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Nadir Eroğlu, Funda Kara
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v6i2.731

Abstract:
Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası’nın (TCMB) 2008 Küresel Ekonomik Kriz sonrası makro ihtiyati para politikası uygulamalarını incelemek ve etkilerini değerlendirmektir.Küresel krize karşı 2010 yılından itibaren TCMB’nin eski politika çerçevesinde kullanılan politika faizinin yanı sıra makro ihtiyati politikalar çerçevesinde uyguladığı başlıca para politikası araçları; zorunlu karşılıklar, faiz koridoru, likidite yönetimi ve rezerv opsiyon mekanizması gibi araçlardan oluşmaktadır. Çok sayıda politika aracının varlığının yarattığı karmaşıklığın yanı sıra, bu araçların etkinliğine ilişkin ampirik sonuçların kısıtlı olması, uygulama geçmişinin kısa süreli olması ve politik müdahaleler doğru bir değerlendirmeyi güçleştirmektedir.
Muhammed Hasan Yılmaz
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v6i2.715

Abstract:
In this study, we investigate factors affecting net interest margin (NIM) of commercial banks in Turkey. Especially, our results highlight the relation between unconventional monetary policy shocks and bank margins. To this end, first, we conduct an identification analysis about which parameters of asymmetric interest corridor framework are important in explaining variations in NIM. Using industry-level data, we show that there exists a pass through from BIST interbank overnight repo/reverse repo market rate and weighted average cost of funding (WACF) to bank loan and deposit rates. As a result of reduced-form Vector Autoregression (VAR) analysis we find the existence of a transmission mechanism from BIST rate and WACF to commercial loan rate, consumer loan rate and deposit rate. Same pass through to loan and deposit rates is also shown in individual bank level with the Panel Vector Autoregression (Panel VAR) analysis in the case of 16 commercial banks in Turkey during the period 2011Q1-2016Q1. After the identification analysis, we examine the relationship between NIM and policy rates through System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques by controlling bank specific, industry related and macroeconomic factors. We find that a change in the monetary policy rate has significant and positive impact on NIM. Among bank-specific factors, equity ratio and operating expenses are found to be significantly affecting NIM during the sample period. Our empirical findings also stress the significance of lag values of NIM. Estimations conducted with standardized variables indicate that economic significance of lag values and bank specific variables are larger than that of policy.
, Larissa Kyj, Ihsan Kulali, Ihsan Kulalı
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 01-31; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i3.295

Abstract:
By drawing on Ukrainian experience, this paper analyzes the anatomy of bank efficiency in a transitional economy. Acknowledging the vast disparities in the business technology of different size banks, in this comprehensive study, we innovatively estimate group-specific (distinct) frontiers for small, medium, and large size banks. The results from separate frontiers reveal that Ukrainian banks record 38% technical inefficiency, 26% pure technical inefficiency, and 17% scale inefficiency on average. Apparently, banks in transition waste about the two fifths of their factor inputs during the production of financial services. The cardinal source of sub-performance in transitional banks seems to be managerial inefficiencies. We also found that banks operating in areas with more political influence and more developed infrastructure outperform the banks operating in politically and economically weaker regions. The results also indicate that larger banks, enjoying public trust in a risky business climate, dominate smaller banks in all forms of efficiency. However, such bias for size causes large banks to suffer from decreasing returns to scale and small banks from idle capacity. Consequently, the policies promoting consolidation between small and large banks may alleviate the excess (idle) capacity for large (small) banks in a transitional economy.
Aniefiok Akpan Umoren, Aloysius A. Nwosu, Sunday Brownson Akpan
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 57-69; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i3.260

Abstract:
Increasing trend in Non-performing loans (NPLs) adversely affected availability of credits to economic agents in all sectors of the economy thereby constraining financial intermediation and economic activities. The study examined the trend and growth rates of NPLs in the Nigerian banking system during the major banking policy reforms regimes namely: pre-consolidation (1979 – 2004) and post consolidation era (2005 – 2014). Time series data collected were analyzed using descriptive and regression analyses. Results indicated irregular fluctuations in NPLs’ trend in both periods. This result suggested prevalent high credit risk and corresponding reduction in lending capability of banks in the economy. Regression estimates of NPLs’ trend in the two regimes showed significant negative growth rates.This implies that, financial policies implemented in the country yielded positive impacts over time. NPLs assumed an exponential growth rate of -1.39% and -15.55% during the pre and post consolidated eras respectively. An average exponential growth rate of -5.2% was obtained during the entire period. Quadratic trend analysis revealed that, increase influence of time variable significantly reduced NPLs during pre- consolidation regime and the entire period considered. However, this influence was stagnated during post consolidation period. Based on the result, it is recommended that, prudent lending coupled with swift and orderly clean-up of banking system loan portfolios should be adopted to decelerate NPLs trend and growth rate in Nigeria. Time is an important element in designing and implementing any banking and macroeconomic policy.
Tomola M Obamuyi, Fapetu Oladapo
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i3.128

