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Karen Hillmann, Corinne Neukel, Marlene Krauch, Angelika Spohn, Knut Schnell, Sabine C. Herpertz, Katja Bertsch
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 672-690; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.672

Abstract:
Empirical studies have identified deficits in cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but results remain heterogeneous and not much is known about the role of childhood trauma. The current study assessed cognitive and affective ToM in 80 patients with BPD and 41 healthy controls in a false-belief cartoon task. Childhood trauma was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Patients with BPD responded slower in all experimental conditions in false-belief situations, but not when false beliefs were resolved; made more errors in the cognitive ToM condition; and reported worse affective states more often in and after false-belief situations. No significant correlations between ToM and childhood trauma could be found. The current study revealed deficits in cognitive and affective ToM in patients with BPD that may be related to a more negative affective state raised by the false-belief stories.
Robert Gregory, Susan D. Sperry, Daniel Williamson, Rachael Kuch-Cecconi, Garry L. Spink Jr.
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 776-787; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.776

Abstract:
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with high risk of suicidality and high rates of health care utilization; however, the prevalence and characteristics of BPD among inpatients admitted for suicidality are unknown. In the present study of 72 adult psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide risk, BPD was highly prevalent (n = 31; 43.1%), but 68% were misdiagnosed by admitting providers. Compared to patients without BPD, those with BPD were significantly younger, were prescribed more psychiatric medications, were more depressed, and had greater suicide ideation. Patients with BPD were also three times as likely to be readmitted to a psychiatric hospital at 30, 90, and 180 days postdischarge for an average of almost 9 days of inpatient care per patient for the first 180 days. In this sample, BPD was highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and associated with frequent readmissions, findings that highlight the importance of improved recognition and access to specialized treatments.
Adrian Jusepeitis, Klaus Rothermund
Published: 1 October 2021
Social Cognition, Volume 39, pp 591-607; https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2021.39.5.591

Abstract:
Krause et al. (2012) demonstrated that evaluative responses elicited by self-related primes in an affective priming task have incremental validity over explicit self-esteem in predicting self-serving biases in performance estimations and expectations in an anagram task. We conducted a conceptual replication of their experiment in which we added a behavioral and an affective outcome and presented names instead of faces as self-related primes. A heterogeneous sample (N = 96) was recruited for an online data collection. Name primes produced significantly positive and reliable priming effects, which correlated with explicit self-esteem. However, neither these priming effects nor explicit self-esteem predicted the cognitive, affective, or behavioral outcomes. Despite the lack of predictive validity of the implicit measure for affective and behavioral outcomes, the positive and reliable priming effects produced by name primes warrant the further investigation of the validity of the affective priming paradigm as a measure of implicit self-esteem.
Afsaneh Raissi, Jennifer R. Steele
Published: 1 October 2021
Social Cognition, Volume 39, pp 570-590; https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2021.39.5.570

Abstract:
Given the pervasiveness of prejudice, researchers have become increasingly interested in examining racial bias at the intersection of race and other social and perceptual categories that have the potential to disrupt these negative attitudes. Across three studies, we examined whether the emotional expression of racial exemplars would moderate implicit racial bias. We found that racial bias on the Affect Misattribution Procedure only emerged in response to angry but not smiling Black male faces in comparison to White (Study 1) or White and Asian (Study 3) male faces with similar emotional expressions. Racial bias was also found toward Asian targets (Studies 2 and 3), but not only following angry primes. These findings suggest that negative stereotypes about Black men can create a contrast effect, making racial bias toward smiling faces less likely to be expressed in the presence of angry Black male faces.
Amanda A. Uliaszek
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 641-656; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_487

Abstract:
Research examining life stress as a precipitant, co-occurrence, and consequence of psychopathology often has implications for two explanatory models: stress exposure, where stress causes symptoms, and stress generation, where symptoms cause stress. Preliminary evidence suggests that both processes are evident in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present study examined 101 adults who self-reported at least three symptoms of BPD at prescreen, with 30% of the sample meeting full diagnostic criteria for BPD. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to examine the relationships between BPD symptomatology and four forms of life stress. Stress exposure and stress generation were not supported for either form of chronic life stress. Results supported stress generation in both dependent and interpersonal episodic life stress, and stress exposure for interpersonal episodic life stress. These findings evidenced small effects only. Findings point to the impact of interpersonal stress on changes in symptomatology over time.
Kai Heron
Published: 1 October 2021
Science & Society, Volume 85, pp 501-526; https://doi.org/10.1521/siso.2021.85.4.501

