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Ori Goldberg
Religion, Secularism, and Political Belonging pp 175-190; doi:10.1515/9781478012986-013

Raef Zreik, Mohanad Mustafa
Religion, Secularism, and Political Belonging pp 155-174; doi:10.1515/9781478012986-012

Mu Poo
Religion, Secularism, and Political Belonging pp 191-206; doi:10.1515/9781478012986-014

Contesting Catholics pp 59-80; doi:10.1017/9781787448025.005

Contesting Catholics pp 109-138; doi:10.1017/9781787448025.007

Amy W. Thornburg, Jennifer Collins
Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation pp 43-51; doi:10.1108/978-1-83909-882-620211003

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Dwight C. Watson, Kate Borowske
Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation pp 81-95; doi:10.1108/978-1-83909-882-620211006

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Philliph Masila Mutisya, James E. Osler, Larry D. Williams
Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation pp 149-159; doi:10.1108/978-1-83909-882-620211011

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Eleni Oikonomidoy
Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation pp 53-65; doi:10.1108/978-1-83909-882-620211004

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Elite Participation in the Third Crusade pp 1-28; doi:10.2307/j.ctv1675cmm.8

Elite Participation in the Third Crusade pp 159-212; doi:10.2307/j.ctv1675cmm.12

Elite Participation in the Third Crusade; doi:10.2307/j.ctv1675cmm.1

Elite Participation in the Third Crusade pp 90-120; doi:10.2307/j.ctv1675cmm.10

Elite Participation in the Third Crusade pp 220-352; doi:10.2307/j.ctv1675cmm.14

European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 290; doi:10.1016/s0377-2217(20)31053-5

John Milsom
Music and Instruments of the Elizabethan Age pp 191-204; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136c0x3.22

Yuan Li, Yuyi Yang, Kai Li, Yingwu Wang, ,
Published: 16 April 2021
Chemical Physics Letters, Volume 769; doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2021.138338

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Music and Instruments of the Elizabethan Age pp 274-277; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136c0x3.29

Published: 16 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020019

Abstract:
Wine is a product that can be characterized both as a commodity but also as a luxury, depending on its price
Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation; doi:10.1108/978-1-83909-882-620211015

Janaka B. Lewis
Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation pp 161-171; doi:10.1108/978-1-83909-882-620211012

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Jie Wang, Yong Zhou, Yi-Tian Wang, Li Min, Yu-Qi Zhang, Min-Xun Lu, Fan Tang, Yi Luo, Ya-Han Zhang, Xian-Liang Zhang, et al.
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2524-2532; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2524

Abstract:
Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign lesion and rarely involves the patella. This disease is characterized by a relatively high recurrence rate after primary treatment. En bloc resection has been a predominant option for recurrent GCT. However, total patellectomy can lead to disruption of the knee. Therefore, exploration of functional reconstruction of the extensor mechanism is worthwhile. A 54-year-old woman presented with right knee pain and swelling, and was diagnosed as having a GCT in the patella following curettage and autograft. Medical imaging revealed a lytic and expanded lesion involving the whole patella with focal cortical breaches and pathological fracture. Based on the combination of histological, radiological, and clinical features, a diagnosis of recurrent GCT in the patella was made (Campanacci grade III). After a multidisciplinary team discussion, three-dimensional (3D)-printed custom-made patellar endoprosthesis was performed following en bloc resection for reconstructing the extensor mechanism. The patient was followed for 35 mo postoperatively. No evidence of local recurrence, pulmonary metastasis, or osteoarthritis of the right knee was observed. The active flexion arc was 0°-120°, and no extension lag was detected. A favorable patellar tracking and height (Insall-Salvati ratio 0.93) were detected by radiography. We depict a case of a GCT at the right patella, which was successfully treated by patellectomy and 3D-printed custom-made endoprosthetic replacement. The patella normal reconstruction, the precise-fit articular design, and gastrocnemius flap augmentation could lead to satisfactory knee function and a low rate of complications in the short-term follow-up.
Ji-Chao Liu, Bing-Zhe Huang, Jie Ding, Xiao-Jia Mu, Yun-Long Li, Cheng-Dong Piao
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2595-2601; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2595