Abstract:
This paper examines the Nigerian economy and the tendency for its growth in the face of several socio-political challenges facing the country, which have hampered the rate of economic development in spite of the tremendous human and material resources inherent. The paper identifies the socio-political challenges to include corruption, poverty, unemployment, insecurity, politics and governance, among others. The central argument of the paper is that steady economic growth can be achieved and financial crisis mitigated in Nigeria, if the effects of socio-political challenges, which are the key factors that have contributed to the high poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country, are minimised. To ensure economic growth and move the country forward politically and economically, government must be more accountable in managing the nation’s resources in order to avoid wastage, poverty and unemployment. Close attention should be given to those socio-political challenges in the formulation of policies that aimed at maintaining economic growth at a level commensurate with the country’s growth rate. This study put forward that government must be proactive in all issues relating to the socio-political challenges to prevent resource mismanagement, poverty, unemployment, insecurity and slow economic growth in future.
Şenol Emir, Hasan Dincer, Umit Hacioglu,
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 85-102; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i3.461

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to explore the importance and ranking of technical analysis variables in Turkish banking sector. Random Forest method is used for determining importance scores of inputs for eight banks in Borsa Istanbul. Then two predictive models utilizing Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are built for predicting BIST-100 index and bank closing prices. Results of the models are compared by three metrics namely Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Square Error (MSE), Median Absolute Error (MedAE). Findings show that moving average (MAV-100) is the most important variable for both BIST -100 index and bank closing prices. Therefore, investors should follow this technical indicator with respect to Turkish banks. In addition ANN shows better performance for all metrics.
Roman Bohdan, Elizabeth Tipton, Dean Kefer, Arsen Djatej
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3, pp 01-13; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v3i3.185

Abstract:
This academic research explores the availability of loan financing to minority-owned businesses and examines a potential relationship between the size of a loan and the characteristics of a business in the USA. It also investigates the possible impact of different characteristics and quantifiable criteria on credit loan denial across different demographic groups. Probit models are used to evaluate the potential existence of racial or ethnic discrimination in the availability and approval of credit. Regression analysis is used to assess the impact that the race of a small business owner has on the relative size of a denied loan, the size of portioned credit, or the size of the company. When other variables suspected of influencing credit approval and rationing are controlled, black-owned and Asian-owned businesses appear to be less likely to be approved for loans and more likely to experience significantly greater credit rationing than their white counterparts.
Viswa Nadham, B Nahid, Gusti Oka Widana, Sudarso K Wiryono, Mustika S Purwanegara, Mohamad Toha
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4, pp 70-94; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i1.206

Abstract:
The study attempts to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans in National Bank of Commerce. Data was collected from 152 respondents. Tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze data. Data collection methods adopted for the study were interview, questionnaire and documentary evidence. Interest rate, GDP, concentration of lending activities, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition were investigated, and the results suggest that interest rate, GDP, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition influence the level of NPLs. However, the results did not suggest that concentration of lending activities increase the level of NPLs. The study suggests that banks should put in place a vibrant credit process that ensures proper customer selection and risk identification, robust credit analysis, proactive monitoring and clear recovery strategies for bad loans, formulate clear policy framework that addresses issues of ethical standards and check and balance credit process, organizational capacity enhancement of banks, deliberate effort to develop credit culture for managing loans ,and ensure prudent policies that govern bank loans. Since the results for this study were encouraging, the researcher encourages replicating the study for other lending institutions. In order to extend the literature on non-performing loans, the researcher suggested incorporating models of Golem effect, Social loafing, Inverted pyramid effect, Pollyanna effect and High default culture effect. Also, basing on the merits of the study, the researcher suggests determining relationship between non-performing loans and loan size, collateral, credit culture, and credit management information system.
Tamilselvan M Manickam, R R Madhumitha
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4, pp 52-61; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i4.40

Abstract:
The competence of a financial system is entirely depending upon the stock market efficiency. The gradual growth of equity investor’s participation is inevitable to enrich the overall growth of emerging economies.Hence the necessity is felt to provide an empirical support to the investing community. For the purpose, this study attempts to examine the weak-form efficiency of Indian stock market – National Stock Exchange (NSE). The study has used the daily closing price of the Nifty fifty stocks from 3rdJanuary 2011 to 24thApril 2015. To test the weak form efficiency both parametric and non-parametric tests called Autocorrelation, Augmented Dicky Fuller test, and Runs Test were performed. The study reveals that 39 stocks of NSE-Nifty Fifty are found to be weak form inefficient, so that the investors can formulate trading strategies to gain abnormal returns. The Index and 10 stocks are found to be weak form efficient during the study period since the price series found to be autocorrelation existence.
Frances Susan Obafemi, , Frances Ngozi Obafemi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 76-88; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i3.155

Abstract:
Equity is one of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in the Nigerian health financing policy. Despiteacclaimed commitment to the implementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes and interventions,the level of inequity in health status and access to basic health care interventions remain high. This paper examines theequity of health care expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocket spending (OOP) forthe country and separately for the six geopolitical zones of the country. The methodological framework rests on KakwaniProgressivity Indices (KPIs), Reynold-Smolensky indices and concentration indices (CIs) using data from the 2004 Nigerian National Living Standard Survey (NLSS) collected by the National Bureau of Statistic. The results reveal that health financing is regressive with the incidence disproportionately resting on poor households with about 70% of the total expenditure on health being financed through out-of-pocket payments by households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in the event of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some into poverty, and aggravate the poverty of others. The paper therefore suggests that the country’s health financing systems must be such that allows people to access services when they are needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, by reducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within the health system.
Valentin Toci, Iraj Hashi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i3.151