Abstract:
Metabolic rift theory has been accused of assuming an untenable ontological dualism between nature and society. In response, two of its leading advocates, John Bellamy Foster and Andreas Malm, have tried to argue that the approach is not dualist but rather rigorously realist, nonreductively naturalist, and dialectically materialist. According to Foster and Malm, metabolic rift theory is essential because it enables eco-Marxism to make an analytic distinction between nature and society while nevertheless grasping their complex interrelation. From a Lacanian and Hegelian perspective, Foster and Malm are right to preserve the dialectical distinction between nature and society but their respective accounts of this dialectic are insufficiently materialist. Foster falls into a pre-Marxian contemplative materialism. Malm hesitates between his intended realism and Kantian idealism. For metabolic rift theory to be put on a firmer materialist footing, nature must be thought along Lacanian and Hegelian lines as incomplete, thwarted, or shot through with antagonisms out of which emerge the subject and society. To put this in dialectical terms: ontologically there is only nature, out of which society and the subject emerge as an effect of nature's failure to be fully natural.
Nicholas Tarantino, Catherine Matthews, Shufang Sun, Lindsay Orchowski, Abigail Harrison, Naeemah Abrahams, Alan Berkowitz, Morayo Akande, Caroline Kuo
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 424-438; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.424

Abstract:
Associations between sexual risk behavior (SRB) and sexual violence perpetration (SVP) contribute to the intersecting HIV and sexual violence epidemics in South Africa. We examined SVP and SRB, and their potential correlates among South African boys (N = 80; ages 15–17). Fifty-one percent endorsed SVP in the past year; 61% engaged in past-3-month SRB. Whereas most unique correlates were socio-structural, family, or community factors, correlates shared across behaviors were behavior-specific social norm perceptions and cognitive factors. In final multivariate models, food insecurity and positive attitudes toward delaying sex were associated with SVP (odds ratios [ORs] = 3.05 and 0.37, respectively), and community violence exposure, gender equitable social norm perceptions, positive attitudes toward delaying sex, and intentions to obtain sexual consent were associated with SRBs (ORs = 1.56–1.57, 0.90–0.38, 0.58–0.60, respectively). Interventions to address HIV/sexual violence risk among adolescents in South Africa should be integrated and multilevel.
Thu Trang Nguyen, Anh Ngoc Luong, Thi Dieu Thuy Dao, Nicolas Nagot, Didier Laureillard, Laurent Visier, Minh Giang Le
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 450-463; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.450

Abstract:
Late HIV treatment remains a global public health issue despite significant efforts. To better understand what shapes this issue, we interviewed 36 Vietnamese ART-naive patients who came to HIV treatment in 2017. Half of them had intake CD4 counts fewer than 100 cells/mm3, the others had intake CD4 counts of 350 cells/mm3 and above. Late diagnosis was the reason of late treatment in our sample. Most late presenters were not members of the key populations at increased risk of HIV (e.g., people who inject drugs, commercial sex workers, and men who have sex with men). Individual-level factors included low risk appraisal, habit of self-medication, and fear of stigma. Network and structural-level factors included challenges to access quality health care, normalization of HIV testing in key populations and inconsistent provider-initiated HIV testing practices. Structural interventions coupled with existing key population-targeted strategies would improve the issue of late HIV diagnosis.
Holger Nordstrom Munck, Tavs Qvist, Marie Helleberg, Per Slaaen Kaye, Francois Pichon, Susan Cowan
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 439-449; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.439

Abstract:
This study evaluates whether the community-based HIV testing clinic Checkpoint could reach at-risk groups of men who have sex with men (MSM) and link patients to care. A prospective observational study of all Checkpoint visits during 2013–2016 and a retrospective registry study of all MSM diagnosed with HIV in Denmark during the same period were conducted. One percent of the 9,074 tests in Checkpoint were HIV-positive, accounting for 19% of all new HIV diagnoses among MSM in Denmark. Checkpoint testers reported frequent condomless anal sex. Two percent of migrant Checkpoint testers were HIV-positive compared to 1 % among Danish MSM. HIV-positive MSM identified through Checkpoint were significantly younger, more of them were migrant, and a smaller proportion were late testers compared to those testing through the conventional health care system. Checkpoint reaches at-risk populations of MSM and links patients successfully to care.
Kelsey Rush, Marcella Fok, Paul Moran, Sarah Dorrington, Hitesh Shetty, Robert Stewart, Chin-Kuo Chang
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 657-671; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.657