Abstract:
Currently, open reduction internal fixation is the conventional surgical method for treatment of double ulna and radius fracture. However, open reduction is associated with a high risk of complications. This case of forearm double fracture involved a patient treated using an Acumed intramedullary nail. The patient experienced good follow-up outcomes. The Acumed forearm intramedullary nail enables early functional exercise and hastens healing of the fracture. Few studies have reported on the use of this approach for the treatment of fractures. A 23-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital after 5 h of pain, swelling, and limited activity of left forearm caused by a careless fall. Physical examination showed stable basic vital signs, swelling of the left forearm, and severe pain when pressing on the injured part of the forearm. Further, friction was felt at the broken end of the bone; the skin was not punctured. Movement of the left hand was normal, and the left radial artery pulse was normal. Three-dimensional computed tomography examination showed an ulna fracture of the left forearm and comminuted fracture of the radius. The fracture was located in the upper third of the radius, with significant displacement on the fracture side. Clinical diagnosis further confirmed the left radius comminuted fracture and ulna fracture. After analyzing the fracture pattern, age, and other patient characteristics, we chose an Acumed nail for treatment and achieved good follow-up outcomes. Acumed forearm intramedullary nail for fixation of ulna and radius fracture reduced complication risk and resulted in good follow-up outcomes.
Chen-Guang Zhang, Min Duan, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Yan Wang, Sheng Wu, Li-Li Feng, Lin-Lin Song, Xu-Yan Chen
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2602-2610; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2602

Abstract:
Spontaneous renal rupture is a rare disease in the clinic. The causes of spontaneous renal rupture include extrarenal factors, intrarenal factors, and idiopathic factors. Reports on infection secondary to spontaneous renal rupture and the complications of spontaneous renal rupture are scarce. Furthermore, there are few patients with spontaneous renal rupture who present only with fever. We present the case of a 52-year-old female patient who was admitted to our hospital. She presented only with fever, and the cause of the disease was unclear. She underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan, which showed that the left renal capsule had a crescent-shaped, low-density shadow; the perirenal fat was blurred, and exudation was visible with no sign of calculi, malignancies, instrumentation, or trauma. Under ultrasound guidance, a pigtail catheter was inserted into the hematoma, and fluid was drained and used for the bacterial test, which proved the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Two months later, abdominal CT showed that the hematoma was absorbed, so the drainage tube was removed. The abdominal CT was normal after 4 mo. Spontaneous renal rupture due to intrarenal factors causes a higher proportion of shock and is more likely to cause anemia.
Cen Wu, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Xiao-Dong Liu
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2611-2618; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2611

Abstract:
Eltrombopag is an orally administered thrombopoietin receptor agonist linked to a heightened risk of treatment-related thromboembolism. Both venous and arterial thromboses have been documented in the medical literature. In the absence of nephropathy, a 48-year-old patient receiving eltrombopag for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) developed renal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The renal vein thrombus spontaneously resolved during subsequent anticoagulant treatment, restoring venous circulation. A rapid upsurge in platelets, rather than their absolute number, may trigger thrombotic events in this setting. For patients at high thrombotic risk, individualized eltrombopag dosing and vigilance in platelet monitoring are perhaps needed during treatment of ITP.
An-Che Cheng, Yi-Jia Lin, Sung-Hua Chiu, Yu-Lueng Shih
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2641-2648; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2641

