(searched for: pub_year:2021)
Composites Communications, Volume 26; doi:10.1016/j.coco.2021.100776
Ultra-refined grains were obtained in few-layer graphene nanoplatelets reinforced aluminum matrix composites via deformation-driven metallurgy under coupled thermo-mechanical effect. Fragmentation, thinning and re-dispersion of the reinforcements accelerated the nucleation of recrystallized grains and inhibited the migration of grain boundaries. The synergy grain refinement mechanism led to a greatly refined microstructure with an average grain size of 267.0 nm, which was much smaller than the grain size of conventional aluminum matrix composites to realize high strengthening-toughening efficiency. This novel preparation route showed the capacity of developing ultra-fine aluminum matrix composites with the exceptional grain refinement towards ultra-lightweight design.
Energy Storage Materials, Volume 39, pp 186-193; doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2021.04.020
Solid-liquid hybrid electrolytes (SLHEs) are promising electrolyte candidates for Li-metal batteries. However, most of the components of SLHE are flammable, posing safety risks. Here, a non-flammable SLHE was proposed by in-situ encapsulating a flame-retardant liquid phosphate into a robust solid polycarbonate matrix. The in-situ solidified SLHE simultaneously features high Li+ conductivity (4.4 mS cm−1), Young's modulus (12.4 GPa), Li+ transference number (0.76) and a wide electrochemical window (0-4.9 V vs. Li+/Li), which help to effectively suppress dendrites and unfavorable side reactions at the anode and provide compatibility with the high-voltage cathode. By employing non-flammable SLHE, a prototype Li||LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 cell retains 87.7% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles, and the Ah level Li||LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 pouch cells showed enhanced safety by passing the nail test by authorized third parties. This study inspires the optimal design of SLHEs towards practical realization of safe and stable Li-metal batteries.
Sleep Medicine Reviews, Volume 58; doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101442
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Growing evidence highlights the significance of sleep disturbance on health outcomes in this population. The relationships between ILD and OSA are complex and possibly bidirectional, with multiple mechanisms postulated for the pathogenic and physiologic links. This review synthesizes current evidence and hypotheses regarding different aspects of the relationships between ILD and OSA, emphasizing the interactions between epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology.
Technology in Society, Volume 66; doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101659
This study proposed a methodology that integrate sociotechnical systems (STS) and media big data analysis using text mining for the new, real-time technology assessment (TA). The essential steps of this method are composed of data collection using a cultural map, analysis with trends and patents, and synthesis using media big data. By applying this methodology to artificial organs, first, we have shown that STS can be apply to biosocial technical systems beyond the sustainability transition. The result reveals that a media discourse structures, in which eight countries began to form socio-technical regimes around technologies with their respective strengths, in an objective way. Each technology corresponded to the vested interests in each country's socio-technical regimes. These discourse structures helped us to identify substitution, two types of transformation, and reconfiguration as transition pathways. More importantly, our analysis results have also shown that the methodology helps to overcome the anticipation dilemma, saving the time and resources required for TA. Our integrated methodology has achieved similar results by using 23% of the budget, 25% of the time, and 14% of the work hours used for official TA. Lastly, the “objectivity” and “agenda setting” of this methodology can provide a breakthrough in overcoming the control dilemma.
Applied Energy, Volume 295; doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117024
Based on the peer-to-peer (P2P) trading framework of interconnected microgrids, this paper proposes an optimal scheduling strategy for interconnected microgrids considering the uncertainty of wind power, to minimize the operation cost of the individual microgrid and obtain profits through active energy trading with other microgrids. The proposed optimization model considers the grid structure of microgrids and uses the robust optimization (RO) method to express uncertainty. The incentive mechanism based on Nash bargaining is used to encourage the individual microgrid to trade energy actively and realize fair benefit sharing. In order to protect the privacy of the individual microgrid, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is used to achieve the decentralized solution of the proposed model. Simulation analysis based on four interconnected microgrids shows that each microgrid can ultimately make profits in the trading, verifying the effectiveness and fairness of the proposed method.
Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, Volume 294; doi:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2021.104580
The decade following the second world war heralded the publication of a collection of important papers on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics; Oldroyd’s work featured heavily in this collection. Not only did these articles establish important results, but Oldroyd’s style and methods set the scene for subsequent work in the area, exploiting mathematical analysis to formulate problems, establish results and guide further research. While Oldroyd’s name will forever be linked with the study of elastic fluids, the purpose of the present paper is to offer a modern perspective on a number of Oldroyd’s papers on viscoplastic fluids from 1947–1951 , , , , , , , . Along the way, we sprinkle in a brief review of some of the subsequent developments stemming from Oldroyd’s advances, together with a few new results guided by his work. Following the approach of most of Oldroyd’s original papers, we focus on unidirectional flow down conduits. In an Appendix, we complement this discussion with a lubrication analysis, extending, clarifying and correcting the important original analysis of Walton and Bittleston (1991) ; although lubrication theory was not directly utilized by Oldroyd, the methodology aligns with his philosophy of using asymptotic and analytical approaches.
Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Volume 68, pp 57-68; doi:10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.07.017
SiC particles are among the most investigated types of reinforcing particles with high thermal conductivity in multilayered composites. This paper deals with the effect of the particle size and ARB rolled passes on tensile strength, elongation, and thermal conductivity of Cu/Al/Ni/SiC composite. Based upon the mechanical properties, the ultimate strength and the elongation of Cu/Al/Ni/SiC(2 μm) were more than that of Cu/Al/Ni/SiC(15 μm) at all passes, apart from the zero pass. This is because 2-μm particles not only tend to make smaller clusters than 15-μm particles but also are preferably trapped at the interfaces; however, 15-μm particles tend to be trapped in Al layers. Further, at each rolled pass, the values of thermal conductivity of Cu/Al/Ni/SiC (15 μm) were slightly higher compared to the other two composites. This is because of the larger cluster of 15-μm particles in the Al layers, providing better heat flux across the composite. In addition, the results of optical microscopy (OM) showed that applying more passes caused the discontinuity in all layers and also the non-uniform distribution of Ni and Al layers in the Cu matrix. Plus, due to the lower strength of Al layers in comparison to Cu and Ni layers, ceramic particles diffuse considerably in Al layers. The SEM images of the fracture surfaces indicated the ductile fracture with some uniaxial dimples for Al and Cu layers whereas for Ni layers both ductile and brittle cleavage fractures due to its higher work hardening exponent.
Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Volume 68, pp 79-89; doi:10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.07.008
Bolted joints are usually used in connecting titanium alloy and steel structures in the shipbuilding industry, but bolted joints are easy to slip or loosen because of slamming and wave load. A new riveting process of friction forge riveting (FFR) was first proposed to connect 40Cr steel plate and TC4 titanium alloy plate through 40Cr rivets. Furthermore, joint formation, microstructures and mechanical performances of the FFR joints were studied. The results showed that the high loading speed led to the decrease of the fluidity of the rivet material and the increase of the root angle, which resulted in the rivet edge material thinning, stacking into a non-compact lamellar structure, accompanied by defects such as tunnels and flash. The heat generated by friction led to the re-austenitizing of the tempered sorbite. At different temperatures and cooling speeds, coarse and hard martensite structure was formed at the driven rivet head, and a pearlite band was generated in the riveting column. The hardness of the driven rivet head showed a regular circular distribution, and the hardness of riveting column center was obviously reduced. The best FFR joint was produced at the parameter of 2000 rpm rotating speed and 6 mm/min loading speed, of which the maximum cross-tension load and ultimate tensile-shear load were reaching 82% and 90% of the bolted joint respectively.
Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Volume 36; doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100834
United Kingdom (UK). Natural flood management (NFM) schemes are increasingly prominent in the UK. Studies of NFM have not yet used natural tracers at catchment scale to investigate how interventions influence partitioning during storms between surface rainfall runoff and water already stored in catchments. Here we investigate how catchment properties, particularly plantation forestry, influence surface storm rainfall runoff. We used hydrograph separation based on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes (2H, 18O) and acid neutralising capacity from high flow events to compare three headwater catchments (2.4-3.1 km2) with differences in plantation forest cover (Picea sitchensis: 94%, 41%, 1%) within a major UK NFM pilot, typical of the UK uplands. Plantation forest cover reduced the total storm rainfall runoff fraction during all events (by up to 11%) when comparing two paired catchments with similar soils, geology and topography but ∼50% difference in forest cover. However, comparison with the third catchment, with negligible forest cover but different characteristics, suggests that soils and geology were dominant controls on storm rainfall runoff fraction. Furthermore, differences between events were greater than differences between catchments. These findings suggest that while plantation forest cover may influence storm rainfall runoff fractions, it is not a dominant control in temperate upland UK catchments, especially for larger events. Soils and geology may exert greater influence, with implications for planning NFM.
Journal of Environmental Psychology, Volume 76; doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101655
How can communication contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through behaviour change and policy support? The existing literature emphasises informing people about the scientific consensus on climate change, but the underlying research has been conducted mainly in the US, where prior beliefs in human-made climate change are lower than in many other countries with the highest per-capita emissions. We test consensus messages in an ‘extended gateway belief model’ using a pre-registered survey experiment on a representative quota sample of the German population (N = 1171). Our data show that consensus messages are likely to have no or only minimal effects on perceived scientific agreement, intended behaviour change and policy support. Still, in line with prior research, we find that perceived scientific agreement, belief in climate science, efficacy beliefs, and worry about climate change predict policy support and intended behaviour change. These results demonstrate that effective communication needs tailoring to its local context.
Burns, Volume 47, pp 1066-1073; doi:10.1016/j.burns.2020.10.022
Reducing the amount of donor skin needed for definitive wound closure can improve outcomes in patients with severe burns. This Delphi Consensus Panel (DCP) aimed to achieve expert consensus on the percentage reduction in donor skin for autograft that constitutes a clinically meaningful benefit. A two-round DCP of fifteen US- burn surgeons was conducted via a web-based survey platform. Fourteen panelists (93.3%) completed both rounds. In Round 2, consensus, defined as ≥70% agreement, was achieved for five of the seven consensus statements. All panelists agreed that a clinically meaningful reduction in the amount of donor skin required would facilitate wound management and decrease donor site morbidity experienced by patients. Furthermore, based on three treatment scenarios, consensus was achieved for a clinically meaningful reduction in the amount of donor skin required for autograft for the adult population in deep partial-thickness and full-thickness burns. Findings from this DCP indicate that an innovative cellular and/or tissue product that would reduce the needed amount of donor skin, by the identified thresholds, has the potential to improve the outcomes for patients with severe burn injuries in a meaningful way.