Abstract:
For individuals with a personality disorder (PD), it is unknown whether additional psychiatric conditions increase their risk of self-harm. The authors therefore conducted a retrospective cohort study, using data from secondary mental health care, to identify self-harm admissions. Adults with diagnosed PD, followed up over a 6-year period, were involved (N = 7,475). Cox regression was used to model the risk of self-harm admissions, with comorbid depression, substance use disorders (SUD), severe mental illness (SMI), anorexia nervosa (AN), and bulimia nervosa (BN) as primary exposures; sociodemographics were considered as confounders. In multivariable analyses, comorbid SUD (adjusted HR = 1.66; 95% CI [1.45, 1.90]), depressive disorder (1.25; [1.09, 1.44]), AN (1.63; [1.10, 2.39]), and BN (1.65; [1.09, 2.51]) were positively associated with increased risks of hospitalization due to self-harm. However, a negative association was found for comorbid SMI. The findings highlight the importance of assessing and treating comorbid psychiatric disorders in PD.
Martino Belvederi Murri, Federica Folesani, Silvia Costa, Bruno Biancosino, Luigi Zerbinati, Heifa Ounalli, Agnese Rossetto, Rosangela Caruso, Maria Giulia Nanni, Luigi Grassi
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 730-749; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.730

Abstract:
Very few studies have focused on the relationship between cognitive functions and clinical features in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Subjects with BPD and healthy controls were administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Test A and B, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-53) was used to assess the severity of current symptoms. Attachment style was assessed with the Experiences in Close Relationship Questionnaire, identity integration with the Personality Structure Questionnaire, and other domains of personality dysfunction with the RUDE Scale for Personality Dysfunction. Patients with BPD performed significantly worse than healthy controls in all cognitive domains. Cognitive functions, particularly delayed memory and visuospatial abilities, displayed meaningful associations with trait-like clinical features, above the effect of global cognition and state psychopathology. These findings highlight the need to evaluate effects of cognitive rehabilitation on trait features among individuals with BPD.
Paul A. Burns, Casey D. Xavier Hall, Tonia Poteat, Leandro A. Mena, Frank Y. Wong
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 395-410; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.395

Abstract:
Utilizing the Andersen Healthcare Utilization Model, we examined the role of neighborhood context on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization among a sample of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in a medium-sized city in the Deep South. Data were derived from a sample of 142 Black MSM aged 18–64 years who were eligible for PrEP from a community-based study known as “ACCELERATE!” We used multilevel structural equation modeling to assess PrEP use. Social support, sexual risk, and health care access were predictive of PrEP use. Notably, residing in a neighborhood with concentrated poverty was associated with decreased PrEP use. Our findings reveal neighborhood structural disadvantage is associated with decreased PrEP use among Black MSM, after adjusting of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. There is an urgent need to develop HIV prevention interventions and programs that explicitly address structural-level factors to eliminate racial/ethnic differences in HIV.
Tianwei V. Du, Katherine M. Thomas, Donald R. Lynam
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 708-729; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_496

Abstract:
Personality disorders are rooted in maladaptive interpersonal behaviors. Previously, researchers have assessed interpersonal behaviors using self-ratings of one's own behaviors and third-person ratings of dyadic interactions. Few studies have examined individuals' perceptions of others' interpersonal behaviors. Using a sample of 470 undergraduate students, the authors examined patterns of interpersonal perception as well as influences of these patterns on psychological functioning. Findings showed that people tend to like interpersonal behaviors that are similar to their own and become bothered by behaviors that are the opposite of their own. Such a pattern is particularly characteristic on the warmth dimension and is consistent across different levels of closeness of the relationship. The authors also found small but significant effects of interpersonal perception on personality and general psychological functioning, above and beyond effects of individuals' own interpersonal traits. Such findings highlight the importance of including perceptions of others in investigating interpersonal dynamics when understanding personality disorders.
Ravit Nussinson, Yaron Elias, Einat Yosef-Nitzan, Sari Mentser, Maya Zadka, Zohar Weinstein, Nira Liberman
Published: 1 October 2021
Social Cognition, Volume 39, pp 632-655; https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2021.39.5.632

Abstract:
Recent findings suggest that stimulus construal level (high vs. low) is mentally associated with its vertical position (up vs. down). We delve deeper into this association and its meanings, and examine, for the first time, its complementary association, that of stimulus psychological distance (distant vs. close) and its vertical position (up vs. down). In Study 1 and 2 goals of activities were positioned higher than the means of performing them and were perceived as more compatible with a spatially higher viewpoint. In Study 3, self-perceptions were more invariant when items were presented at the top (vs. the bottom) of a visual display. In Study 4, participants positioned imagination-related concepts above reality-related concepts. In Study 5, participants provided more distant time estimates for scenarios presented at the top (vs. the bottom) of a display. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Linus Recht
Published: 1 October 2021
Science & Society, Volume 85, pp 474-500; https://doi.org/10.1521/siso.2021.85.4.474