Abstract:
Melanoma is uncommonly found in lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue, or visceral organs without a primary lesion, where it is identified as metastatic melanoma with unknown primary (MUP). Hepatic MUP is extremely rare and has a poor prognosis. There is limited information on its pathogenesis, clinical and imaging features, and pathological findings. There are no guidelines for the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in hepatic MUP, and the treatment outcome has rarely been reported. A 42-year-old woman presented to our hospital with hepatic tumors found incidentally during a routine check-up. Contrast-enhanced abdominal com-puterized tomography showed multiple mass lesions in the liver. Pathological results revealed melanoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45(+), Melan-A(+), S-100(+), and SOX10(+). There was no evidence of primary cutaneous, ocular, gastrointestinal, or anal lesion on a comprehensive examination. The patient was diagnosed with hepatic MUP. She received combined antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab) and programmed death protein-1 (PD-1, nivolumab). She died of hepatic failure 9 mo after hepatic MUP was diagnosed. This the first case of hepatic MUP treated with combined ipilimumab and nivolumab, who showed better outcome than previous cases. Combined ICIs of PD-1 and CTLA-4 may be considered as the first-line therapy for patients with hepatic MUP.
Zhen-Xing Wang, Liang-Liang Yang, Zhe-Nan Xu, Pei-Yun Lv, Yue Wang
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2655-2661; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2655

Abstract:
Azygos vein aneurysms are extremely rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. The overwhelming majority of patients have no obvious clinical symptoms and are found to have the disease by physical examination or by chance. There are few reports on the diagnosis of and treatment strategy for this disease. Moreover, the choice of therapeutic schedule and the treatment window are controversial. We report a case of azygos vein arch aneurysm in a 53-year-old woman. The patient had symptoms of back pain, chest tightness, and choking. Enhanced chest computed tomography showed a soft-tissue mass in the right posterior mediastinum, which was connected to the superior vena cava. The enhancement degree in the venous phase was the same as that of the superior vena cava. The patient received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. After the operation, her back pain disappeared, and her dysphagia and chest tightness were also significantly relieved. The postoperative pathology confirmed hemangioma. The patient was discharged on the seventh day after surgery without any comp-lications. Some patients with hemangioma of the azygos vein arch may experience dysphagia and chest tightness caused by the tumor compressing the esophagus and trachea. Enhanced computed tomography scanning is vital for the diagnosis of azygos vein aneurysms. In addition, despite the difficulty and risk of surgery, thoracoscopic surgery for azygos vein aneurysms is completely feasible.
Jing-Yu Wang, Yan Luo, Wen-Ying Wang, Shi-Cheng Zheng, Lian He, Chun-Yan Xie, Li Peng
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2679-2687; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2679

Abstract:
Due to a thicker abdominal wall in some patients, ultrasound artifacts from gastrointestinal gas and surrounding tissues can interfere with routine ultrasound examination, precluding its ability to display or clearly show the structure of a hernial sac (HS) and thereby diminishing diagnostic performance for esophageal hiatal hernia (EHH). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging using an oral agent mixture allows for clear and intuitive identification of an EHH sac and dynamic observation of esophageal reflux. In this case series, we report three patients with clinically-suspected EHH, including two females and one male with an average age of 67.3 ± 16.4 years. CEUS was administered with an oral agent mixture (microbubble-based SonoVue and gastrointestinal contrast agent) and identified a direct sign of supradiaphragmatic HS (containing the hyperechoic agent) and indirect signs [e.g., widening of esophageal hiatus, hyperechoic mixture agent continuously or intermittently reflux flowing back and forth from the stomach into the supradiaphragmatic HS, and esophagus-gastric echo ring (i.e., the “EG” ring) seen above the diaphragm]. All three cases received a definitive diagnosis of EHH by esophageal manometry and gastroscopy. Two lesions resolved upon drug treatment and one required surgery. The recurrence rate in follow-up was 0%. The data from these cases suggest that the new non-invasive examination method may greatly improve the diagnosis of EHH. CEUS with the oral agent mixture can facilitate clear and intuitive identification of HS and dynamic observation of esophageal reflux.
Masanori Ochi, Toshiro Kamoshida, Yukako Hamano, Atsushi Ohkawara, Haruka Ohkawara, Nobushige Kakinoki, Yuji Yamaguchi, Shinji Hirai, Akinori Yanaka
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2446-2457; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2446

