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Duguma Dibbisa Itana, Zakaria Yusuf Habib
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 1-7;

The objective of the study was in vitro micro-propagation through axillary buds and shoots peaks culture of each root stock with randomized design in the three replications. For callus inductions lateral apples have been cultured on MS medium contained 30 g/L sucrose, 7 g-L agar, vitamins and supplemented with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg-L of NAA mixed with 2.0 mg-L of Kn were examined. In shoot multiplication, MS media fortified with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 0.2 of mg-L of BAP and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 0.2 of mg-L of Kn and mixtures of 0.5 mg-L BAP with 0.5 mg-L of Kn and 2 mg-L BAP with 0.5 mg-L of Kn have been examined. The data shows that treatments with 0.5mg-L has shoots growths were decreased compared to other treatments. In root induction, two groups of media MS 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 1.0 mg-L of AIB, and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg-L of NAA were used for evaluations and higher roots length were recorded at 0.25 mg-L of IBA. In conclusion, it is recommended to use in vitro propagation protocols for fruit multiplication in nursery to farmers to produce a large amount of seedling within a short period of time
Vaishnavi Chandramouli, Pradeep Anbazhagan, Vasantha Kumari, Kanchana Rangasamy, Debasis Jana
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 21-26;

Determination of species from wildlife specimens is one of the prime goals of forensic laboratories analyzing samples involved in wildlife crimes. The conviction rate in wildlife crimes is often low due to a lack of evidential support in identification of the species involved in crime. When species identification by application of morphological techniques fails due to sample autolysis or lack of anatomical markers in wildlife specimens, DNA analysis provides the vital, foolproof cue. Sequences generated from mitochondrial DNA regions are used to determine the species by matching against a known reference sequence, either using the global GenBank database or using references created locally. The present study employed species identification by DNA analysis using wildlife samples received from the Forest Department across Tamil Nadu, India. The study demonstrates the utility of partial Cytb and 12S rRNAgenes for determination of species from 18 samples without recognizable morphological features, including tissue, hair and blood. The species of the collected specimens were correctly identified by sequence similarity search with 99 to 100% match and taxonomic classification using phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Of the 18 samples analyzed, accurate species identification using 12S rRNA gene was possible for all the samples, while Cytbgene-based identification was successful for 16 samples. Sequences generated from the study could also serve as a local genetic databank for the State Forest Department to match against sequences from wildlife forensic samples referred to the Institute for ascertaining species involved in wildlife trade. The sequences will also be useful to bridge gaps in genetic data on species native to Tamil Nadu.
Padmavathi Sriram
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 16-20;

Hemidactylus frenatus, is the common house lizard, which is frequently found in almost all Indian households. This lacertilian member is a warm blooded reptile and had been a triumphant lizard species on earth. The success of these lizards, in evolution, may be attributed to their unique ability to disguise as according to the backgrounds they inhabit. Quite a number of studies, on different species, of lizards have revealed that geckos are known to engage in “motion dazzle camouflage" to avoid predation. The present investigation was conducted to ascertain, if common house wall lizards actually engage in a similar kind of dazzle camouflage to evade aggression. Observational studies, for a period of two years spanning from 2019-2021, showed that the common wall lizards, indeed engage in one form or the other type of crypsis to avoid human or animal encounters. Results showed that, geckos which were generally found on lighter backgrounds such as light colored walls had a paler skin hue, matching to their lighter environment, and thus concealing them to certain extent. However it was interesting to note that, the lizards, which were adapted to run on the floor or adapted to move on patchy backgrounds, showed a molted appearance on their skin. They had alternate dark and light patches, on the dorsal side, extended from the neck till the tip of the tail, aiding these lizards, to conceal and avert any conflict. The molted appearance on the lizards may be because of opsin proteins present in their skin, which act as photo sensors, capable of adapting accordingly to the light intensities and there by assisting in defensive pigmentation. The blotched appearance of geckos implies that it causes the motion dazzle camouflage there by confusing the predator, about its exact location and avoids the threat. The present study, precisely suggests, that the common wall lizards of the species, Hemidactylus frenatus indulges in motion dazzle camouflage, as an efficient game plan to avoid and evade any adversaries.
Nalinaksh Pankaj, Bhrigu Nath
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 10-15;