Abstract:
By employing non-parametric methods, namely Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Index, this paper investigates efficiency of banks using a database of almost all banks in four countries in South-East Europe. The superior efficiency of foreignowned banks in intermediation is supported. It is argued that the improvement in efficiency of banks originated from the change in technology rather than scale and technical efficiency, and banks on average have not been able to catch-up with best-performers, thus widening the efficiency gap. The largest sources of inefficiency are found to be cost and scale inefficiencies and lending shortfalls. Because of its peculiarities, Kosovo banking sector is assessed relative to other economies. Findings suggest that despite some improvements, the banking system in Kosovo remained less efficient. A number of policy implications emanate from the findings, aiming at enhancing the intermediation efficiency of banks in the context of South-East European transition.
Shuang Feng, Jon Stewart
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i4.36

Abstract:
The Chinese stock market is an emerging market that has gained much importance over the past few decades. Because of this, it also serves as a great subject for studying market inefficiencies and anomalies. In this paper we provide a review of evidence regarding the development, efficiency and integration of the Chinese stock market. In particular, we review recent literature in the areas of market segmentation, cross-listings and calendar effects. This provides evidence of market inefficiency in China. We also pose questions that can be answered in future studies.
Khaldoun Al-Qaisi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 43-47; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i1.140

Abstract:
The International financial crisis caused the recession of the industrial sector in most developed countries. The effect of the crisis in the developing countries was different. This research aimed at investigating the effect of international financial crisis on industrial sector in Jordan. Different financial ratios were estimated using the financial statements of the industrial enterprises for the period 2000-2008. The financial data were classified to two periods. The first period 2000-2005 and 2006-2008 for this purpose. The results show very slight effect on the industrial sector in Jordan results of the limitations of most companies on their activities as a part of risk management policy.
Adam Zaremba
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3, pp 12-50; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v3i1.167

Abstract:
The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.
Adam Zaremba
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4, pp 18-36; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i1.202

Abstract:
The study concentrates on the benefits of passive commodity investments in the context of the phenomenon of financialization. The research investigates the implications of increase in the correlation coefficients between equity and commodity investments for investors in financial markets. The paper is composed of several parts. First, the attributes of commodity investments and their benefits in the portfolio optimization are explored. Second, the phenomenon of the financialization is described and the research hypothesis is developed. Next, an empirical analysis is performed. I simulate the mean-variance spanning tests to examine the benefits of commodity investments before and after accounting for the impact of financialization. I proceed separate analysis for pre- and post-financialization period. The empirical research is based on asset classes’ returns and other related variables from years 1991-2012. The performed investigations indicate that the market financialization may have significant implications for commodity investors. Due to increase in correlation coefficients, the inclusion of the commodity futures in the traditional stock-bond portfolio appears to be no longer reasonable.
Nazife Orhan, Hasan Dincer
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v1i1.133

Abstract:
Nowadays, almost all sectors especially service ones are aware of the fact that the presence of employees who have high level of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors is crucial so as to perform efficiently and productively. Since customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are the main primacy for the banking sector, they need to keep up with all kinds of changes and developments to resist and gain advantages over their competitors subject to the highly increase of competition worldwide. The main reason of applying this study on the banking sector is its dynamic structure that has been changed both positively and negatively owing to the economic crisis. In connection with this, it is aimed to present the importance of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors on the success of banking sector through the analysis of two variables in terms of their relationship between each other. Additionally, it is intended for setting forth the differences of state-owned and private banks in terms of the level of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors. As a data collection tool, questionnaire technique has been used. It has been benefited from the emotional intelligence scale developed by Wong and Law to obtain the data related to emotional intelligence level; and the innovative work behaviors scale developed by Janssen to obtain the data related to innovative work behaviors. The findings obtained from the questionnaire were applied to 332 employees in Turkish banking sector.
Gusti Oka Widana, Sudarso K Wiryono, Mustika S Purwanegara, Mohamad Toha, N Viswa Nadham, Nahid B
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4, pp 70-94; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i1.205

Abstract:
The positive of impact of market orientation toward business performance of a company is a common wisdom in the marketing literatures. Hence the prior studies recommend that the connection will depend on other strategic actions. In this regards, this study tries to assess the construct of business ethics as the precedent of market orientation in the context of Indonesia Islamic banks. Upon assessing data using SmartPLS, this study finds that market orientation is the determinant of business performance and Islamic business ethics is the precedent of market orientation. However, market orientation is not effective as the mediator in the relationship between Islamic business ethics and business performance. The discussion of this finding is provided as well as the managerial implication at the end of this paper.
, Yunita Anwar, Erminus Krisma
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3, pp 47-52; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v3i3.188

Abstract:
Taxation play an essential role both in a country and in a corporation. To minimize the tax payment, corporation conduct a corporate tax management. According to some of previous research, there is a correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. In this research we are focusing on three: number of board, number of independent board and board compensation. We measure corporate tax management by using effective tax rate (GAAP ETR and current ETR are used in this research). By using several other control variables, we found that corporate governance have a significant correlation to corporate tax management.
Sarwar Uddin Ahmed, Ashikur Rahman, G M Wali Ullah
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v3i4.193