Labour Economics, Volume 71; doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2021.102025
I study how New York City taxicab drivers change their work hours in response to a permanent wage change. Exploiting the effective wage increase induced by a regulatory change in fares, I estimate the long-run elasticity of labor supply to be -0.5. I show that the data limitations may have biased the estimates in a previous study that also use data for New York City taxicab drivers. Since the drivers are almost exclusively males, the estimate likely represents male labor supply elasticity. The negative elasticity is consistent with rising wages and declining work hours per worker observed over many decades, and is useful evidence for policymakers to improve tax/ transfer systems.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 78; doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.03.014
VideoGIE, Volume 6, pp 377-379; doi:10.1016/j.vgie.2021.05.006
There are various methods of achieving endoscopic hemostasis for diverticular hemorrhage, such as endoscopic clipping1Yen E.F. Ladabaum U. Muthusamy V.R. et al.Colonoscopic treatment of acute diverticular hemorrhage using endoclips.Dig Dis Sci. 2008; 53: 2480-2485Crossref PubMed Scopus (50) Google Scholar, 2Kaltenbach T. Watson R. Shah J. et al.Colonoscopy with clipping is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of diverticular bleeding.Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 10: 131-137Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (80) Google Scholar, 3Nakano K. Ishii N. Ikeya T. et al.Comparison of long-term outcomes between endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Endosc Int Open. 2015; 3: E529-E533Crossref PubMed Google Scholar and band ligation.3Nakano K. Ishii N. Ikeya T. et al.Comparison of long-term outcomes between endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Endosc Int Open. 2015; 3: E529-E533Crossref PubMed Google Scholar, 4Setoyama T. Ishii N. Fujita Y. Enodoscopic band ligation (EBL) is superior to endoscopic clipping for the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Surg Endosc. 2011; 25: 3574-3578Crossref PubMed Scopus (47) Google Scholar, 5Witte J.T. Band ligation for colonic bleeding: modification of multiband ligating devices for use with a colonoscope.Gastrointest Endosc. 2000; 52: 762-765Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Google Scholar, 6Ishii N. Setoyama T. Deshpande G.A. et al.Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Gastrointest Endosc. 2012; 75: 382-387Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (70) Google Scholar Endoscopic clipping is the most commonly used method. However, direct placement of the hemoclips on the bleeding site is often challenging, and inadequate clipping may lead to early recurrent bleeding. Generally, it is easy to directly place the hemoclips on the exposed vessel when it is visible at the neck of the diverticulum (Fig. 1A). However, it is difficult to directly place the hemoclips on the exposed vessel when it is located at the dome and the diverticular orifice is small (Fig. 1B).6Ishii N. Setoyama T. Deshpande G.A. et al.Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Gastrointest Endosc. 2012; 75: 382-387Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (70) Google Scholar When direct placement of hemoclips is difficult, indirect placement in a zipper fashion is sometimes performed. However, this may not sufficiently occlude the exposed vessel and may contribute to early recurrent bleeding.3Nakano K. Ishii N. Ikeya T. et al.Comparison of long-term outcomes between endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Endosc Int Open. 2015; 3: E529-E533Crossref PubMed Google Scholar,6Ishii N. Setoyama T. Deshpande G.A. et al.Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.Gastrointest Endosc. 2012; 75: 382-387Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (70) Google ScholarFigure 1Endoscopic clipping for the treatment of colonic diverticular bleeding. A, Direct placement of hemoclip for bleeding at the neck of the diverticulum. B, Indirect placement of hemoclip for bleeding in the dome of the diverticulum.View Large Image Figure ViewerDownload Hi-res image Download (PPT)
Kidney International, Volume 100, pp 474-476; doi:10.1016/j.kint.2021.05.016
The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle–encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In a randomized placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine showed high efficacy at preventing COVID-19. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified.1Baden L.R. El Sahly H.M. Essink B. et al.Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.N Engl J Med. 2021; 384: 403-416Crossref PubMed Scopus (490) Google Scholar
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 88; doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2021.105439
Background It is commonly assumed that abnormal foot biomechanics cause plantar fasciitis; however, this assumption is not well supported. In this study, we investigated rearfoot to medial-forefoot coordination of healthy and plantar fasciitis individuals. We hypothesized that chronic plantar fasciitis individuals would exhibit greater intersegmental rearfoot to medial-forefoot anti-phase coordination and greater coordinative variability than a healthy cohort. Methods Twenty-two individuals with chronic plantar fasciitis (symptomatic mean 4.5 years) and 22 healthy individuals participated. Three-dimensional kinematics of the rearfoot and medial forefoot segments were captured using reflective markers for walking trials. After resolving rearfoot and medial-forefoot segment angle data, a modified vector coding method was used to compute coupling angles, anti-phase movements, and coordinative variability. Findings Compared to healthy individuals, individuals with plantar fasciitis exhibited fewer anti-phase movements (transverse plane: P = 0.003, effect size = 0.38). No group differences were detected in coordinative variability magnitude (sagittal, frontal, transverse, respectively: P = 0.99, 0.72, 0.86; effect sizes = 0.00, 0.12, 0.04). There were significant main effect differences in coupling variability between stance periods (P< 0.0001). Interpretation Contrary to our hypothesis, these data suggest that a relative reduction of rearfoot to medial-forefoot anti-phase movements with a chronic plantar fasciitis injury indicates a coordinative deficit, and that a greater frequency of anti-phase movements is associated with healthy foot function. Pain, guarding, and/or the state of chronic injury may be impairing fluid inter-segmental motion. Although no group differences were found in coordinative variability, this variability increased around transitions between loading, weight acceptance, and propulsive phases of gait.