Abstract:
Rereading the young Karl Marx's “Critique of Hegel's ‘Philosophy of Right’“ in light of a broader range of scholarship enables a more accurate understanding of the historical and intellectual significance of this work. Shlomo Avineri's pioneering treatment is deficient in important respects. A return to Marx's and Hegel's texts may help determine more exactly what Marx was trying to figure out through Hegel, and why he saw the need to move beyond Hegel to accomplish it. In Marx's mature writings, as Postone has shown, Marx's concept of “capital” purports to identify the real basis of Hegelian Geist. Recognizing this enables an analysis that provides a fuller view of both young and mature Marx as they relate to Hegel and to one another than is typical in the literature, which often either divides Marx into young-humanist and old-economist, or else inter-collapses old and young Marx too readily.
Anna Björk Einarsdóttir
Published: 1 October 2021
Science & Society, Volume 85, pp 443-473; https://doi.org/10.1521/siso.2021.85.4.443

Abstract:
The fight against imperialism and racism was central to the Comintern's political and cultural program of the interwar period. Although the more immediate interests of the Soviet state would come to overshadow such causes, the cultural and political connections forged during this time influenced later forms of organizing. Throughout the interwar period (1918-39), the Soviet Union served as the core location of a newly formed world-system of socialist and communist radicalism. The origin of Latin American Marxism in the work of the Peruvian theorist and political organizer José Carlos Mariátegui, as well as the politically committed literature associated with the interwar communist left in the Andean region of Latin America, shows how literature and theory devoted to the indigenous revolutionary contributed to interwar Marxist debates. The interwar influence of Mariátegui and César Vallejo makes clear the importance of resisting attempts to drive a wedge between the two authors and the broader communist movement at the time.
Robert S. Biskin, Joel Paris, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Devin Mills, Lise Laporte, Nancy Heath
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 764-775; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_500

Abstract:
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) typically has an onset in adolescence. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) could be associated with its subsequent development. The aim of this study was to examine whether NSSI among adolescents in the community is associated with a risk for BPD in emerging adulthood. Sixty-nine adolescents (11-13 years old) with a history of NSSI and 61 matched controls were assessed for NSSI and then reassessed between ages 18 to 20 years. Findings showed that continuation of NSSI over time was associated with higher ratings of BPD symptomatology and greater impairment in psychosocial functioning. Both of these relations were mediated by deficits in emotion regulation. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in NSSI may need to be assessed for problems regulating emotions and to be provided with early interventions to help prevent continuation of NSSI.
Holger Nordstr⊘M Munck, Tavs Qvist, Marie Helleberg, Per Slaaen Kaye, Francois Pichon, Susan Cowan
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 439-449; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.1

Abstract:
This study evaluates whether the community-based HIV testing clinic Checkpoint could reach at-risk groups of men who have sex with men (MSM) and link patients to care. A prospective observational study of all Checkpoint visits during 2013–2016 and a retrospective registry study of all MSM diagnosed with HIV in Denmark during the same period were conducted. One percent of the 9,074 tests in Checkpoint were HIV-positive, accounting for 19% of all new HIV diagnoses among MSM in Denmark. Checkpoint testers reported frequent condomless anal sex. Two percent of migrant Checkpoint testers were HIV-positive compared to 1 % among Danish MSM. HIV-positive MSM identified through Checkpoint were significantly younger, more of them were migrant, and a smaller proportion were late testers compared to those testing through the conventional health care system. Checkpoint reaches at-risk populations of MSM and links patients successfully to care.
Nick Gagliano, Stéphanie Black, Caroline Mniszak, Jeffrey Morgan, Nathan Lachowsky, Rod Knight
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 411-423; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.411

Abstract:
This study explores how universal access to and taking no-cost preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which effectively prevents HIV acquisition, may impact the mental health-related experiences of sexual minority men, including HIV-related anxiety. We employed community-based and participatory methods to conduct and analyze 27 interviews with sexual minority men in British Columbia, Canada. Before starting PrEP, participants’ experiences with sex were highly associated with HIV-related anxiety. Participants stated they did not explicitly initiate PrEP to reduce HIV-related anxiety, yet many described significant reductions of HIV-related anxiety after starting PrEP. Participants described feeling that the sex they were having was safer following their initiation of PrEP, which resulted in increased ability to access heightened experiences of pleasure, desire, and intimacy. PrEP's capacity to impact HIV stigma and health broadly should continue to be explored, particularly given the mental health inequities faced by those who may acquire HIV.
Arleen Leibowitz, Diane Tan
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 33, pp 377-394; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.377