Abstract:
Islamic banking is based on profit and loss mechanism where the use of interest is prohibited. Unlike conventional banks, these banks do not charge a specific rate of interest, rather provides financing in exchange for profit sharing. However, there are studies claiming that, in practice, Islamic banking is same as conventional banking with regard to the use of interest. It is also claimed that, Islamic deposits are not interest-free, but are closely attached to conventional deposits. On this background, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship between pricing in Islamic banks vis-à-vis conventional banks by taking the case of Bangladesh. We have used monthly data during the period of 2009-2013. The findings of the study showed that, there is no statistically significant difference between the monthly average lending rates of Islamic banks and conventional banks. However, there is significant difference between deposit rates. The existence of causal relationship was inconclusive, and requires further analysis.
Hakan Cavlak, Hayriye Işık
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4, pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i4.38

Abstract:
Conditionality is mostly defined as the EU policy engendered for candidate countries. However, the mere use of conditionality by the EU does not essentially explain transferring of policies and EU rules towards the candidate countries. EU conditionality may be considered as a comprising approach but in certain policy areas or countries it might not be as successful as it was on other ones. The EU conditionality basically defined as a bargaining policy of affecting through reward, under which the EU provides inducements to candidate or neighbor countries to aligning with the conditions of the EU. In this study the explanatory power of conditionality would be questioned; so the main question will be “to what extent does the EU have influence on policy convergence in a candidate country that does not have a clear membership perspective? Taxation chapter in accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU has been chosen as the case of this research as providing to have an answer on this question. The main objective of this paper is ‘analyzing the extent of EU conditionality on Turkish taxation policy.’ Furthermore, it is argued in this study that “without a concrete incentive, European Union’s impact on a candidate country would be limited.”
Guo Jianhua, Long Huidian
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i2.141

Abstract:
As two important constituents of China’s macro economy, there are a variety of relationships among China’s stock market, real estate market and its macro economy. In order to investigate these relationships, in this paper, especially with the Macroeconomic Boom Index reflecting China’s macro economy, we use cointegration theory and Granger analysis to demonstrate that there are long-term equilibrium relationship and bidirectional causality between the macro economy and the securities business, also between the macro economy and the real estate market, however, this kind of long-term Equilibrium relationship and bidirectional causality appears very weak.
Bo Ouyang, Zenghui Liu, Xiaojie Christine Sun
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v4i4.39

Abstract:
In this paper, we examine the impact of CEO power on auditor choice. We are motivated by the competing financial reporting incentives arising from CEO power. Our empirical finding suggests that powerful CEOs are more likely to hire high-quality auditors as a signal of superior financial reporting quality. We contribute to the literature of auditor switch and extend the research on the links between CEO power and firm behaviors.
Evangelos Vasileiou
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3, pp 85-113; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v3i1.171

Abstract:
Effective Market Discipline (MD) puzzles financial economists and regulators for decades, while the recent bail-in legislation for European banks extremely raises the need for even stronger MD. It may not be exaggeration to say that a new regime for the European banking market is born after the aforementioned decision. This paper’s objective is the broader MD examination, using variables that are not usually included in MD studies, but concern the European Union (EU) and the European Monetary Union (EMU) in the last years. In particular, apart from banking, deposit insurance and pure macroeconomic indicators, we also include governance and sovereign debt indices. The new regime may need a new MD approach. We choose Greece to implement our assumptions, because it is the country with the most severe economic, sovereign and governance problems in the EU. We employ data for the period 2002-10. The empirical evidence supports that market discipline is superficial, while there is ample evidence that MD is directly influenced by the poor governance performance and the excessive government debt. Greek authorities have to make major structural reforms in order to create the conditions for long-term stability, while our analysis points out some EMU’s shortfalls.
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 13-29; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v2i4.160

Abstract:
This paper can be described as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significant contribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriers to understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as ‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach and implement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recent analysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained from insights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growth models, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress and that growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution and institutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background that empirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediation affects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided new impetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. The birth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development of improved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a number of elements. These included technology, education and health policies in the process of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies and institutional activities in the role of financial development in economic growth.
Hicabi Ersoy, Ayben Koy, Koy Ayben
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 21-36; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i2.269

Abstract:
Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de pay senetleri fiyatları ile döviz kurları arasındaki ilişki, VAR metodu (vektör oto regresyon modeli) kullanılarak araştırılmıştır. Döviz kurları ve pay senedi fiyatlarından oluşan değişkenler arasında doğrusal bir bağıntı olup olmadığının tespiti amacıyla bu model kullanılmıştır. Bu amaçla, döviz kurları, BİST Banka ve BİST Sınai endeksleri ele alınmıştır. Veriler Ocak 2011’den Aralık 2014’e kadar olan döneme ait günlük değişmeleri içermektedir. Türkiye’de en fazla işlem yapılan döviz kurları ABD doları ve Euro olduğu için, bu kurlar tercih edilmiştir.
Olfa Nessibi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i1.45

Abstract:
Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones. Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.
Yutaka Kurihara
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v3i2.180