International Journal of Information Management, Volume 59; doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102168
The use of the internet and social media have changed consumer behavior and the ways in which companies conduct their business. Social and digital marketing offers significant opportunities to organizations through lower costs, improved brand awareness and increased sales. However, significant challenges exist from negative electronic word-of-mouth as well as intrusive and irritating online brand presence. This article brings together the collective insight from several leading experts on issues relating to digital and social media marketing. The experts’ perspectives offer a detailed narrative on key aspects of this important topic as well as perspectives on more specific issues including artificial intelligence, augmented reality marketing, digital content management, mobile marketing and advertising, B2B marketing, electronic word of mouth and ethical issues therein. This research offers a significant and timely contribution to both researchers and practitioners in the form of challenges and opportunities where we highlight the limitations within the current research, outline the research gaps and develop the questions and propositions that can help advance knowledge within the domain of digital and social marketing.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 78, pp 200-209.e1; doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.01.020
Rationale & Objective Cardiovascular events are less common in women than men in general populations; however, studies in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are less conclusive. We evaluated sex-related differences in cardiovascular events and death in adults with CKD. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 1778 women and 2161 men enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC). Exposure Sex (women vs. men). Outcomes Atherosclerotic composite outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral artery disease), incident heart failure, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death. Analytic approach Cox proportional hazards regression. Results During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, we observed 698 atherosclerotic events (women, 264; men, 434), 762 heart failure events (women, 331; men, 431), 435 cardiovascular deaths (women, 163; men, 274), and 1158 deaths from any cause (women, 449; men, 709). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, and metabolic parameters, women had lower risk of atherosclerotic events (HR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.57-0.88), heart failure (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62-0.93), cardiovascular death (HR 0.55, 95% CI: 0.42-0.72), and death from any cause (HR, 0.58; 95% CI: 0.49-0.69) compared with men. These associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for cardiac and inflammation biomarkers. Limitations Assessment of sex hormones, which may play a role in cardiovascular risk, was not included. Conclusions In a large, diverse cohort of adults with CKD, compared with men, women had lower risks of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and mortality from any cause. These differences were not explained by measured cardiovascular risk factors.
Burns, Volume 47, pp 1012-1023; doi:10.1016/j.burns.2020.11.005
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has been used in different medical fields, but its effectiveness in burn wound healing remains debatable. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on burn patients treated with PRP to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the treatment. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of PRP in patients with burn injuries were selected. Eligible retrospective studies were abstracted and assessed for the risk of bias by two reviewers and results of mean time to complete epithelization and wound closure rate in the included studies were analyzed. Studies on the correlation between PRP and burn wound healing published in English or Chinese before March 2020 were retrieved from PubMed. Eight studies (including 449 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis revealed that compared with the control group, the PRP group had significantly better wound closure rates at weeks 2 (mean difference (MD): 12.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.08, 18.49]; I2: 0%; p < 0.0001) and 3 (MD: 12.66 [95% CI: 5.97, 19.34]; I2: 55%; p = 0.0002) and time to complete epithelialization (MD: −3.45 [95% CI: −4.87, −2.04] (days); I2: 0%; p < 0.00001). There was no significant difference in infection rate or graft take rate. PRP application can accelerate wound closure, however, it has no effect on the rates of wound infection and graft take rate.
Parasitology International, Volume 83; doi:10.1016/j.parint.2021.102316
Cystic echinococcosis is one of the most important cyclozoonotic helminthic diseases caused by various genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus SENSU lato complex in the Middle East. Echinococcus ortleppi G5 genotype has been previously reported to infect camels in Iran. However, no molecular data are available on the circulation of the cattle genotype from other animal intermediate hosts. Overall, 30 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 2015 to 2016 from sheep (n; 15) and goat (n; 15) isolates in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. The DNA of larval stages was extracted, amplified and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial 12S rRNA marker. Based on sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, 28 isolates were identified as E. granulosus G1. However, two fertile hydatid cyst samples isolated from sheep and goat liver were confirmed as E. ortleppi with 99.8%–100% identity to species isolated from a buffalo in India. The first emergence of fertile cattle cysts from sheep and goats may have implications in the zoonotic importance of E. ortleppi in human infection and de-worming regime of infected dogs due to the shorter maturation time of G5 genotype compared with G1 genotype. Since the distribution of E. ortleppi in Iran is not fully known, further studies are urgently needed to appraise the evolutionary and epidemiology scenarios. These studies can ascertain the transmission dynamics of E. ortleppi inferred by full-length concatenated mitogenomes on the domestic and wildlife hosts, as well as humans in wider areas of Iran and the neighboring countries.