Abstract:
The CDC recommends that everyone have at least one HIV test in their lifetime. However, analyses of California Health Interview Survey data showed that in 2017 only half of Californians had ever received an HIV test. Non-Hispanic Black (64.8%) and Hispanic adults (54.7%) had higher lifetime testing rates than non-Hispanic White adults (48.8%). In multivariable analyses non-Hispanic African American adults had twice and Hispanic adults 1.2 times the odds of lifetime HIV testing as non-Hispanic White adults. The CDC recommends annual HIV testing for higher-risk individuals. Independent of race/ethnicity, heterosexual men with multiple sex partners had lower annual testing rates than other high-risk individuals. Annual testing was unrelated to education level and poverty, but was related to number of doctor visits. HIV screening rates among heterosexual men with multiple partners could be increased by targeting HIV screening to non-medical settings in California's eight Ending the HIV Epidemic counties.
Robert S. Biskin, Joel Paris, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Devin Mills, Lise Laporte, Nancy Heath
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 764-775; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.764

Abstract:
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) typically has an onset in adolescence. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) could be associated with its subsequent development. The aim of this study was to examine whether NSSI among adolescents in the community is associated with a risk for BPD in emerging adulthood. Sixty-nine adolescents (11-13 years old) with a history of NSSI and 61 matched controls were assessed for NSSI and then reassessed between ages 18 to 20 years. Findings showed that continuation of NSSI over time was associated with higher ratings of BPD symptomatology and greater impairment in psychosocial functioning. Both of these relations were mediated by deficits in emotion regulation. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in NSSI may need to be assessed for problems regulating emotions and to be provided with early interventions to help prevent continuation of NSSI.
Paul A. Pilkonis, Kelly L. Johnston, Nathan E. Dodds
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 750-763; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.750

Abstract:
We previously developed a three-item screener for identifying respondents with any personality disorder (PD) using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). The current goal was to examine the convergent validity of the IIP-3 with other PD screeners and diagnostic tools and to investigate its relationship to measures of adult attachment and emotion regulation. The sample consisted of participants from five studies (total N = 852), with data from collateral informants available for a subsample (N = 353). Despite its brevity, the IIP-3 showed moderate to strong relationships with other longer PD screeners, with PD symptom scores from the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV), and with a global rating of PD severity. It was most sensitive to the stylistic aspects of PD typical of the traditional DSM cluster B (dramatic, expressive) PDs. These results emerged with data from both participants and informants, although correlations using informant data were generally smaller.
Scott Sasso, Nicole M. Cain, Kevin B. Meehan, Ruifan Zeng, Philip S. Wong
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 691-707; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.691

Abstract:
Previous research has shown that narcissism is associated with interpersonal difficulties and maladaptive affective responses to social rejection. In the current studies, the authors examined two phenotypes of pathological narcissism, narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and their impact on individuals' affective responses in two distinctive social rejection paradigms. Participants from Study 1 (N = 239), recruited from a multicultural university and Amazon's Mechanical Turk, completed Cyberball, a computerized social rejection paradigm. Participants from Study 2 (N = 238) were recruited from a multicultural university and participated in an in vivo group rejection paradigm in a laboratory. Results indicated that following the rejection in both studies, narcissistic vulnerability positively predicted explicit negative affect and state anger. In addition, the positive relationship between narcissistic vulnerability and explicit negative affect was moderated by greater implicit negative affect in Study 2. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
Arta Konjusha, Christopher J. Hopwood, Adrian L. Price, Oliver Masuhr, Johannes Zimmermann
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 788-800; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.788

Abstract:
It is common for people with mental health problems to report feelings of emptiness. However, the association of subjective emptiness with specific disorders and its unique role within dimensional taxonomies of personality pathology is not well understood. The present study assesses the transdiagnostic value of subjective emptiness using a recently developed self-report measure in a mixed sample of 157 participants. The authors investigated the associations of emptiness with clinically relevant variables, including borderline personality disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Subjective emptiness showed strong positive relationships with all criteria. Regression models controlling for impairments of personality functioning, maladaptive personality traits, and current symptom distress supported the incremental validity of emptiness for specific disorder constructs and suicidality. These findings indicate that emptiness represents a facet of psychopathology that can be particularly useful for the classification of mental disorders, and in particular internalizing disorders involving self-dysfunction and detachment.
Tianwei V. Du, Katherine M. Thomas, Donald R. Lynam
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 708-729; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.708

Abstract:
Personality disorders are rooted in maladaptive interpersonal behaviors. Previously, researchers have assessed interpersonal behaviors using self-ratings of one's own behaviors and third-person ratings of dyadic interactions. Few studies have examined individuals' perceptions of others' interpersonal behaviors. Using a sample of 470 undergraduate students, the authors examined patterns of interpersonal perception as well as influences of these patterns on psychological functioning. Findings showed that people tend to like interpersonal behaviors that are similar to their own and become bothered by behaviors that are the opposite of their own. Such a pattern is particularly characteristic on the warmth dimension and is consistent across different levels of closeness of the relationship. The authors also found small but significant effects of interpersonal perception on personality and general psychological functioning, above and beyond effects of individuals' own interpersonal traits. Such findings highlight the importance of including perceptions of others in investigating interpersonal dynamics when understanding personality disorders.
John Tawa
Published: 1 October 2021
Social Cognition, Volume 39, pp 608-631; https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2021.39.5.608