Abstract:
This article focuses on the empirical relationship between the United States’ and Japan’s yield spread of interest rates and economic growth in Japan. The yield spread is defined in this article as the difference between the Japanese government bond yield minus the US government bond yield. Some studies have tackled this issue and found a negative relationship between the yield spread and economic growth; however, recent studies have shown no or a weak relationship. This problem has not yet reached consensus in spite of its importance. As the Japanese interest rate has been quite low since the adoption of the zero interest rate policy at the end of 1990s, the situation may change the results. The empirical results show that reliability of yield spread as a leading indicator of output growth exists in Japan; however, term structure of interest rate is not related to output growth.
Ali Kablan
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v2i2.142

Abstract:
Developments in international financial markets concern both developed countries and developing countries closely. The transactions of institutions arising from of commercial activities display a more complex and more risky state in line with international economic developments. The globalization trend in the world economy, the extreme fluctuations in currencies, interests and product prices have rendered closely following up the developments in financial tools mandatory. Taking advantage of derivative financial tools which increase the revenue of assets by taking future risks into consideration, impact a decrease in debt costs and has the purpose of transferring risks are of vital importance with respect to the successful management of companies. At the present time in which international commerce, free market economy and globalization has gained in importance, one of the derivative products used in risk management and have a wide implementation area is swap transactions. Swap transactions can be expressed as a financial transaction including the exchange of interest, foreign currency or both between two or more parties. Swap transactions in particular are used for purposes such as protection against risks due to interest rates and exchange rates, ensuring low cost financing, changing the debt structure and entering different markets. In this study, the generally defined characteristics of swap transactions, which have an important standing within financial risk management and have been rapidly developing in the world in recent years and their recognition according to the International Accounting Standard 39 concerning the recognition of swap transactions, which has in particular termed the study have been focused on. In the framework of the standard, interest swap and foreign currency swap implementation study were included with respect to the matter.
Reza Zare
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v2i1.137

Abstract:
In present study by virtue of the importance of the fiscal statement contents and illiquid items ignored by the merchant the depreciation contents relation with abnormal return of the shares and future benefits are examined in order to influence the items under consideration of the investors to take related decisions; 94 companies were selected from the accessible universe in five years (2006-2010) to have the data necessary for the study in order to achieve the goal & with the base of keeping attention to the manufacturing & nonmanufacturing companies in the whole industries of stock market except banks & insurance companies. The simple and multivariable regression statistical techniques Chow and Hausman Test were used to test the hypotheses. The significant test was conducted for the paradigms by using the ‘F’ and ‘T’ statistics. The study findings show local high inflation have affection on the both variable results & makes no relation for first variable,for future benefits shows parallel movements.
Ramesh Chandra Das, Utpal Das
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3, pp 68-83; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v3i4.192

Abstract:
The countries in the world in the globalized era have faced heterogeneity in challenges in managing their growth factors as well as the stake holders of such growth profiles. The political and economic turmoil of the last two decades around the world have opened the eyes of the consumers, business houses and the governments of different countries to read and follow the economic events. The paper has tried to study the causal relation and interrelationships among different growth factors like the confidence levels of the consumers and business houses, inflation, unemployment like economic factors and governance like non-economic factors over a selection of 17 countries across all continents for the period 1996-2010. Because of limited sources of data we have applied the pooled regression technique to justify our study. Confidence levels of both the consumers and business houses cause the growth rates whereas governance causes growth only under pooled data. But for individual country data we observe that in majority of the countries there are absences of causalities between the variables. It has been observed that pooled annual growth rates of GDP of the countries are significantly related to the business and consumer confidence indexes, unemployment rate, debt ratio and overall governance indicators that shows improvement over the individual country analysis where in majority of the cases there is no significant factor for growth and confidence. By segregating the entire data the study find a few countries where a few variables like BCI, stock prices and governance make significant impact upon growth rates. In majority of the countries BCI is explained by CCI, Stock prices and governance while CCI is explained by stock prices, governance and debt ratio.
Afraa Khzouri, Amira Neffati
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v3i3.189

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between earnings management, governance and investors behavior, since this latter can inform about the nature of earnings management and can be considered as a governance mechanism to reduce accounts manipulations. On the basis of a sample of 700 American firms for the period of 1996-2006, our empirical results show that investors who take short positions, are able to interpret the information detected from the earnings management. The activity of these investors may be considered as an indicator of the quality of the governance structure and the presence and nature of earnings management. The under-reaction of investors to information leads to short-term sale of the shares of poorly governed firms and characterized by an opportunistic earnings management and to invest in firms well-governed and characterized by an informational earnings management therefore an abnormal profit can be realized.
Abdul Kabeer Kazi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 87-99; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i2.148

Abstract:
This paper investigated the influence of factors on the intention to adopt Internet banking services among students of higher education in Pakistan. Theoretical framework used for this study has been adopted from Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with four independent variables. Convenience sampling method was used with a total of valid 220 respondents, which included students of Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT), Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through self administered questionnaire of two parts: Demographic and Likert scale multi-item scale for variables under study. Results indicatedthat convenience, perceived credibility, and perceived usefulness had significant positive influence among students on the intention to adopt Internet banking. The findings from this research would be useful for banks in the subject area, particularly for students in Pakistan.
Valentin Toci, Iraj Hashi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 57-75; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v2i3.154

