Refine Search

New Search

Results: 1,444

(searched for: doi:(10.21303/*))
Save to Scifeed
Page of 29
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Yevheniia Lukianets
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 34-39; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001921

Abstract:
Object of research: Women in whom the risk of osteoporotic fractures was assessed using the FRAX, Q-Fracture algorithms, and the risk factors for osteoporosis and their role in the development of osteoporotic fractures were studied. Investigated problem: the use of various algorithms in the practice of a family doctor to assess the 10-year risk of osteoporotic fractures. Main scientific results: A decrease in bone mineral density was found in 51.4 % of the surveyed women, of whom osteopenia was in 48.7 %, osteoporosis in 2.9 % of women. The risk of fractures according to all algorithms was higher in women of the age group 70–79 years: FRAX Total – 8.87±3.2, FRAX Hip – 4.03±3.1, Q fracture total – 12.87±1.5, Q fracture Hip – 7.97±2.7, FRAX Total without BMD – 11.9±5.5, FRAX Hip without BMD – 6.3±4.8. Age correlates negatively with the T score (r=–0.47, p=0.007) and positively with the FRAX Total algorithms without BMD (r=–0.47, p=0.003), FRAX Hip without BMD (r=0.78, p=0.006), Q fracture total (r=0.86, p=0.007), Q fracture Hip (r=0.92, p=0.008), FRAX Hip with BMD (r=0.55, p=0.009). No statistically significant difference was found with FRAX Total with BMD (r=0.21, p=0.345). Risk factors: 14.3 % of women had fractures of various localization; fractures in parents were noted by 37.1 % of respondents; a decrease in height by 3 cm during life occurred in 13.3 %. Early menopause (up to 45 years old) occurred in 11.4 % of women. Physical activity less than 30 minutes a day was noted by 68.6 %. The area of practical use of the research results: the primary level of medical care. Innovative technological product: early identification of risk factors for osteoporosis and calculation of the risk of fractures will reduce the medical and social consequences of complications in osteoporosis. Scope of application of the innovative technological product: in the clinical practice of general practitioners.
Khagani Farzulla Mammadov, Hajar Nuhbala Shiraliyeva, Elnur Ismikhan Mehtiyev, Ulviyya Salam Aliyeva-Jabbarly, Elchin Ilham Guliyev, Nijat Agil Mirzayev, Aynur Huseyn Huseynova
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 29-33; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001920

Abstract:
Object of research: Soil samples contaminated with radionuclides and processes for treatment of contaminated soil. The problem to be solved: Isolation of radionuclides from contaminated soil samples by extraction with weak solutions of acids and alkalis. Main scientific results: Treatment of soil samples contaminated with uranyl nitrate using extraction with weak solutions of nitric and hydrochloric acid, caustic sodium and subsequent washing of soil residues with distilled water is effective process and leads to a more than tenfold decrease in the content of uranium isotopes (U238, U235, U234 and U236) in the soil samples. At the same time, there is a decrease in the content of natural radionuclides (Na22, K40, Zn65, Sn113, Sn126) in the extracted soil samples. An increase in their content in the extract of the analyzed soil samples corresponds to a decrease in their content in the residue of the extracted soil samples. The analysis of the values of the decrease in the content of natural radionuclides in the soil contaminated with uranyl nitrate corresponds to the values of the decrease in their content in the identical soil, but not contaminated with uranium isotopes. The combined extraction with weak solutions of acids and alkalis leads to the enrichment of the soil with nitrates and chlorine-containing compounds. The area of practical use of the research results: Subdivisions of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Chemical Troops specializing in the study of emergencies and natural disasters can use the results of these studies in the elimination of the consequences of global environmental disasters and incidents that pose a threat to the life of the civilian population and the personnel of paramilitary units. Innovative technological product: The proposed method for treatment of soil contaminated with radionuclides makes it possible to more than tenfold reduce their concentration in the soil. Scope of application of an innovative technological product: treatment of contaminated soil in areas affected by nuclear tests or accidents at nuclear power plants.
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 47-54; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001926

Abstract:
An objective of this effort is a quick recap to assess the underpin barriers of transfer of technologies appeared in Ukraine after acquiring the Independence and those developed of today and to highlight and evaluate an impact of political, historical, mental and other factors affecting the science and as a consequence leakage of technologies abroad. Of importance is also a question if a current COVID-19 pandemic will join these factors if it initiates an illicit transfer of dual use (DU) technologies from Ukraine as it was in 1990s and how it affects an efficient and proper functioning and optimization of transfer of technologies process, and that is quite a challenge nowadays. Investigated problem. The process of technology transfer and specifically that one of DU as a whole is neither simple nor systematic and far from being that perfect, especially when it deals with dual-use technologies and at present reduced to a short relationship between supplier/recipient only. The experience and practice show that it is a rather complicated, multi-leveled and multi-players process which is impacted and follows several factors and conditions that determine its success and/or failure at the end. The main scientific results. The development of dual use technologies continues in a quagmire of conflicting interests and technology transfer export control rationales. There are historical, mental and political-military considerations where a state’s decision to develop weapon systems or related applications can be assessed not only as a function of perceived levels of threat to its security, but also as a need to respond and/or step forward to potential technological innovations; and second, the fundamental conceptual differences in appreciation among countries of the right to possess different advanced weapons systems for defensive or offensive purposes. The result of this endeavor makes a solid ground floor for further debates in terms of political science, export control regulations and factors affecting transfer of sensitive technologies.
Nazarii Blazhennyi, Oleksandr Turovsky, Liudmyla Kyrpach, Yana Kremenetskaya, Olena Zhukova
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 21-28; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001919

