories of punishment. It is important to try to understand the conditions under which stable constraints on the state’s power to punish, and accountability mechanisms adequate to guaranteeing the fittingness of punishment by reference to democratically endorsed standards—which seem to be the key animating concerns of contemporary appeals to proportionality—are most likely to be realized, and conversely where they are likely to be most under threat. This is both an important issue in itself, and a case study in the interaction between concept and context.
Michael Lewis
The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs; https://doi.org/10.1086/714640

Abstract:
This article explores the political and social factors behind the adoption of liquor dispensaries in the US South between 1893 and 1907. This wave of state and municipal liquor stores emphasized off-site consumption, a feature that was relatively unique for the time period. Once southern political leaders found that prohibition did little to prohibit the saloon and not wanting to see its return, they sought a middle ground. I argue that it was the presence of pharmacies and the broader acceptance of medicinal liquor as an exception to prohibition that made these off-site arrangements appealing to reformers.
Lucy Sorensen, Youngsung Kim, Moontae Hwang
Published: 9 September 2021
National Tax Journal; https://doi.org/10.1086/716231

Abstract:
Many states in recent decades enacted laws that limit the collection of property taxes. This study examines the impacts of New York State’s 2011 tax cap on education revenues and student achievement. We use an instrumental variables approach with 663 school districts from 2006 to 2016. We find that each $1,000 loss in per-pupil revenues from the tax cap leads to drops in student test performance of 0.04 standard deviation, driven by reductions in instructional expenditures, teacher hiring, and support personnel. Wealthier districts incurred more costs from the tax cap due to their higher reliance on property taxes.
Amy Zhang
Published: 9 September 2021
Current Anthropology; https://doi.org/10.1086/715542

Abstract:
In this paper I trace the emergence of a more-than-human antitoxic politics where microbes are cultivated agents of environmental remediation. Following a successful anti-incinerator protest, a group of urban waste activists in China turned to the brewing of eco-enzymes, a fermented solution made from organic waste, as a means of fortifying the health of bodies, homes, and their local environment. I illustrate how the material effects of microbes catalyze a grassroots response of experimental speculation among middle-class waste activists in response to China’s polluted environment. Following feminist science and technology studies scholars and the work of Roberto Esposito, I argue that eco-enzyme brewers engage in a microbiopolitics of immunity and collaboration to reconstitute human and nonhuman collectives in acts of cooperation and care for the environment. Eco-enzymes brewing illustrates how the uncertain effects of microbial transformation can sustain an experimental inquiry into the modes of ecological action that are possible under China’s authoritarian politics and polluted landscape.
Ryan A. St Laurent, Ana Paula S. Carvalho, Chandra Earl, Akito Y. Kawahara
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/716661

Mary Alta Rogalski, Tara Stewart Merrill, Camden D. Gowler, Carla E. Cáceres, Meghan A. Duffy
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/716635

Ludovic Maisonneuve, Thomas Beneteau, Mathieu Joron, Charline Smadi, Violaine Llaurens
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/716509

, Eric J. Armstrong, Rosemary Romero, Charlotte C. Runzel, Richelle L. Tanner
The Biological Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1086/715039

Abstract:
Herbivores can drastically alter the morphology of macroalgae by directly consuming tissue and by inflicting structural wounds. Wounds can result in large amounts of tissue breaking away from macroalgae, amplifying the damage initially caused by herbivores. Herbivores that commonly wound macroalgae often occur over only a portion of a macroalga’s lifespan or geographic range. However, we know little about the influence of these periodic or regional occurrences of herbivores on the large-scale seasonal and geographical patterns of macroalgal morphology. We used the intertidal kelp Egregia menziesii to investigate how the kelp’s morphology and the prevalence of two prominent kelp-wounding herbivores (limpets and amphipods) changed over two seasons (spring and summer) and over the northern extent of the kelp’s geographic range (six sites from central California to northern Washington). Wounds from limpets and amphipods often result in the kelp’s fronds being pruned (intercalary meristem broken away), so we quantified kelp size (combined length of all fronds) and pruning (proportion of broken fronds). We found similar results in each season: herbivores were most likely to occur on large, pruned kelp regardless of site; and limpets were the dominant herbivore at southern sites, while amphipods were dominant at northern sites. Despite the geographic shift in the dominant herbivore, kelp had similar levels of total herbivore prevalence (limpets and/or amphipods) and similar morphologies across sites. Our results suggest that large-scale geographic similarities in macroalgal wounding, despite regional variation in the herbivore community, can maintain similar macroalgal morphologies over large geographic areas.
Eric J. Arnould, Adam Arvidsson, Giana M. Eckhardt
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research; https://doi.org/10.1086/716513