Abstract:
The paper employs various measures of law enforcement to provide new evidence on the importance of legal institutions for different dimensions of financial development in transition economies. It offers a critical assessment of law enforcement measures employed in recent studies by showing that some proxies for law enforcement in the credit market may not be appropriate. Hence, care should be taken in how the quality of institutions is measured and the context which it represents. An original approach to measuring law enforcement in the credit market is developed by embodying the legal theory of dispute resolution and assessing this approach by collecting primary data for Kosovo. The findings suggest that Kosovo compares well with countries in the region and other transition economies in terms of the enforcement of creditor rights.
Kazeem Salaam
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v4i3.222

Abstract:
This piece of work seeks to perform detailed review and analysis of those factors that precipitated global financial and economic crises in 2008 with a focus on the United Kingdom economy. Impacts of the crises from both micro and macro economy perspectives are also analysed in conjunction with the sudden change in government policies from less rigid fiscal prudence, price stability, unsupportive employment policies as well as weak financial services supervision to unconventional stiff fiscal and monetary policies as well as hard core financial regulations with a primary aim to cleaning up the economic and the financial mess that characterised the meltdown. To finalise this work, it is concluded that efficiency of policy actions to address the economic menace to a large extent, helped British Economy to get out of the crisis despite that all the measures adopted were not considered to be perfect in its entirety. Other potential areas of study are also identified.
Yiannis Anagnostopoulos, Milad Abedi
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 51-72; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i1.41

Abstract:
Iran’s banking industry as a developing country is comparatively very new to risk management practices. An inevitable predictive implication of this rapid growth is the growing concerns with regard to credit risk management which is the motivation of conducting this research. The paper focuses on the credit scoring aspect of credit risk management using both logit and probit regression approaches. Real data on corporate customers are available for conducting this research which is also a contribution to this area for all other developing countries. Our questions focus on how future customers can be classified in terms of credibility, which models and methods are more effective in better capturing risks. Findings suggest that probit approaches are more effective in capturing the significance of variables and goodness-of-fitness tests. Seven variables of the Ohlson O-Score model are used: CL_CA, INTWO, OENEG, TA_TL, SIZE, WCAP_TA, and ROA; two were found to be statistically significant in logit (ROA, TL_TA) and three were statistically significant in probit (ROA, TL_TA, SIZE). Also, CL_CA, ROA, and WCAP_TA were the three variables with an unexpected correlation to the probability of default. The prediction power with the cut-off point is set equal to 26% and 56.91% for defaulted customers in both logit and probit models. However, logit achieved 54.85% correct estimation of defaulted assets, 0.37% more than what probit estimated.
Nicholas Muthuma Mutua, Samuel Kakui Kilika
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.20525/.v2i3.156

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to present a case for the need for audit committee in Constituency Development Fund to promote corporate governance and accountability in constituency development fund management in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The study provides an analysis and critique of the extent of engagement research in the field of corporate governance and accountability in constituency Development Fund management and present case for further research that may be directed to outside Nairobi province. The study found that the extent of literature in the field of corporate governance and accountability and reporting in contrast to the field to management CDF in Nairobi had largely ignored the practice within CDF organizations. The study argues that CDF can benefit from the methodological and theoretical insights of audit committee and other disciplines. The study suggests where further contributions might be made by future research endeavors engaging with audit committees with organizations. Engaging audit committee in CDF governance and accountability has the potential to improve theorizing practice and the sustainability performance with organizations. Drawing on the methods and theories of other disciplines and the papers in the special issues (of audit committee) the study presents away forward for researchers engaging with audit committees in organizational practicing corporate governance and accountability.
Ismail Erkan Celik, Umit Hacioglu, Hasan Dincer
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 48-57; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i1.641

Abstract:
The World Bank is the most important financier for international investment. The bank opens credits mostly for investment projects in developing countries. Turkey has received various investment credits since its membership to the World Bank on March 11, 1947. The credits were used for economic and social domains. Turkey has also been granted credits from the European Investment Bank (EIB). The credits received are composed of micro credits that belong to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). A regional development bank, Islamic Development Bank, has also received credits through Eximbank and Industrial Development Bank of Turkey (TSKB) to finance Turkish SMEs. This paper deals with Turkish investment strategies in the framework of basic principles of investment – development banks.
Umit Hacioglu, Hasan Dincer, Ismail Erkan Celik
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 2, pp 109-123; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v2i2.638

Abstract:
Considering the impacts of the conflict on the economic parameters in terms of macroeconomics, the following factors might affect the profitability of the company: foreign capital outflows, decrease in exports, increase in the interest rates, disruption of the investment climate, increase in the exchange rates, increase in the costs of import entry etc. Due to the expectable decrease in profit shares as to the investors, the contraction in the risk appetite will cause volatility in the prices of equity securities markets based on the impacts of the conflict, and the equity securities will depreciate. In this study, the main contributions on conflict risk and related econometric models have been discussed.
Ismail Erkan Celik, Umit Hacioglu, Hasan Dincer
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 1, pp 39-45; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v1i1.640