NeuroImage, Volume 236; doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118033
Flexible retrieval mechanisms that allow us to infer relationships across events may also lead to memory errors or distortion when details of one event are misattributed to the related event. Here, we tested how making successful inferences alters representation of overlapping events, leading to false memories. Participants encoded overlapping associations (‘AB’ and ‘BC’), each of which was superimposed on different indoor and outdoor scenes that were pre-exposed prior to associative learning. Participants were subsequently tested on both the directly learned pairs (‘AB’ and ‘BC’) and inferred relationships across pairs (‘AC’). We predicted that when people make a correct inference, features associated with overlapping events may become integrated in memory. To test this hypothesis, participants completed a final detailed retrieval test, in which they had to recall the scene associated with initially learned ‘AB’ pairs (or ‘BC’ pairs). We found that the outcome of inference decisions impacted the degree to which neural patterns elicited during detailed ‘AB’ retrieval reflected reinstatement of the scene associated with the overlapping ‘BC’ event. After successful inference, neural patterns in the anterior hippocampus, posterior medial prefrontal cortex, and our content-reinstatement region (left inferior temporal gyrus) were more similar to the overlapping, yet incorrect ‘BC’ context relative to after unsuccessful inference. Further, greater hippocampal activity during inference was associated with greater reinstatement of the incorrect, overlapping context in our content-reinstatement region, which in turn tracked contextual misattributions during detailed retrieval. These results suggest recombining memories during successful inference can lead to misattribution of contextual details across related events, resulting in false memories.
Organic and Hybrid Field-Effect Transistors XX; doi:10.1117/12.2594161
Heart Rhythm, Volume 18; doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.06.303
Vacuum, Volume 190; doi:10.1016/j.vacuum.2021.110291
Uniform doping of phosphorus (P) in silicon is always the key and difficult point in the study of n-type solar cells. This paper aims to study the influencing factors for horizontal distribution for P. It is found that the distribution of P in silicon ingot is the results of the combined effect of melt flow and solid-liquid (S/L) interface. With numerical simulation, the melt flow rate in the edge is lower than that of the middle area, which leads to a higher effective segregation coefficient (Keff). For the slightly concave S/L interface, the concentration of P in the molten silicon is lower when the solidification process began at the edge position. The higher Keff and lower concentration make the slightly concave interface has better performance in uniform doping at the early stage of growth. In addition, with the melt flow taken into account, a mathematical model was built to predict P concentration in the molten silicon. This work is helpful to explain the movement of P and achieve uniform distribution in the silicon ingot during production.
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 46; doi:10.1016/j.seta.2021.101253
Compressed air energy storage (CAES), owing to low geographical limitation, high reliability, and negligible environmental impact, has attracted attention in recent years, hybridizing with different types of renewable energies. Contrary to the other renewable energies such as solar and wind, biomass does not depend on the region's weather condition and is more reliable than other renewables, making it a promising solution for sustainable development. Therefore, a novel combined heat and power system based on biomass gasification, CAES, and gas turbine power plant is introduced in the present research and analyzed by using ASPEN PLUS. Three different kinds of biomass materials, including wood chips, green waste, and municipal solid waste are considered, and the effects of critical parameters on system performance are precisely investigated. The results showed that the syngas composition has no significant impact on the variation of steam and air temperature. However, the air temperature has a considerable indirect effect on the char split fraction. Comparing the effect of biomass materials on efficiency shows that Green waste is the least efficient material, while the MSW offers the highest total efficiency, and the highest power plant efficiency can be obtained by using the wood chips to produce syngas fuel. Consequently, the gasifier's maximum efficiency is obtained at a temperature of 960 ℃ and steam to biomass ratio of 1.
Spintronics XIV; doi:10.1117/12.2595139
Conference: Spintronics XIV, 2021-8-1 - 2021-8-5
Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali pp 1-5; doi:10.1007/s12210-021-01013-0
The main objective of this study was to provide a preliminary analysis of the meteorite North West Africa (NWA) 12606 recently classified as ureilite, which was found in 2018 in Morocco, to unveil the possible presence of diamonds. The preliminary analysis of the surface of a meteorite fragment by scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and optical microscopy has shown that it mainly consisted of olivine, minor pyroxene and carbon phases possibly including carbon in the form of diamonds. The results achieved are preliminary to a further deeper study of this meteorite as the diamond origin in ureilites is still an open issue debated among the scientific community due to its significant implications for the sizes of early Solar System bodies.