Abstract:
A new stereotype metric is proposed, computed as the geometric area of a triangle determined by stereotype endorsement in reference to three racialized groups (i.e., Asian, Black, and White) mapped onto a three-dimensional (i.e., body, mind, and self-interest) field. Conceptually, this measure determines the extent to which these racial groups are triangulated in relation to one another; operationally, this is represented by greater distances between vertices in the three-dimensional field. Among a sample of Asian (n = 64), Black (n = 73), and White (n = 165) adults, regression analyses partially supported predictions that the triangulation-based metric would be a stronger predictor of prejudice than single-group referenced stereotypes. Mediation analyses supported the theoretical perspective that triangulation relates to prejudice because people who simultaneously endorse stereotypes of Black and Asian people at extreme ends of bipolar continuums have relatively fixed views about the nature of race (i.e., racial essentialism).
Benjamin X. White, Duo Jiang, Dolores Albarracín
Published: 1 October 2021
Social Cognition, Volume 39, pp 543-569; https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2021.39.5.543

Abstract:
The stability of default effects to contextual features is critical to their use in policy. In this paper, decision time was investigated as a contextual factor that may pose limits on the efficacy of defaults. Consistent with the hypothesis that time constraints may increase reliance on contextual cues, four experiments, including a preregistered one of a nationally representative sample, and a meta-analysis that included four additional pilot experiments, indicated that short decision times increased the advantage of action defaults (i.e., the default option automatically endorsed the desired behavior) and that the default advantage was trivial or nonexistent when decision times were longer. These effects replicated for naturalistic as well as externally induced decision times and were present even when participants were unaware that time was limited. This research has critical implications for psychological science and allied disciplines concerned with policy in the domains of public health, finance and economics, marketing, and environmental sciences.
Amanda A. Uliaszek
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 641-656; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2021.35.5.641

Abstract:
Research examining life stress as a precipitant, co-occurrence, and consequence of psychopathology often has implications for two explanatory models: stress exposure, where stress causes symptoms, and stress generation, where symptoms cause stress. Preliminary evidence suggests that both processes are evident in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present study examined 101 adults who self-reported at least three symptoms of BPD at prescreen, with 30% of the sample meeting full diagnostic criteria for BPD. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to examine the relationships between BPD symptomatology and four forms of life stress. Stress exposure and stress generation were not supported for either form of chronic life stress. Results supported stress generation in both dependent and interpersonal episodic life stress, and stress exposure for interpersonal episodic life stress. These findings evidenced small effects only. Findings point to the impact of interpersonal stress on changes in symptomatology over time.
Russell A. Barkley
Published: 1 September 2021
The ADHD Report, Volume 29, pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.1521/adhd.2021.29.6.10

Elizabeth Ahmann, Micah Saviet
Published: 1 September 2021
The ADHD Report, Volume 29, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1521/adhd.2021.29.6.1

Colin E. Vize, Joshua D. Miller, Katherine L. Collison, Donald R. Lynam
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 299-318; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_321

Abstract:
Work on narcissism has identified two variants: grandiose and vulnerable. The variants share an antagonistic core, but differ in neuroticism and extraversion. The current study explored how the variants relate to behavioral aggression following provocation. Results showed an interaction between grandiose narcissism and condition, such that grandiose narcissism was positively related to aggression only among those who were provoked, though the magnitude of this interaction was dependent on which measure of grandiose narcissism was used. A similar effect for vulnerable narcissism was not found. Moderated mediation analyses showed that antagonism-related traits were responsible for this relation. For vulnerable narcissism, moderated mediation results showed competing relations among vulnerable narcissism components—neuroticism-related traits were negatively related while antagonism-related traits were positively related. Results are discussed in the context of previous work. Antagonism-related traits, as opposed to traits related to extraversion and neuroticism, are most important in explaining narcissistic aggression.
, Valentina Candini, Marta Ghisi, Mattia Bava, Giorgio Bianconi, Viola Bulgari, , Cesare Cavalera, Giovanni Conte, Marta Cricelli, et al.
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 35, pp 236-254; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2019_33_436