Amphibians are one of the key components of various ecosystems viz. freshwater, grassland as well as forest ecosystem. Present study for assessment of amphibian diversity was conducted in different agro ecosystem habitat types of Aurangabad district of Bihar province. Different habitat types selected for assessment of amphibian diversity of this area as: - (1) agricultural and non-agricultural land (2) pond (3) grassland. The data was collected by visual encounter survey and call count survey using line transect method. Species identification was confirmed with pictorial guide and various identification keys available. Collected data was analysed descriptively as well as statistically to find out different diversity indices. A total of 13 species of amphibians belonging to 4 families and 9genera were recorded. This study reveals that the Aurangabad district of Bihar province is rich in amphibian fauna. The district lies between 24°45’ and 24°75’ North Longitude and 84°22’ and 84°37’ East latitude. Further studies may explore the population structure, microhabitat, habitat, and use by amphibians for better understanding and also impose of several conservation strategies in Bihar state.
B.V. More, Y.M Bhosale
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 6-9;

The present communication deals with the description of a new species of genus Eimeria. This new species Eimeria beedatus is different from all known species of the genus in shape, length and width of the oocyst, sporocysts and sporozoites. Oocysts were collected from Beed District for the period of two years (June 2007 to may 2009). During the investigation total 2462 samples of sheep were collected, of which 594 were found to be positive for Eimerian oocysts. Sporulation time of species was also recorded.
Aparajita Chakraborty, Masiur Rahman
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 1-5;

The role of Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, in biological research has been highly remarkable, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. It is a valuable model organism for research for almost a century which holds a significant impact on human health. One of the remarkable features of this organism recently identified is the ability of the larvae to excrete amylase. Amylase, a glycosyl hydrolase is responsible for the degradation of ɑ-1,4 glycosidic bonds in starch molecule to its constituent monosaccharides. The excretion of such a digestive enzyme by Drosophila larvae was predicted to play an important role in the physical softening of food and improvement of efficiency of food ingestion. Apart from Drosophila, certain insects such as bugs, silkworm, honeybee, or even other species of the Drosophila family are known to secrete amylases, which may differ in properties such as optimum pH, temperatures or protein sequences as reported by the presence of several amylase gene copies. Various studies had been performed on the various ‘isozymes’ of such amylases to determine their catalytic activities, similar heat sensitivities, or temporal expressions but the exact role of such enzymes in the human system is yet to be elucidated.
Esther Nadine Otiobo Atibita, Njoya Moses Tita Mogho, Chantal Douka, Dounia D, Joseph Pando
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 27-32;

This work was undertaken from March to June 2019 in the Bambili locality to assess the diverse insect species visiting ficus plants. Direct observations on the tree were done trice per week for daily periods: 7-10am, 11am-2pm, 3-5pm. Ficus arboretum, Ficus carica, Ficus infectoria, Ficus maxima, Ficus sur and Ficus virens were identified. Seven arthropod species belonging to five Orders were recorded. Out of these, two species (ants, wasps) belonged to Hymenoptera (74.89%), two others species (Moth, butterfly) belong to Lepidoptera (4.53%); 21.27%, Mecoptera (3.05%) and Coleoptera (0.62%) are represented each by aphids, beetles and scorpion flies respectively.
Baskaran A, Stephenraj D, Narayanan M, Azhagu Raj R
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 33-39;

Pesticides are toxic to aquatic fauna, which form significant components of the food chain. In this study to estimate, the lethal concentration LC50 of fenvalerate and sub-lethal concentration of Fenvalerate on the respiratory metabolism of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings was recorded in laboratory condition. The median lethal concentration of fenvalerate was estimated, by exposing different concentration such as 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 ppm of fenvalerate. The profit analysis, it was estimated that the LC50 value for 96 hrs for the pesticide fenvalerate was calculated as 0.025 ppm. The rate of oxygen consumption increased from 0.44 mg/g/hrs to 0.67 mg/g/hrs. When the partial pressure increase from 80 to 100 (mm/hg) in the exposed to 0.00083 ppm. The rate of oxygen consumption shoots us in 0.00083 and 0.00125 ppm concentration of fenvalarate, when compared with control. In the present investigation, the decline of oxygen consumption was observed in the subsequence exposure of Fenvalerate.
Gajendra Singh Mehra, Shivam Shrotriya, Deepa Bisht, Sarita Bisht, Harendra Singh Bargali, Tanveer Ahmad, Neha Verma, Nakulananda Mohanty, Sushil Kumar Dutta, Uttarakhand The Corbett Foundation, et al.
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 194-202;