Abstract:
This article provides a history of the treatment of consumer collectives in the social sciences literature. It highlights some of the insights derived from recent work in consumer research on consumer collectives which we organize under a heuristic taxonomy distinguishing packs, tribes, and bands. All of this suggests some future directions for consumer collectives and areas for future research. The proliferation and diversification of digital technologies will continue to shape and be shaped by consumer collectivities. Platforms are likely to accelerate and diversify consumers’ collective uses of their affordances. Algorithms seem destined to play a bigger role in the formation and management of collectives. Both geography-free and local collectives are likely to develop further. The article concludes with synopses of the competitive and invited articles in this issue, which richly portray the behaviors and meanings that shape and are shaped by consumer collectives.
Nicholas W. Saleh, Kirsten Hodgson, Tamara Pokorny, Aaron J Mullins, Thomas Chouvenc, Thomas Eltz, Santiago R. Ramírez
The American Naturalist; https://doi.org/10.1086/716511

Boris Demarest, Jonathan Regier, Charles T. Wolfe
HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science; https://doi.org/10.1086/715975

William Elliott, Nick Sorensen, Megan O'Brien, Zibei Chen, Briana Starks, Haotian Zheng
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research; https://doi.org/10.1086/717105

Jonathan Regier
HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science; https://doi.org/10.1086/714435

Warren Schmaus, Olivier Rey
HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science; https://doi.org/10.1086/715974

Eduardo Garzanti, Guido Pastore, Alberto Resentini, Giovanni Vezzoli, Pieter Vermeesch, Lindani Ncube, Helena Johanna Van Niekerk, Gwenael Jouet, Massimo Dall’Asta
Published: 7 September 2021
The Journal of Geology; https://doi.org/10.1086/715792

Merima Ali, Abdulaziz B. Shifa, Abebe Shimeles, Firew Woldeyes
Published: 3 September 2021
National Tax Journal; https://doi.org/10.1086/715511

Abstract:
Weak fiscal capacity is a major challenge in low-income countries. Recently, governments have adopted information technology to modernize tax collection; however, there is little evidence on the impact of such reforms. We narrow this gap using unique administrative firm-level panel data covering all business taxpayers in Ethiopia. We find a robust increase in value-added tax collections and reported sales following the adoption of electronic sales register machines (ESRMs), without decreasing formal employment. These effects are larger among downstream firms. ESRM adoption is also associated with a decrease in entry into downstream sectors.
Lucas Goodman, Jacob Mortenson, Kathleen Mackie, Heidi R. Schramm
Published: 3 September 2021
National Tax Journal; https://doi.org/10.1086/715819

Abstract:
This paper generates new, aggregate estimates of retirement savings flows in the United States from 2003 to 2015 and provides detailed estimates of leakage from tax-preferred retirement savings accounts to preretirement-age individuals. We create a nationally representative panel of individuals using a sample of administrative tax data with more than 140 million person-year observations. These data contain information on retirement contributions, distributions, and transfers between accounts. We estimate that between 2003 and 2015 distributions from defined contribution plans and IRAs to individuals age 50 or younger were equal to 22 percent of the contributions made by this age group. When estimating the correlation between common life events and the probability of leakage, we find that job separations correspond with an increase in the probability of leakage of more than 200 percent. Job separations generating the receipt of unemployment insurance (UI) — a proxy for an involuntary job separation — are associated with higher leakage than non-UI separations. Other types of events, such as income shocks, home purchases, and the onset of tuition payments, are also associated with leakage.
Jeehoon Han, Bruce D. Meyer, James X. Sullivan
Published: 2 September 2021
National Tax Journal; https://doi.org/10.1086/716242

Abstract:
We investigate how material well-being has changed over time for single mother–headed families — the primary group affected by welfare reform and other policy changes of the 1990s. We focus on consumption as well as other indicators including components of consumption, measures of housing quality, and health insurance coverage. The results provide strong evidence that the material circumstances of single mothers improved in the decades following welfare reform. The consumption of the most disadvantaged single mother–headed families — those with low consumption or low education — rose noticeably over time and at a faster rate than for those in comparison groups.
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