Abstract:
This study investigated the association between maladaptive personality traits, personality disorders (PDs), schizophrenia, and the risk of aggressive behavior. Ninety-four patients with a history of violence and 92 patients with no history of violence underwent a multidimensional baseline assessment. Aggressive behavior was monitored during a 1-year follow-up through the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Violent group scored significantly higher than the Control group on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) Antisocial, Sadistic, Borderline, and Paranoid personality scales. Irrespective of any history of violence, patients with PD as a primary diagnosis displayed more aggressive behaviors than those with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia during the follow-up. Furthermore, the most significant predictor of aggressive behaviors over time was endorsing a primary diagnosis of PD. Identifying the crucial risk factors for violent recidivism would contribute to reducing aggressive behavior in this population.
Irena Kesselring, Haley E. Yaremych, Samantha Pegg, Lindsay Dickey,
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Volume 40, pp 97-120; https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2021.40.2.97

Abstract:
Introduction: Depression is associated with increased negative affect (NA), low positive affect (PA), and interpersonal difficulties. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture real-time data and explore the links between depressive symptoms, social interactions, and affect. Methods: Emerging adults (N = 86) completed a self-report measure of general depression and dysphoria symptoms, followed by EMA surveys 8 times daily for one week, reporting momentary affect and social context (in-person and virtual interactions). Results: In-person, but not virtual, presence of friends was associated with increased PA overall. Depressive symptoms predicted less time with in-person friends and elevated NA. In-person friends' presence was associated with lower NA only for those low in dysphoria. Discussion: In-person time with friends, but not virtual interactions, appears to be associated with increased PA overall and decreased NA for those lower in depression. Those with greater depressive symptoms may be less responsive to positive stimuli and experience less mood-buffering from friends.
Drew A. Westmoreland, Alexa D'Angelo, Denis Nash, Christian Grov
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 32, pp 367-377; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2020.32.5.367

Abstract:
Despite proven effectiveness in reducing HIV transmission, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use remains low among those who meet the recommended CDC guidance for PrEP use. Data are from a U.S. national cohort of men and trans persons who have sex with men (2017–2018). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine individual and partner factors associated with intentions to use PrEP among non-PrEP-using participants reporting a main partner (n = 1,671). Prior PrEP use among participants (14.2%) and their partners (7.7%) was low. Participants’ prior PrEP use and main partner's HIV-positive status were both positively associated with intentions to use PrEP. HIV prevention interventions incorporating main partners may be effective in increasing PrEP use.
Timothy A. Allen, Alison M. Schreiber, Nathan T. Hall, Michael N. Hallquist
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 34, pp 650-676; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2020.34.5.650

Abstract:
Dimensional approaches to psychiatric nosology are rapidly transforming the way researchers and clinicians conceptualize personality pathology, leading to a growing interest in describing how individuals differ from one another. Yet, in order to successfully prevent and treat personality pathology, it is also necessary to explain the sources of these individual differences. The emerging field of personality neuroscience is well-positioned to guide the transition from description to explanation within personality pathology research. However, establishing comprehensive, mechanistic accounts of personality pathology will require personality neuroscientists to move beyond atheoretical studies that link trait differences to neural correlates without considering the algorithmic processes that are carried out by those correlates. We highlight some of the dangers we see in overpopulating personality neuroscience with brain-trait associational studies and offer a series of recommendations for personality neuroscientists seeking to build explanatory theories of personality pathology.
, Mary C. Davis, Ellen Yeung
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Volume 39, pp 25-58; https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2020.39.01.001

Abstract:
Introduction: Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. This study examined 1) the extent to which hope mediates the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms, and 2) whether these indirect effects are conditional on self-compassion. Methods: Self-reported family strain, self-compassion, hope, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 762 middle-aged adults aged 40-65. Follow-up measures of depressive symptoms were assessed approximately 20 months later. Results: Hope mediated the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms. For individuals high versus low in self-compassion, strain-related declines in hope predicted smaller increases in depressive symptoms. Discussion: Taken together, the findings suggest that family strain may lead individuals to experience less hope and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms. However, a self-compassionate attitude may serve as a resilience resource, weakening the hope – depressive symptoms relation.
, Timothy W. Smith, , Aidan G. Wright
Journal of Personality Disorders, Volume 33, pp 751-775; https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2019_33_374