Amphibian and reptiles are weather sensitive, poikilothermic group of animals, and their occurrence varies with the change in seasons. Present study was conducted in Ramnagar Forest Division of Uttarakhand state of India. Ramnagar Forest Division is the western part of Terai Arc Landscape which is an important ecoregion of the world. Sampling was done with Visual Encounter Surveys along with other methods, in all the seasons of a year. A total of 47 species of herpetofauna was recorded in the study, including 10 species of frogs, 13 species of lizards, 20 species of snakes and 4 species of testudines. The maximum number of herpetofauna species was observed during monsoon season, while the least number species were found in winters. The general pattern of herpetofauna species richness that observed in Ramnagar Forest Division was, found to be highest in monsoons, which then started decreasing in autumns and a rapid decrease was noticed in pre-winter and reached minimum in winters. In springs it started rising again and continue to rise in summers to reached maximum in monsoons
Jamil Hassan Abdulkarim, Ugbede Mercy Enemali, Chandran M, Amsath A, Sethilmurugan S, Department of Public Health National University of Nigeria
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 218-221;

Environmental Health Officer play a critical role in the containment of COVID19 in view of Outbreak of COVID 19 in Nigeria, Environmental Health Officer has numerous role to play ranging of health education, management of medical generated from treatment COVID Patient, disinfection and decontamination of environment, ensuring health worker in the frontline of management of COVID patient follows safety protocol in the course of discharging their duty and also help in investigation of people who are exposure to the disease through contact tracing,. Environmental health Officers ensure environmental sanitation is being practiced so as to strengthen environmental hygiene in an effort to contain the spread of COVID 19. This study adopted a qualitative approach, primary and secondary data were used for the purpose of data collection for the study
P Beulah Rose Rani, Sheeba Rajakumari
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 203-207;

The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of diseases in Tuticorin district and to get an insight in pigeon production, disease management and vaccination status. A sample of 50 pigeon fanciers was randomly selected from different taluks in Tuticorin district and face to face interviews were conducted among them using a standard questionnaire. Among these a total of 202 diseased pigeons was examined. According to age, they were classified into three categories squab (1-2 weeks), young (30-90 days) and adult (>90 days). Those diseases were identified by conducting the survey with a standard questionnaire among the pigeon fanciers and the study duration was from July 2016 to December 2016 and September 2t017 to November 2017. Out of 202 diseased pigeons 35.64% were raniket disease or Newcastle disease (paramyxovirus), 18.11%were canker disease, and 11.38% were one eye cold disease. In most of the lofts, the owners didn’t vaccinate their pigeons against the common diseases, even though many of them were aware of the diseases. Pigeon fancier’s education and awareness of pigeon diseases needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Non pharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing and avoidance of eye, nose and mouth touching after handling of diseased pigeons must be improved. The present study has demonstrated that a study solely based on the questionnaire is not adequate in determining the prevalence of diseases in pigeon and also the results concluded that pigeon fanciers of Tuticorin district do not maintain the regular preventive measures or vaccination against the common diseases and to control the diseases.
Selvaraj Selvamurugan, Santhana Bharathi N
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 208-211;

The fungoid frog or Malabar Hills frog (Hydrophylax malabaricus) is a colourful frog found on the forest floor and lower vegetation. H. malabaricus species recorded from Nirardam, Valparai. Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu state, India. In this study reveals that the Valparaiarea is rich in amphibian diversity and support many more species. Further studies are needed on population structure, habitat use by amphibians for better understanding and also impose of several biodiversity
Dahya M.I., Kazi A.A, Shah A.I, Nayak D
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 186-193;