Active Photonic Platforms XIII; doi:10.1117/12.2594527
Published: 1 August 2021
Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XXIII; doi:10.1117/12.2596375
Control Engineering Practice, Volume 113; doi:10.1016/j.conengprac.2021.104842
The parallel structure is one of the basic system architectures found in process networks. This paper formulates control strategies for such parallel systems when the states are unmeasured. The competitive coupling and competitive constraints are addressed in the control design. A distributed buffer and pre-estimator are proposed to solve problems relating to coupling and timely communication whilst a distributed moving horizon estimator is employed to further improve the estimation accuracy in the presence of the constraints. An output feedback robust distributed model predictive control algorithm is then developed for such parallel systems. The Lyapunov method is used for the theoretical analysis which produces tractable linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Simulations and experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Heart Rhythm, Volume 18; doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.06.371
Cancers, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/cancers13153881
With the development of new anticancer medicines, novel modalities are being explored for cancer treatment. For many years, conventional modalities, such as small chemical drugs and antibody drugs, have worked by “inhibiting the function” of target proteins. In recent years, however, nucleic acid drugs, such as ASOs and siRNAs, have attracted attention as a new modality for cancer treatment because nucleic acid drugs can directly promote the “loss of function” of target genes. Recently, nucleic acid drugs for use in cancer therapy have been extensively developed and some of them have currently been under investigation in clinical trials. To develop novel nucleic acid drugs for cancer treatment, it is imperative that cancer researchers, including ourselves, cover and understand those latest findings. In this review, we introduce and provide an overview of various DDSs and ligand modification technologies that are being employed to improve the success and development of nucleic acid drugs, then we also discuss the future of nucleic acid drug developments for cancer therapy. It is our belief this review will increase the awareness of nucleic acid drugs worldwide and build momentum for the future development of new cancer-targeted versions of these drugs.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14686abstract
The present study sheds light on the role of social-control agents in punishing misconduct. We posit that social-control agents give each violator a lighter sanction when a great number of people are involved in a misconduct case. However, this relationship is attenuated by violators’ reputation and by the salience of the misconduct to stakeholders before the current case. We test our hypotheses using suspension decisions in 458 doping cases in the context of professional road cycling between 1999 and 2019. Our results indicate that, in general, social-control agents’ punishments depend on internal resource constraints, but when pressure from stakeholders is high, the concern to protect the integrity of the field and their own authority prevails and leads to greater sanctions.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.12176abstract
Business ecosystems – systems of value creation that transcend conventional industry boundaries – are becoming increasingly important contexts of tech entrepreneurship. Yet, we lack an understanding of how tech entrepreneurs develop an understanding of nascent ecosystems for new products. Based on a multi-case study of Boston-based tech entrepreneurs, this study finds that entrepreneurs build an ecosystem mindset incrementally by shifting from targeting alternative primary clients, based on an industry mindset, to envisioning inter-connected clients across industries exploiting complementarities between multiple product uses. Findings contribute to micro-foundations of ecosystem strategizing and a better understanding of opportunity generation and entrepreneurial learning.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14234abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI) offers transformative benefits in many areas of economic activity, through the innovative use of profuse, multifaceted streams of data. This power comes at a cost: the systems evolve so organically that the rationale behind its decisions can be a mystery even to its developers. The AI-based system thus becomes a “black box” that is, one that is not transparent, making it difficult to trust the system’s decisions, assess model fairness, detect bias, and meet regulatory demands. These concerns have led to the consideration of explainable AI (XAI) as a cognitive bridge between the two worlds. However, the majority of deployments are for machine learning engineers. Thus there is a need for human-understandable AI systems that can tailor explanations relative to the needs, knowledge, and goals of non-experts. This essay explores some of the literature over the past half century pertaining to the explainability needs of different stakeholders, including efforts made to address such needs as well as lessons learned.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15712abstract
This study investigates the effect of awards on user-innovators’ subsequent innovation performance within an open innovation community of 3D-printable design context. Drawing on self-efficacy theory, we argue that user-innovators gain higher self-efficacy after their work is recognized with an award, which increases the subsequent innovation performance of experienced user-innovators. However, such an award-induced increase in self-efficacy will undermine the subsequent innovation performance of inexperienced user-innovators. We find support for our predictions using a two-way fixed effects difference-in-differences analyses within a matched sample. Our study identifies an individual-level contingency that determines the nature of the awards–performance relationship, and identifies an unintended negative consequence of awards' on inexperienced user-innovators’ performance.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.13680abstract
Our research issue sought to assist practitioners to structure a hybrid approach that overcomes the binary presumption of agile and traditional project management. The basis for this inquiry was inspired by an observed gap concerning practical hybrid project management models, combining elements of apparently incompatible traditional and agile project management. We first conducted an extensive literature review of the two well-known approaches. Second, we complemented this review with sources on the Business Model Canvas that provided us with insights on how to combine the PM approaches in practice. We synthesized and expanded on the findings in our third and final step by proposing an innovative hybrid approach to project management we call the Project Management Canvas. Our model represents a contribution to the existing discourse, which immediately and iteratively aids practitioners to effectively craft the most appropriate project management methodology.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.195