Abstract:
Banks, one of the most significant economic means of the nations and international organizations, have occasionally become one of the institutions mostly affected by the financial crisis in the world. Especially in the economies of the developed countries, one of the most important aspects of the financial sector is measured by the size of the financial resources and assets of the banks. The size and place of the investment banks depends on the investment and existing credit reserves appropriated by its members. From this perspective, scrutinizing the Investment and Developments Banks, which is one of the economic growth criteria, is of high importance. To this end, in addition to the operation of the Investment and Development Banks, financial products of these banks in Turkey are also analyzed in this study.
Mukdad Ibrahim
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i6.612

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the dividend performance of eight UAE based banks between the years 2001 and 2005. The analysis was undertaken by examining three sets of financial ratios that are routinely used to measure bank dividend performance. The main ratios that were employed put a particular focus on the banks’ ability to pay dividends in relation to market value of its share, earnings and ability to cover the payments. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to rank the performance, measuring the dispersion and the stability-variability of the indicators. Conclusions were then drawn from the computation of the descriptive analysis of ratios that allowed the author to make an effective comparison of said banks. This type of analysis was used to summarize the performance of each bank based on three criteria, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation of each banks performance. The findings showed that eight banks performed reasonably well during the period studied, but have different strategies in paying their dividends across the years under study. The analysis reveals that these banks have been affected by both internal and external factors.
Muhammad Waqas, Nudrat Fatima, Aryan Khan, Muhammad Arif
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 6, pp 51-68; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v6i1.617

Abstract:
The aim of the empirical study is to investigate credit risk determinants in banking sectors across three kinds of South Asian economies. An accumulated sample of 105 unbalanced panel data of financial firms over the period of 2000-2015, by applying General Method of Moment (GMM) estimation techniques one-step at the difference in order to identify factors influencing credit risk. This study is inspired by two broad categories of explanatory variables which are bank-specific and macroeconomic. Bank-specific factors influencing unsystematic risk, while macroeconomic factors promoting systematic risk. The study uses a proxy of non-performing loans for credit risk in banking sectors of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. The empirical results have been found aligned with theoretical arguments and literature as expected. In comparison, NPLs in Pakistan is greater than India and Bangladesh, while India has the lowest ratio of non-performing loans. The study documents that bank-specific factors (inefficiency, profitability, capital ratio and leverage) have a significant contribution towards credit risk. Further, the study also finds a significant impact of macroeconomic variables on non-performing loans. While, the result in the case of Bangladesh predicts contradictions that have no significant effect on non-performing loans at various levels. The overall results indicate that credit risk is not influenced by only external factors but also affect by internal factors like bad management and skimping etc.
Oguzhan Cepni, Ibrahim Ethem Guney
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v6i1.680

Abstract:
There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.
Arik - Susbiyani
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 6, pp 122-133; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v6i1.632

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the influence of the financial statements on local revenue by using the results of the examination opinion as moderating variable. The study used Legitimacy Theory to explain and analyze the relationship between variables. The population in the study was all the districts and cities in Indonesia totaling 497 county and city governments. The sampling method used in the study was judgment sampling. Samples that met the criteria of the study were 116 local governments. The analytical tool used in this research was the analysis of MRA (Moderated Regression Analysis). The results showed that the effects of the partial test of the quality of financial reports to local revenues were not significant positive effects. While the partial test results stating the influence of audit opinion on local revenue having positive effects were not significant. Other results showed that the interaction between the results of the examination opinion to the quality of financial statements was insignificant on the quality of financial statements. In other words, the results of the examination opinions moderated (strengthened) the relationship between quality of financial report on local revenue of district and city governments in Indonesia.
Saime Doğan
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 16-29; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i5.661

Abstract:
Küreselleşme ve teknolojik gelişmeler sonucunda işletme faaliyetlerinin çeşitlenmesi ve karmaşık bir yapıya dönüşmesi hile ve yolsuzlukların araştırılması ve ortaya çıkarılmasında yargı mensupları veya suç bilimi araştırmacılarının yetersiz kalmasına yol açmıştır. Özellikle 21. yüzyılda yaşanan şirket ve denetim skandalları, finansal raporlamaya olanın güvenin sarsılmasına, muhasebe ve denetim işlevlerinin yeniden gözden geçirilmesine bu da işletmelerde yeni bir uzmanlık alanı olan adli muhasebecilik mesleğinin ortaya çıkmasına neden olmuştur. Adli muhasebeciler, hukuki süreçle muhasebe süreci arasında köprü görevi yürüterek, hata ve hilelerin tespit edilmesi ve sonrasında davalara destek olma açısından önemli bir role sahiptirler.Bu çalışmanın amacı adli muhasebe ve adli muhasebecilik kavramlarını açıkladıktan sonra, adli muhasebe mesleğinin mevcut durumu ve geleceğine yönelik bilgi vermektir.
Jackson Njau Waweru, Kennedy M. Waweru, Kenneth L. Wanjau, Josphat K. Kinyanjui
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 7, pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v7i1.853