The leopard has been a menace in the Vansda Taluka since the occurrence of negative interaction with this cat has increased many folds in the last decade. In 42 villages of Vansda Taluka, 29 human casualties were reported in five zones of the study area in the last ten years and out of them, maximum incidents were reported in North zone (n=8), whereas the least were from West zone (n=2). Farmers working in the sugarcane fields have been found the most vulnerable in this study. Out of total casualties on humans, the highest (n=10, 32.14%) were reported in the age group of 31 to 40 years, followed by 21 to 30 years (21.4%). The highest casualties (n=21, 75%) were in the evening time between 4 to10 pm, whereas 26.5% casualties were in the morning 4to10am. 66 % incidents have been experienced during the crop operation work followed by livestock rearing (22%) and household work (12 %). The study shows a significant variation in the activities of the victim while the attack of leopard coincides with time, location and type of activity. A base map has been prepared by using 0.79 cm scale to understand the activity of leopards and chances of human interaction in the study area
K.R Djene, J.R Allouko, Kressou A, K. Y Bony
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 212-217;

The present study deals with the use of the little-known macro invertebrate Diptera in assessing the state of biotic integrity of Daloa's urban water bodies. Thus, aquatic macro invertebrates were sampled at a seasonal rate on 24 identified stations. The inventory showed 13128 macro invertebrate individuals of 208 taxa divided into 7 classes, 21 orders and 84 families. The Diptera are represented by 1987 individuals of 53 taxa from 16 families. Analysis of the Shannon index values shows that Rice Pond 1 and Gbedji Lake are the least diversified and balanced stations. The relative percentage of Diptera was recorded with values below 75% thus reflecting two categories of stations: stations with moderate pollution and undisturbed stations.
Mohammad Misbahul Ahsan, Kondulkar S.R, Pawar S.S.
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 23-26;

The present study tried to explore the diversity of Millipedes fauna in Achalpur City, Amravati district of Maharashtra, India. This diversity study was done during pre-monsoon to monsoon season in 2021 for six months, by visiting different agricultural landscapes, by using handpicking method in and around the study area. A total four species of millipedes belonging to order Polydesmida and Spirobolida and four families namely Xystodesmidae, Trigoniulidae, Paradoxosomatidae and Spirobolidae were recorded from the study area. Species namely Harpaphe haydeniana and Orthomorpha coarctata were found to be more abundant than other species.
Sappani Muthu M, Rejith S. G, Ajith P, Agnes J, Prem Anand
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 17-22;

This work was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of CuO nanoparticles (CuONPs), which were produced by synthetic methods of the precipitation technique of the precursor material copper acetate and sodium hydroxide as reducing agents. The purity of the nanoparticles was confirmed by various characterizations. Techniques including X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Ultraviolet (UV), EDAX. The antibacterial activity of nanoparticles was examined with various microorganisms from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia.
Atoguignima Dadjo, Mamatchi Melila, Essosimna Abalo Kulo
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 178-185;

Poultry farming has always been a means of combating malnutrition. In recent years, quails farming has offered us new choices of taste, with meat production to meet the increased demand in animal proteins. However, the big problem in the poultry sector remains the cost of food. To overcome this problem, the use of agricultural by-products in animal feeding remains capital. These by-products are readily available and rich in nutrients, as it is the case with Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa pulp. This is the context in which this study is taking place, which is a contribution to the valorization of P. biglobosa pulp as a partial replacement for corn in quail nutrition as a source of energy and nutrients. A total of 540 curds was selected with an average body weight of 7.00 ± 0.02 g and one day of age. Four batches of treatments were constituted, namely, batch control, batch 5%, batch 10% and batch 15% according to the rates of substitution of corn by P. biglobosa pulp in their feed. The weekly weighings of the birds made it possible to follow their weight growth and the average weekly gain of the birds. The consumption index was thus determined on the basis of food consumption. The results showed that the substitution of maize by P. biglobosa pulp improved the weight and the average daily gain of the birds in the growth phase. Feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were low for the control batch compared to the treated batches during both rearing phases. Food consumption and the consumption index were more in favor of the control especially in the start-up phase compared to the treated batches. The pulp of P. biglobosa, by virtue of its nutritional quality, can therefore be used in quail feed at corn substitution rates of 5 to 15% without adversely affecting its zootechnical performance.
Rajeswari A, Sunita K
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 248-255;