Abstract:
The present study applied the interpersonal perspective in testing the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC) and examining the construct validity of the corresponding Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ). Two undergraduate samples (Sample 1: N = 290; Sample 2: N = 188) completed self-report measures of interpersonal processes based in the interpersonal circumplex (IPC), as well as measures of related constructs. In examining IPC correlates, the authors used a novel bootstrapping approach to determine if admiration and rivalry related to differing interpersonal profiles. Consistent with the authors’ hypotheses, admiration was distinctly related to generally agentic (i.e., dominant) interpersonal processes, whereas rivalry generally reflected (low) communal (i.e., hostile) interpersonal processes. Furthermore, NARQ-admiration and NARQ-rivalry related to generally adaptive and maladaptive aspects of status-related constructs, emotional, personality, and social adjustment, respectively. This research provides further support for the NARC, as well as construct validation for the NARQ.
Eve Lipchik
Journal of Systemic Therapies, Volume 36, pp 76-89; https://doi.org/10.1521/jsyt.2017.36.4.76

Abstract:
The author describes how she conceptualizes, creates and maintains the context allowing solution-focused techniques to work best, and therapy to be as brief and effective as possible. From the perspective of the “professional collaborator,” she discusses and illustrates with case examples areas such as: choice of questions and responses; the summation message; ethics; intentionality; self-disclosure; and the differences in the relationship when there is more than one client in the room.
, Alan Neaigus, Samuel M. Jenness, Travis Wendel, Holly Hagan, David M. Marshall Iv, Christopher S. Murrill,
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 26, pp 134-143; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2014.26.2.134

Abstract:
This study examined trends in HIV prevalence and HIV-related risk behaviors from 2004 through 2011 among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. MSM were venue-sampled, interviewed, and offered HIV testing in serial cross-sectional studies. Significant differences in overall time trends were determined using the Spearman rank correlation and logistic regression models. There were 457 (2004–2005), 550 (2008), and 510 (2011) participants in each study round. There was no significant trend in HIV prevalence over time, and past 12 month unprotected anal intercourse remained steady. However, drug use and number of sex partners declined. Among those who did not self-report being HIV positive, the percentage that tested for HIV in the past 12 months increased. The results from this study suggest that from 2004 through 2011 more MSM in New York City are being tested for HIV and have declining drug use and fewer sex partners.
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 21, pp 3-13; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2009.21.3_supp.3

Abstract:
Although mortality attributable to AIDS-related diseases has decreased dramatically in the current era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the proportion of deaths attributable to other diseases (e.g., cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cancer) in this population has markedly increased. Thus, efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality attributable to these non-AIDS-defining diseases represent an important public health priority. One approach to improve health outcomes for the HIV-positive population is to target health risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking. Existing evidence indicates that smoking prevalence is significantly elevated among persons living with HIV/AIDS. In addition, smoking is associated with numerous HIV-related adverse outcomes. To date, surprisingly few efforts have been made to develop smoking cessation interventions for the HIV-positive population. However, results from the studies that have been published indicate that smoking cessation interventions, both novel and more traditional, are potentially efficacious. Moreover, existing findings support the feasibility of smoking cessation treatment within busy HIV clinics.
, Tammi L. Bishop, Maryanne F. Lachat, Deborah B. Schiavone, Lora Pawlowski, Matthew F. Bialko, Diedre L. Boozer, Debra Dekker
AIDS Education and Prevention, Volume 21, pp 280-297; https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2009.21.3.280

Abstract:
Using grounded theory, 18 interviews with HIV-positive urban men were conducted to understand their sexual relationships. Analysis of the verbatim transcripts revealed that regardless of age, sexual orientation or race/ethnicity, the participants were "making choices" related to their sexual relationships. Some men were "avoiding sex" whereas others were engaging in "just sex" or having sex in a relationship that was "going somewhere." However, dependent upon the type of sexual relationship, these HIV-positive urban men struggled with issues associated with "disclosure" of serostatus, the sexual "behaviors" in which they engaged, and selecting sexual "partners." Health care providers can facilitate sexual health and well-being among HIV-positive urban men by recognizing that men may be seeking sexual intimacy for different purposes, in different types of relationships, or avoiding it entirely. By exploring these decision-making processes, it is possible to facilitate sexual relationships that prevent new infections as well as manage the dissonance associated with this decision-making associated with disclosure, behaviors and their sexual partners.
Kevin B. Meehan, Jasmine Y. Ueng-McHale, Joseph S. Reynoso, Benjamin H. Harris, Virginia M. Wolfson, Hilary Gomes, Steven B. Tuber
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Volume 72, pp 259-282; https://doi.org/10.1521/bumc.2008.72.4.259

Abstract:
This study assesses the capacity for emotional self-regulation and internal resources in a sample of urban children with ADHD symptomatology using the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). Because these children have profound difficulty with modulating their affect, it is hypothesized that this difficulty would be reflected on RIM variables that have traditionally been thought to reflect the internal resources necessary for these children to regulate emotions. Children with greater ADHD symptoms were found to display lower scores on variables indicating internal resources for emotional self-regulation and stress tolerance (M, EA) relative to a comparison group with fewer ADHD symptoms. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
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