Abstract:
Worldwide, Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) exhibit inimitable financial needs. While SMEs remain fundamental to economic growth, their mortality rate in Kenya approaches 90% by the second year, mainly owing to lack of credit. However, scholarly endeavors exploring the impact of alternative finance (AF) on managerial competency - efficiency nexus for manufacturing SMEs have received little attention in Kenya. To resolve this conundrum, a thorough study to investigate how AF impacts managerial competency - efficiency nexus is necessary. The study used a cross-sectional research design, employing both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The target population was 171 SMEs registered with Kenya Association of Manufacturers. The accessible population was 136 SMEs owners/managers. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect primary and secondary data. Data envelopment analysis was used to measure efficiency, multiple regression modeling used to analyze the direct relationships while hierarchical moderated multiple regression analysis employed to test moderation. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling was used to test robustness of our results. The findings of this study demonstrate that managerial competency positively influences efficiency (β = 0.150, t-value =10.246, P<0.05), and that alternative finance does moderate managerial competency relationships with efficiency (R-Square change of 21.7%).We suggest trainings for manufacturing SME owners/managers in Kenya on the pivotal role of alternative finance to facilitate SMEs achieve higher efficiencies and accelerate economic growth.
Sigit Setiawan
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 7, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v7i2.896

Abstract:
In the globalization and ASEAN Economic Community era, the competitiveness of Indonesian industries to sell goods and services is facing more severe challenges. It is partly due to the low performance of Indonesian logistics sector, and one of the contributing factors to the unsatisfactory logistics is poor logistics infrastructure. In this regard, this paper has several research objectives. The first is to analyze the performance of Indonesia logistics infrastructure in the past decade. The second is to analyze Indonesian logistics infrastructure development with its relevant fiscal policy support and evaluate its short-term progress. The research method adopted in this study is descriptive analytical method. In comparison with other countries, especially ASEAN region, the performance of Indonesian logistics infrastructure over the past decade tends to be steadily incompetitive, below the average of ASEAN countries. It is found to be one of the prime determinants of the high logistics costs in Indonesia. The government serious attention and the consistency of its policy towards improving logistics infrastructure during the 2014-2019 period has been partially seen, but the program sustainability is required in subsequent periods. In the short term, a temporary evaluation until 2017 of the sea toll program integrated with the construction of logistics infrastructure shows a positive impact. The positive impact is indicated from the decreasing prices of basic necessities in the eastern region of Indonesia by 20%-40%, and the economic revival of Eastern Indonesia region due to currently cheaper transportation costs.
Heather N Rhodes
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 7, pp 01-19; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v7i3.114

Abstract:
This study utilizes hand-collected ownership data to re-examine the signaling, agency and wealth effect theories in a matched-sample of initial public offerings (IPOs) issued in the U.S. prior to and following the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). SOX provides some motivation for revisiting these topics because evidence exists that it may have affected the types of firms going public and ultimately the relatively importance of adverse selection and moral hazard, the asymmetric information problems with which these theories are concerned. Results on both the pre- and post-SOX samples are consistent with the signaling theory and evidence of a wealth effect exists in both eras. However, in contrast to results of studies conducted prior to SOX, both the pre- and post-SOX results give little credence to the agency theory, suggesting that SOX has not impacted investors’ concerns regarding moral hazard. Rather, the difference between the pre-SOX results and the results of previous studies suggests that SOX appeared to reduce moral hazard concerns only through its effect on the self-selection of firms going public.
Arbana Sahiti, Skender Ahmeti, Muhamet Aliu
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 7, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v7i3.179

Abstract:
Banks between the financial services they provide play significant roles in the country's economy The importance of banks in Kosovo is one of the essential catalysts in economic growth. The banking industry based on efficiency and performance industryis the leading indicator of the country's financial stability The pace of economic growth and long-term stability in the country varies from the level of credit and for what economic activities the bank finances. Credit risk is the primary determinant of banking performance. The higher the risk that the higher the risk is the probability of bank loss and vice versa In this study banking activities will be discussed and events in general, as well as an analysis of the financial system especially at banks, with particular emphasis on the importance of credit risk management.
Sarwar Uddin Ahmed, G M Wali Ullah, Samiul Parvez Ahmed, Ashikur Rahman, Wali Ullah
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 5, pp 01-09; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v5i4.478

Abstract:
Corporate governance refers to the relationship present between the corporation and the stakeholders that determines and controls the strategic direction and performance of the corporation. Good corporate governance should provide adequate incentives for the board and management to pursue objectives that are in the interests of the company and shareholders, thereby encouraging firms to use resources more efficiently. However, the definition of accountability differs between conventional and Islamic Banks. Islam was made accountable not only to stakeholders, but also to Allah, the ultimate owner and authority. These powerful moral ethics help in promoting fair, just and honest business dealing. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between corporate governance structures and the resultant financial performance of listed Islamic banks of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) in Bangladesh. The panel time series data were collected for the time period of 6 years (2009-2014) from all the listed Islamic banks to run an Ordinary Least Squared (OLS) regression model to examine whether the existing corporate governance mechanisms as well as several other internal and external indicators are significant in influencing the financial performance. Preliminary findings suggest corporate governance mechanisms in Islamic banks are not quite as strong as they should be, hinting at possible market and management inefficiencies.
Mehmet Hasan Eken, Erkut Baloglu
International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), Volume 6, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v6i3.810

Abstract:
In this article the features of Crypto Currencies, which are not backed by governments, are investigated with regards to their specialties, usage areas and current structures. In this context the newly invented crypto currencies are compared with currency types that were in use in different periods of history. A similarity between Crypto Currencies and Free Banking Era Banknotes is noticed and thus investigated in details. The possible risks and outcomes with regards to the future usage of crypto currencies are analyzed and elaborated.
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