The lethal and sublethal effect of the Glyphosate (41% SL) on certain enzymes in tissue such as AAT (Aspartate Amino Transferase), ALAT (Alanine Amino Transferase), LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) and ACP (Acid Phosphatase) of the freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala during and after the cessation of the exposure were observed. Ten fish were exposed chronically to lethal and sublethal concentrations for a period of 4 days were sacrificed and tissues such as brain, gill, liver, kidney and muscle were analysed for biochemical parameters and remaining five fish were maintained in clean well water for a period of seven days without test substance being spilled in the water and its tissues were collected after reversal period for biochemical analysis. Marked changes were observed in the biochemical parameters of the fish exposed and after the cessation of the exposure
Yogaraj Pannerselvam, Bannerghatta Bear Rescue And Rehab Centre Wildlife Sos, Reegan P, Attur Shanmugam Arun, Kartick Satyanarayan, Geeta Seshamani, Shanmugavelu Swaminathan
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 235-243;

The feeding ecology of the Indian leopard (Panthera pardusfusca) was studied from February 2016 to September 2016 a total of 54 scat samples. These leopards feed on a variety of wild and domestic animals. Diet composition of the leopard will be primarily studied through scat analysis will be collected from well-defined sampling areas within the study period. A total of 12 prey species were successfully identified based on the microscopic hair analysis, percentage frequency of occurrence of prey hair, bones, or claws, in the scats and estimation of standard error using a regression equation and relative biomass consumed also recorded. However, the data regarding their diet composition is scanty and scat analysis revealed that the wild animals (45.00%) was their preferred diet, and domestic species including with dog and livestock were more frequently consumed (52.00%) while Sambar deer (23.70 %) and Goat (21.30 %) was most commonly used as diet during seasonal variations. Other species include porcupine, wild boar, hare, monkeys, peafowl, spurfowl, and mongoose some domestic species of sheep, cow, and some unknown species. Furthermore, the questioner’s survey is recorded for human-leopard conflicts with investigations to cattle watchers also assessed.
Moumouni DA, Mahamane Lo
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 256-260;

Moringa cultivation is growing in importance in Niger. It is cultivated for its leaves eaten in the form of porridge or as a fresh vegetable. It contributes to improving the nutritional quality of the diet of Nigeriens because it is rich in trace elements (mainly calcium, iron and vitamins) and in proteins. Despite its importance; Moringa cultivation is attacked by many insect pests, drastically reducing yields when precautions are not taken. A comparative study of the efficacy of the aqueous extract made from neem seeds and the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Beauverie) on the caterpillars of Noorda blitealis (R.) was carried out in the laboratory. The treatments consisted of 14 replicates each containing 10 larvae of three early stages of development. Only one treatment was carried out on leaves and caterpillars. Data was collected daily for ten days. The analysis showed that the aqueous extract of neem seeds and B. bassiana were comparable to the chemical pesticide with respective larval mortality rates of 90±13.87% and 66.43±11.45%. The neem seed and B. bassiana treatments generated an increase in larval mortality rates of 64.29% and 87.86% respectively compared to the control. It is also noted that the control treatment recorded the highest number of pupae (91±14.1%). The performance of these biopesticides on pest mortality can contribute to ecological management and their introduction as alternative methods in moringa production basins in Niger.
Y.Q.F. Kra, J.R Allouko, M.P. Adon, N.C Kouassi, K.Y Bony
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 261-269;