Widespread perceptions of a lack of ethics among business leaders has resulted in considerable research concerning servant leadership. Nonetheless, team-level studies of the ties between servant leadership and important outcomes, including both organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and team effectiveness are uncommon, resulting in concerns about the generalizability of these relationships and their associated underlying mechanisms. This study evaluated a unifying cross-level model, in which team-level servant leadership enhances OCB among followers, which in turn fosters team internal social capital (TISC), to ultimately increase team effectiveness. Support for our model was found using a sample of 343 teams, reflecting 835 respondents from various departments at 171 hotels in Spain. Also notable was that individual-level OCB and team-level TISC fully accounted for the positive effect of servant leadership on team effectiveness. Our findings suggest that the use of servant leadership may foster a competitive advantage by enhancing OCB, TISC, and team effectiveness.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.10373abstract
Based on semi-structured interviews in 15 multinational teams (MNTs) from the automotive industry, this exploratory study investigates the relationship between language barriers and mental model formation in MNTs. Our examination reveals that in MNTs language barriers impede personal more than task-related communication and emotional more than neutral communication. We further demonstrate how these impediments in MNT communication hamper the formation of task-focused and team cohesion-focused mental models in MNTs. By highlighting linguistic hurdles in previously neglected areas, we expand international business researchers’ understanding of the communicative bases of MNT functioning. Additionally, by elucidating the complex ways language barriers influence mental model formation, we contribute to a better understanding of the micro-foundations of team mental models in multilingual settings. Our findings carry important managerial implications for MNT leaders as emotion managers and communication facilitators.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15908abstract
Acquisitions involve high levels of uncertainty because resources are committed to risky acquisition activities even before the actual performance outcomes of these investments are known. In this study we examine the likelihood of using minority acquisitions as a risk reducing mechanism by family firms. Based on an analysis of a panel dataset of S&P 500 firms, we find that the acquisition decisions of family firms are consistent with the real options theory. We observe that family firms engage in related minority acquisitions because of their limited downside risk on socioemotional wealth.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15825abstract
Academia has widely reasoned about the impact of business model innovation on firm performance. However, when it comes to understanding or predicting outcomes of business model innovation beyond financial performance indicators, literature has a blind spot. Research lacks empirical findings from the internal organizational dynamics after the inherent transformation process induced by business model innovation. Rooting our analysis in configuration theory, the purpose of this paper is to shed light upon the organizational impact of business model innovation. As the individuals’ perceived fit with their employing organization drives corporate outcomes, we employ the person-organization fit concept and assess (unintentional) changes in the fit relation subsequent to business model innovation. Our findings suggest that incremental business model innovation enhances fit, whereas radical business model innovation decreases fit. Absence of business model innovation likewise impairs fit. The theoretical and practical implications of our study are discussed.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15386abstract
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine relations between marital status and three dimensions of job performance. Results indicated that marital status was weakly, positively related to in-role performance and counterproductive work behavior, yet unrelated to organizational citizenship behavior. After statistically controlling for age, parenthood, and perceived organizational support, marital status was positively related to all three performance dimensions. Mediation analyses revealed that family-to-work conflict partly explains the marital status-performance relations. Implications are drawn concerning personnel policies regarding married and unmarried employees.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15438abstract
Platform-based ecosystems attract diverse independent actors to pool their creativity and generate complementary innovations that may bring more value to the users than they get from conventional, vertically integrated organizations. Yet, the generativity of platform ecosystems may also increase the variance in product quality, leading to user dissatisfaction and poor sales. This so-called ""generativity tension,"" between innovation and quality, may be eased by effective governance. The literature on ecosystem governance focuses primarily on centralized control by platform owners. We contend that control may be distributed so ecosystem participants can also help control product quality. By analyzing international package tours at Trip.com, we have found that both centralized control (e.g., platform-assessed quality ratings) and distributed control (e.g., customer-generated quality ratings) can be effective in improving sales. Further analysis indicates that centralized control complements distributed control and their relative effectiveness reverses when the volume of customer reviews changes. This finding demonstrates that the utility of control in platform ecosystem governance lies in not just the intensity but also the spread of control among platform owner and ecosystem participants. Hence, the study expands the concept of distributed governance from its original focus on decision rights partitioning to the realm of control portfolio configuration, where managers can pursue opportunities to foster innovations without compromising quality in platform ecosystems.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14793abstract
Pursuing multiple goals is difficult for organizations because goals can conflict with one another and some goals may not be seen as feasible or desirable to pursue. Whereas some academic institutions successfully contribute to both high quality research and industrial innovation, new collaborations often struggle to balance between these multiple goals. We study the process of establishing six university-industry research centers and explore how the academic partners pursued goals related to innovation in addition to the traditional goals of academic research. We found that during the initial phase of the collaboration the innovation-oriented goals were not prioritized, and the research organizations were bolstering their research-oriented goals. Increasing pressure from industry partners forced the research organizations to develop new hybrid practices that also incorporated innovation-oriented goals alongside the academic ones. By outlining how multiple goals were integrated to create hybrid innovation practices we provide novel theorizing on how university-industry collaborations are formed and we contribute to the literature on how organizations integrate multiple and partly contradictory goals.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14205abstract