Abstract:
Colonoscopy within 24 h of hospital admission for colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) is recommended. However, little is known about rates of rebleeding within 30 d. We posited that a group of patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) within 4 h of the last hematochezia and colonoscopy within 24 h would experience fewer incidences of rebleeding. To evaluate the outcomes of early colonoscopy for CDB among different groups of patients. Data from 182 patients with CDB who underwent contrast-enhanced CT and colonoscopy between January 2011 and December 2018 at the study site were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into groups based on the timing of the CT imaging, within or at 4 h were defined as urgent CTs (n = 100) and those performed after 4 h were defined as elective CTs (n = 82). Main outcomes included rebleeding within 30 d and the identification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) (i.e., active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessels, or adherent clots). In total, 182 patients (126 men and 56 women) with median ages of 68.6 (range, 37-92) and 73.7 (range, 48-93) years, respectively, underwent CT imaging and colonoscopy within 24 h of the last hematochezia. Patients for whom CT was performed within 4 h of the last hematochezia were included in the urgent CT group (n = 100) and patients for whom CT was performed after 4 h were included in the elective CT group (n = 82). SRH were identified in 35.0% (35/100) of the urgent CT cases and 7.3% (6/82) of the elective CT cases (P < 0.01). Among all patients with extravasation-positive images on CT, SRH was identified in 31 out of 47 patients (66.0%) in the urgent CT group and 4 out of 20 patients (20.0%) in the elective CT group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, rates of rebleeding within 30 d were significantly improved in the urgent CT and extravasation-positive cases (P < 0.05). Results from the evaluation of early colonoscopy did not show a difference in the ability to detect SRH identification or rebleeding rates. Only cases by urgent CT reduced risk of rebleeding due to the evidence of active bleeding on the image. To improve rates of rebleeding, colonoscopy is recommended within 24 h in patients with extravasation-positive CT images within 4 h of the last hema-tochezia. Otherwise, elective colonoscopy can be performed.
Li-Mian Er, Yan Ding, Xiao-Fang Sun, Wen-Qian Ma, Li Yuan, Xiu-Li Zheng, Na-Na An, Ming-Li Wu
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2562-2568; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2562

Abstract:
Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma (PESCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy, and its detailed clinical behaviors have remained virtually unknown. Because of the rapid tumor progression, the diagnosis of esophageal small cell carcinoma at early stage is extremely difficult in clinical practice. Currently, only a handful of PESCC cases have been reported. Case 1: A 62-year-old man was diagnosed with an esophageal submucosal tumor by endoscopy. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a 0.8 cm low echo nodule in the muscularis mucosa. As the patient refused to undergo endoscopic resection, neoplasia was detected by endoscopy 1 year later. Case 2: A 68-year-old woman was diagnosed as having an esophageal submucosal tumor by endoscopy at a local hospital. About 2 wk later, we performed endoscopic ultrasonography and found a 1 cm low echo nodule in the muscularis mucosa; the submucosal was thinner than normal but still continuous; mucosal hyperemia and erosion were found on the surface of the tumor. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed and the histopathological finding showed a small cell carcinoma invading the submucosal layer. Early esophageal small cell carcinoma shows submucosal infiltrating growth with a hypoechoic mass in the muscularis mucosa as diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography. It is easily misdiagnosed as submucosal masses. Endoscopic manifestations should be identified and pathological biopsies should be employed. ESD may be performed to provide an opportunity for early treatment of PESCC.
Yong Li, Lei Fang, Fang-Qun Chang, Fang-Zhou Xu,
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2619-2626; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2619