This study was carried out to evaluate phytoplankton structure from farmed environments at Bouaké’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Station (SRPAC). Measure of physical-chemical and phytoplankton flora sampling were realized from December, 2015 to March, 2016. Conductivity, water transparency and temperature were measured in situ. Phytoplankton was sampled in fishpond using a plankton net mesh-size 20 µm between 7 to 9 am. The results showed that conductivity varied from 19, 37 mS/cm ± 0, 21 to 23, 88 mS/cm ± 1, 20. Therefore, water transparency is relatively ranging from 16 cm ± 0,2 to 57 cm ± 0,5. The pond water temperature fluctuated between 28, 34 °C ± 0, 88 and 30, 20 °C ± 1, 27. Phytoplankton flora is spatially heterogeneous and is made up of 197 taxa divided into 7 branches. These are Chlorophyta (36,04%), Euglenophyta (24,87%), Bacillariophyta (14,72%), Cyanobacteria (13,71%), Charophyta (7,11%), Ochrophyta (2,54%) and Miozoa (1,02%).This phytoplankton study confirmed the existence of potential toxigenic microalgae identified in genus Anabaena, Anabaenopsis, Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya, Microcystis, Oscillatoria and Peridinium that could interfere with fish production. This study showed the main phytoplankton communities which dominate in the fish ponds of the Bouaké Research Station.
Beulah Rose Rani, Sheeba Rajakumari
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 244-247;

Pigeon farming is one of the beneficial sectors for income generation as well as hobby. Present study was conducted to study the difference between social skills and occupational self - efficacy of literate and illiterate pigeon breeders and to study the occurrence of social skills among them. For this purpose a sample of 55 pigeon breeders where randomly selected and interview was conducted among them with the help of pre-structured questionnaire. In this present study findings reported that there was significant difference between social skills and occupational self - efficacy of illiterate and literate pigeon breeders, it was higher in literate pigeon breeders and lower in illiterate pigeon breeders and also out of 5 skills suggested by Springer, 40% were communication skill, 23.64% were problem solving skill, 14.55% were social Awareness, 12.72% were co-operation and 9.09% were responsibility skill which were occurred among the pigeon breeders.
Khursheed Ahmad Dar, Senthilmurugan S
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 11-16;

Organic wastes or bio-wastes are not “waste” but prospective bio-resources. Management of bio-waste by technical methods has become a burning issue in the present time. In the present study cow dung (CD), Mango litter (ML) and Municipal solid waste (MSW) was treated with earthworm Eisenia fetida in different mixture ratios of the substrate. Waste was converted into organic manure along with increase in biomass and number of earthworms. This is supposed to be due to the rich concentration of OC, N, P and microbial population.
Ibrahim Friday Sule, Deda Gayi Kingsley, Ngeri Mark Adamu
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 288-292;

Coccidiosis is a disease that destroys the intestinal mucosa which is caused by the protozoa parasites of the genus Eimera or Isospora species. The symptoms include diarrhoea, fever, weight loss, emaciation and consequently, death. Many infections are subclinical (that is, not severe enough to cause readily observable symptoms). Coccidiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and also rabbits, in which the liver and intestine are affected. In dogs, cats, and horses, coccidiosis is less often diagnosed but can result in clinical illness.
Subash B, Vijayan P, Senthilmurugan S, Ramarajan K
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 305-311;

The present study is intended to assess and monitor the Bioremediation of textile dye effluent using Lampito mauritii earthworm. The study focus on the bioremediation of surface water of SIPCOT dye industry Cuddalore district over a period of one year and has revealed variations among the different parameters at different study sites. For the analysis of surface water three sampling sites were selected for the study. In the area, from SIPCOT dye industry to Cuddalore district the parameters concentration was decreased and it is useful for drinking purpose. Heavy metals such as copper and zinc are essential elements for metabolic activities however they show toxic effects when exposed to higher levels whereas lead, mercury, cadmium and are not essential for metabolism which they exhibit toxic properties. The heavy metals of surface water in the study area are in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg (mg/L) respectively. Mercury, cadmium were noticed in least level in the non-industrial area whereas industrial area concentration of metals were slightly increased than the prescribed limits. The examination of water samples for bacteriological parameter includes MPN index, total heterotrophic bacterial colony count, morphological and biochemical characteristics. MPN is a suitable and widely used method to determine the microbial quality of water. Due to heavy rain the microbial load was increased during monsoon season. Based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, identify the species of the organism namely Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on motility, shape, size and structure, the organism was identified and based on IMVIC tests of biochemical reaction with production of acid and gas the organism was identified.
Akhter Ali Siddiqui, Arif Ahmed, Rizwana Begum
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 230-234;