Conventional wisdom holds that start-up investors with prior entrepreneurial experience perform better than investors who come from different backgrounds. Accordingly, entrepreneur-investors may have advantages in sourcing, picking and managing start-ups due to their past experience, unique skills and networks. However, the realization of these advantages hinges upon the assumption that the advantages of experience gained in entrepreneurial roles can be translated into the new investment roles without difficulty. In this paper, we question this assumption and argue that entrepreneur-investors may overestimate the value of their past experience in an investor role, which may adversely affect their performance as investors. Through a matched-sample analysis of entrepreneur-investors and non-entrepreneur-investors in the United States and invested in start-up ventures between 2000 and 2019, we find that (a) entrepreneurial experience is detrimental to investment performance and (b) average venture age in the investor’s portfolio mediates the negative influence of entrepreneurial experience on investment performance.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.10126abstract
Personality predicts occupational performance. However, previous cross-sectional meta-analyses overlook effects of occupational characteristics. Accordingly, we conduct second-order meta-analyses of the Big Five traits and performance in nine major occupational groups: Clerical, customer service, healthcare, law enforcement, management, military, professional, sales, and skilled/semiskilled (k = 539 studies, N = 89,639). For each occupational group, we integrate data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET): Expert ratings of 1) traits’ relevance to its occupational requirements and 2) its occupational complexity level. We report three major findings. First, trait relations differ considerably across major occupational groups. Second, expert ratings of traits’ relevance largely converge with empirical relations; the top-two most highly rated traits mostly match the top-two most highly predictive traits. Third, complexity moderates performance relations. When occupational groups are ranked by complexity, multiple correlations generally follow an inverse-U shaped pattern, which suggests moderate complexity levels may be the “goldilocks range” for personality prediction.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15116abstract
The past is a central element in crafting an organizational identity. However, the past is interpreted subjectively, resulting in ambiguity and multiplicity of interpretations. This study investigates the use of rhetorical history in crafting an organizational identity by analyzing differences between an organization as an actor and organizational members in applying rhetorical history. Our analysis is grounded on the self-representations of 28 watchmaking firms located in two watchmaking clusters in Germany based on their Web pages and interviews with 75 current and former members of watchmaking firms in these two clusters. Our results reveal that there are differences between the organization as an actor and its members not only regarding which claims of rhetorical history they emphasized but also with respect to the temporal and content-wise past to which they refer. While they share a pattern in terms of temporal structure, the organization as an actor emphasizes both near and distant history, creating a kind of “valley of oblivion,” while the members of the organization show a stronger focus on near-history aspects. Our findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of rhetorical history, showing that the use of rhetorical history is strongly influenced by rhetoricians of the past. With a focus on the importance of rhetorical history for crafting an organizational identity, our findings also allow us to draw conclusions about sources of multiple identities and how such identities can emerge—namely, through differentiated rhetorical interpretations of the past by groups of actors.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.14601abstract
Business model innovation (BMI) is a radical innovation process, requiring managers to focus on specific goals and to implement complex choices over time. In this paper, we explore the consequences of managers’ learning and performance orientation on BMI, explaining their relevance in dynamic environments. We explore these themes in the context of creative industries, delivering a survey to managers across the sectors of design, architecture and gaming. We show the positive influence of learning orientation on BMI, and we explain how the dynamism in the environment stimulates this positive effect. Our study mainly contributes to business model innovation research, exploring the triggers of BMI and showing its specific characteristics as innovative process. In addition, we contribute to goal orientation research, showing the consequences of different goal orientations for radical innovation processes in dynamic environments.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.15460abstract
In this study, we examined whether the expression of voice, as a prosocial yet psychologically costly behavior, during the day affects employee sleep quality at night and whether sleep quality affects the expression of voice on the next workday. Having surveyed 113 full-time employees twice a day over the course of two weeks, we found that the same-day effect of voice on sleep and the effect of sleep on the next day voice depend on the type of voice. Specifically, we found that employees who express promotive voice experience higher levels of positive affect at the end of the workday, more effectively detach from work at home, and as a result are less likely to suffer from insomnia at night. We also found that employees who express prohibitive voice tend to experience higher levels of negative affect at the end of the workday, are unable to effectively detach from work at home, and consequently are more likely to experience insomnia at night. Our study further demonstrates that, while there is no association between insomnia and next-day prohibitive voice, sleep-deprived employees are less likely to engage in promotive voice on the next day because of being psychologically depleted.
Academy of Management Proceedings, Volume 2021; doi:10.5465/ambpp.2021.12959symposium
This symposium brings together a panel of experts who have researched the indigenous cultures and embodied ways of learning, to share their work. The earth friendly sustainable practices of these ancient cultures are marginalised and suppressed with a history of colonial invaders dominating the socio-economic norms with their consumeristic and exploitative, and often violent ways of being. Post-covid world needs more sustainable and planet friendly ways of managing. Covid has revealed the many failings of the Western (Eurocentric, British and American) methods of managing. This panel offers exemplars of some of the ways of knowing and being from the indigenous cultural practices, of dance and poetry, and decolonisation of mind and education systems. Management education and research need to elevate these ancient and yet new to management research and education ways of sensemaking.