Abstract:
Cryptococcus presenting as an opportunistic pathogen mainly affects immunocompromised patients, but the disseminated form of infection is rare among immunocompetent populations. The partial radiographic characteristics of pulmonary cryptococcosis mimic lung carcinoma, leading to unnecessary open chest exploratory surgery, and the lack of a gold-standard noninvasive diagnostic increases the risk of misdiagnosis. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), a sensitive method for distinguishing malignant tumors, coupled with cryptococcal latex agglutination test showing a high positive rate may overcome these issues. A 36-year-old man presented for general examination, without health complaints. Routine CT showed multiple pulmonary nodules and a mass with high maximum standardized uptake value. Initially, we suspected primary malignancy with hematogenous metastasis. Although his routine fungal analysis had been negative, subsequent CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy and histopathology examination indicated a diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fluconazole (200 mg/d) antifungal drug treatment was initiated, and 1 mo later the pulmonary mass had reduced in size markedly (on chest CT scan) without any complications. Serologic and PET/CT examinations may not rule out cryptococcosis, and percutaneous lung puncture is critical under all circumstances.
Xu-Yan Hu, Yu-Cheng Fei, Wen-Chao Zhou, Jin-Miao Zhu, Dong-Lai Lv
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2627-2633; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2627

Abstract:
Osimertinib is the recommended first-line treatment for adult patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation positive advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, primary or acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) seems inevitable, and when drug-resistance occurs during treatment with osimertinib, the standard of care is to discontinue the TKI. A 57-year-old female patient with lung adenocarcinoma presented with an irritating cough accompanied by chest distress of one month duration. An enhanced head magnetic resonance imaging scan showed brain metastases. An EGFR mutation (exon 21 L858R) was detected in pleural fluid. The patient was treated with oral osimertinib (80 mg once daily) from January 2018 but developed progressive disease on December 2018. She was then successfully treated with re-challenge and tri-challenge with osimertinib (80 mg once daily) by resensitization chemotherapy twice after the occurrence of drug-resistance to osimertinib, and to date has survived for 31 mo. This case may provide some selective therapeutic options for NSCLC patients with acquired drug-resistance who were previously controlled on osimertinib treatment.
World Journal of Clinical Cases, Volume 9, pp 2662-2670; doi:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2662

Abstract:
Pseudogout is a benign joint lesion caused by the deposition of calcium pyro-phosphate dihydrate crystals, but it is invasive. Pseudogout of the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) is uncommon, and it rarely invades the skull base or penetrates into the middle cranial fossa. The disease has no characteristic clinical manifestations and is easily misdiagnosed. We present two cases of tophaceous pseudogout of the TMJ invading the middle cranial fossa. A 46-year-old woman with a history of diabetes for more than 10 years was admitted to the hospital due to swelling and pain in the right temporal region. Another patient, a 52-year-old man with a mass in the left TMJ for 6 years, was admitted to the hospital. Maxillofacial imaging showed a calcified mass and severe bone destruction of the skull base in the TMJ area. Both patients underwent excision of the lesion. The lesion was pathologically diagnosed as tophaceous pseudogout. The symptoms in these patients were relieved after surgery. Tophaceous pseudogout should be considered when there is a calcified mass in the TMJ with or without bone destruction. A pathological examination is the gold standard for diagnosing this disease. Surgical treatment is currently the recommended treatment, and the prognosis is good after surgery.
The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa pp 195-212; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.15

The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa pp 75-100; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.10

The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.3

The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.4

The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa pp 101-128; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.11

The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa pp 213-234; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.16

The Vaal Uprising of 1984 & the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa pp 147-168; doi:10.2307/j.ctv136btq4.13

Published: 16 April 2021
Return Engagements pp 105-149; doi:10.1215/9781478012931-003

Published: 16 April 2021
Return Engagements; doi:10.1215/9781478012931-26

Published: 16 April 2021
Return Engagements pp 150-188; doi:10.1215/9781478012931-004

Published: 16 April 2021
Return Engagements pp 245-298; doi:10.1215/9781478012931-007

Published: 16 April 2021
Return Engagements pp 299-314; doi:10.1215/9781478012931-008

Anashe Bandari
Published: 16 April 2021
Scilight, Volume 2021; doi:10.1063/10.0004782

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Julie Farguson
Visualising Protestant Monarchy pp 181-223; doi:10.1017/9781787448179.005

Julie Farguson
Visualising Protestant Monarchy pp 97-147; doi:10.1017/9781787448179.003

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