The aim of the present study was to investigate a comparative study of antimicrobial efficacy of Clitoris ternatea and Anacardium occidentale leaf extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative) microbial strains. Ethanol extracts of both the leaf were evaluated against the experimental microbial strains using the well diffusion and agar disc diffusion methods. The present investigation showed that some microbial strains were more sensitive to Clitoris ternatea as compared to Anacardium occidentale and vice versa. But on the whole the Clitoris ternatea was found to be more effective than Anacardium occidentale. It is concluded that both the extracts showed antimicrobial activity due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals present in them.
Priyanka S. Patode, B.S. Salve, R.T. Pawar
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 293-298;

The study of ichthyofaunal diversity of Siddheshwar reservoir, district Hingoli, Maharashtra, was conducted over a two-year period from January 2015 to December 2016, and the reservoir shows occurrence of rich ichthyofaunal diversity, with a total of 40 fish species belonging to 29 genera, 15 families, and 9 orders in Siddheshwar reservoir. The order Cypriniformes dominated with 18 species, followed by the orders Siluriformes with 8, Channiformes with 4, Preciformes with 3, Clupeiformes and Mastcembeliformes with 2, and the rest of the orders Angulliformes, Beloniformes, and Mugiliformes with a single species. Because of the abundance of food materials, most of the significant fishes may be found in this reservoir. Primary productivity occurs in the form of primary producers (Phytoplanktons and Zooplanktons). According to the IUCN red list categories, 52.5 percent of the species are least concern, 20 percent are not evaluated, 10 percent are near threatened, 5.00 percent are data deficient, 5.00 percent are lower risk near threatened and vulnerable, and 2.5 percent are lower risk least concern. The study reveals that this freshwater body could be beneficial to regional fish variety conservation, particularly for indigenous and endangered fish species.
Subramanian Anjanapriya, Manickam Sureka, Nambirajan Sasirekha
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 299-304;

Anthropogenic activity enhances the heavy metal contamination in surrounding environment. This research was designed to measure the metal pollution level from soil and ground water system around land fill dumpsite. The levels of pollution measured from 0 distances to 1200m distance of landfill. The overall study indicated that concentration of heavy metals Arsenic(As), Mercury(Hg), Lead(Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Chromium(Cr), Copper(Cu), Nickel(Ni) and Zinc(Zn) were witnessed in very near to dumpsite also the concentration was decreased when distance increased. The levels of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in soil were observed every 300m distance (90.75, 90, 77.3, 98.5, 92.3, 58, 95.9 and 94%) respectively. The above level was compared to 1200m distance; the concentration was gradually reduced to (36.8, 0, 51.7, 51.8, 50.4, 56, 51.3 and 46%) separately. Also the concentration of heavy metals in ground water samples at 300 m distance were (100, 96, 90.2, 93.91, 92, 95.5, 100, and 97.3%) the levels reduced to (24.2, 10.3, 30.7, 29.6, 52.5, 49.6, 21.1&57.5%) at 1200m distance. This indicated that the nearest area soil and ground water were highly polluted; however the heavy metals concentration was reduced gradually at far distance. To reduce th toxic compounds from the waste, create awareness for the people to limit the waste from every house. Sanitary landfilling and composting is an excellent and ecofriendly manner of waste mangement
Sanjay Paunikar, Northern Regional Centre Zoological Survey Of India
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 222-229;

A review is given on documentation of important and major insect order coleoptera in forest ecosystem of Shivalik Hill regions of India. Shivalik Hills are situated in north Indian region to foot hills of North-West Himalaya due to position make itsunique bio geographic location, diversified climatic conditions and enormous eco-diversity and geo-diversity of flora and fauna. Several renowned workers contributed and documented number of species of coleoptera of the Shivalik Hills region of India. After reviewing the literature on coleoptera fauna in the Shivalik Hills areas indicates some fragmentary work on different aspects of coleoptera such as taxonomic, bioecology, species diversity, seasonal abundance, distribution and pest status. Though, it was found that some documents published but, it is needed to explore more coleopteran fauna and prepare consolidate documents from forest ecosystem of Shivalik Hills and detailed study on taxonomy, bioecology, species diversity, abundance and distribution in forest ecosystem due to current changing climatic condition
, Sanjay S, Kumar Bhardwaj
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 279-287;

Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates incurring huge production loss in livestock industry & creating serious public health problems in the world. This review explores the acaricides resistance & ethnoveterinary practices to control ticks infestation. Long-term use of acaricides has generated resistance in many tick species. The use of phyto extract might play an important role in addressing the ticksmanifestation as ethnoveterinary plant has demonstrated repellent & toxic effects on ticks. They are of course less expensive, but they are often regarded as being more effective& therefore can be developed further for tick control & management. In regard to our literature survey the biological & parasitic activities of the plant species & status of acaricides resistance are given herein. It is hoped that our review would help to facilitate selection for further investigation of Plants & Acaracides with relatively high levels of potency & a wide range of biological activities
Ashish Pandey, Erane Richards
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 276-278;

Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides a serious problem to pollute the environment (Soil, water, and air). The Spodoptera litura F., also known as tobacco caterpillar, is one of the worst polyphagous insects and attack large number of impressive 73 host plants species, and other insect pests keeping in view of the above points, to use of safer plant origin potential insecticides friendly to environment for control of insect pests. Tobacco cut worm Spodoptera litura Fab. Is among the major polyphagous bugs that seriously restrict creation. A significant issue is that bug bother all throughout the planet have created protection from numerous insect poisons. Bugs have a very much evolved resistant framework incorporating humoral and cell protections. The bug safe framework is primarily represented by the exercises of phenol oxidase chemical just as haemocytes that are intense against intruders and poisons. Any compound that can meddle with these protections will seriously impede the bug natural wellness. Insect detoxification proteins additionally assume a vital part in the improvement of opposition against insect sprays. A decrease in these compound levels will bring about a decrease of insect spray opposition levels. Impact of fifteen plant species insecticidal effectively are tried against tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura F. All the arrangement materials were separated with acetone/petrol either solvent or tried at the various fixations. Out of these 10 plants removes vows to be wellspring of insecticidal movement to the tried bug bothers.
Revathi A, Pugazhendy K
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 6, pp 270-275;

The goal of this study was to see if Pisonia alba might protect the albino wister rat Rattus norvegicus from the herbicide atrazine's toxicity effects on AST, ALT, ACP, and ALP. Rattus norvegicus were inebriated with a sublethal dose of atrazine (0.25 mg of atrazine) for 28 days in this experiment. When compared to the control, the biochemical manufacturing enzymes in the liver were found to be higher. During the treatment of atrazine-intoxicated rats with P. alba, they were returned to a near-normal level (Group III and IV). The outcomes that were noticed were thoroughly explained.
Abhilasha Singh
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 7-10;

In human female reproductive physiology predicting ovulation is the basis on which the fertile period is determined. The present study was designed to investigate the level of salivary Sialic acid to find the possibility to develop a biomarker for detection of ovulation by non-invasive method. 42 females of different age group of different reproductive physiological conditions (i.e. prepubertal, parous, non-parous, menopausal, and diabetogenic) were selected for this study. It was observed significant (p<0.001) increase in ovulatory, menopause and diabetic condition and highly significant decrease in non-parous ovulatory and post ovulatory condition in women. The study showed that salivary Sialic acid concentration was elevated during ovulation.
Ranjithkumar M, Sathya P, Mahalingam Pu
International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, Volume 7, pp 1-6;

Toxic heavy metal pollution is expanding throughout the world as a result of industrial progress. This work focuses on the characterization of zinc tolerant bacterial strains from an electroplating effluent polluted soil sample in order to minimize/control metal pollution. pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Chloride, Sodium, Calcium, Potassium, Biological Oxygen Demand, and Chemical Oxygen Demand were all measured and evaluated in the zinc-containing electroplating effluent sample. The sixteen bacterial strains were isolated from a polluted soil sample with electroplating effluent and identified using morphological and biochemical features. Using nutritional agar medium enriched with zinc metal, all of the chosen strains were evaluated for metal tolerance. Only six bacterial strains were chosen as potential metal tolerant strains based on the screening study, and these strains were characterized under various environmental conditions such as different pH (pH 5, pH 7, and pH 9), different temperatures (5°C, 28°C, 37°C, and 45°C), and different metal concentrations (100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm and 400ppm). Pseudomonas sp strain 1 was shown to be a better zinc resistant organism, according to the findings
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