Abstract:
Object of research: Free-space optical communication (FSO). Investigated problem: Significant advantages of free-space optical communication in comparison with the existing networks of useful data transmission justify their use in various complex environmental conditions, which require the organization of fast and reliable digital communication when it is impossible or limitation to use wired or radio lines. Main scientific results: One of the factors that can considerably affect the FSO efficiency is radioactive radiation produced by various sources and phenomena of ionizing effects. In the research the issues of the assessment of the vulnerability of the FSO receivers of input signal from the effects of gamma radiation are directly considered. The analysis of the design of the receiving path of the input signal of FSO is conducted and the list and the partial attenuation coefficients of radioactive radiation by the FSO components that separate the receiver of input signal from the external environment are determined. The area of practical use of research results: The methods has been developed and with its help the assessment of the vulnerability of the FSO receivers of input signal from the effects of gamma radiation, as the effects of the destruction of the radiation-hazardous object has been conducted. Innovative technological product: The nature of the influence of gamma radiation as the effects of the destruction of the radiation-hazardous object on the FSO receiver of input signal is determined. Scope of application of an innovative technological product: The results allow to develop a set of measures aimed at reducing the effects of gamma radiation, as the effects of the destruction of the radiation-hazardous object, on the FSO efficiency.
Daria Fedorova
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 40-46; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001904

Abstract:
The object of research: treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Investigated problem: substantiation of the choice of treatment methods in the management of women of different ages with SUI depending on the urogynecological status, age, financial capabilities, risk of complications and speed of achieving the desired result. The main scientific results: An approach has been developed to substantiate the most rational method of treatment of women of different ages with SUI, taking into account the provision of an adequate standard of living. It is based on the use of hierarchy analysis, which allows to determine the priorities between competing treatments - mid-urethral sling (MUS), pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and containment (absorbent pads). The expediency of applying a formal differentiated approach is confirmed by the results of questionnaires of representative groups of women on the technology of UDI-6 and IIQ-7 questionnaires before and after treatment. It is recommended to choose a rational method of treatment or a set of treatment methods personally depending on the urogynecological status, age, financial capabilities, risk of complications and speed of achieving the desired result. MUS has gained the highest number of points due to the short time of treatment and rehabilitation, long-term postoperative effect, accessibility, low level of complications and significant improvement of life quality in young and elderly women. The most rational method of treatment of middle-aged patients with SUI is the method of PFMT as one that has a positive impact on the life quality of women and does not require financial costs. The area of practical use of the research results: medical institutions providing urogynecological care to women. Innovative technological product: development of a formal differentiated approach to the management of women with SUI, which allows to choose the most rational method of treatment taking into account the life quality. Scope of the innovative technological product: clinical practice of treatment of women with SUI.
Andrii Belas,
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 12-20; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001924

Abstract:
The object of research. The object of research is modeling and forecasting nonlinear nonstationary processes presented in the form of time-series data. Investigated problem. There are several popular approaches to solving the problems of adequate model constructing and forecasting nonlinear nonstationary processes, such as autoregressive models and recurrent neural networks. However, each of them has its advantages and drawbacks. Autoregressive models cannot deal with the nonlinear or combined influence of previous states or external factors. Recurrent neural networks are computationally expensive and cannot work with sequences of high length or frequency. The main scientific result. The model for forecasting nonlinear nonstationary processes presented in the form of the time series data was built using convolutional neural networks. The current study shows results in which convolutional networks are superior to recurrent ones in terms of both accuracy and complexity. It was possible to build a more accurate model with a much fewer number of parameters. It indicates that one-dimensional convolutional neural networks can be a quite reasonable choice for solving time series forecasting problems. The area of practical use of the research results. Forecasting dynamics of processes in economy, finances, ecology, healthcare, technical systems and other areas exhibiting the types of nonlinear nonstationary processes. Innovative technological product. Methodology of using convolutional neural networks for modeling and forecasting nonlinear nonstationary processes presented in the form of time-series data. Scope of the innovative technological product. Nonlinear nonstationary processes presented in the form of time-series data.
Svitlana Pylypenko
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 55-60; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001927

Abstract:
Object of research: technology as a component of human social life in the context of the postmodern era. Investigated problem: determination of the features of the influence of technological processes on a person of the postmodern era, as a result of which the natural is replaced by an artificial one and the images of both man and the Earth change. Main scientific results: the study of the contradictions of the process of technologization in the postmodern era made it possible to determine the transformation processes taking place in the life of a person and society. This defines social reality, represented by various markers, among which technology is gaining in importance. The latter act as a composite, which provides new opportunities for determining the relationship between the elements of the "world - man - culture" system. It is not only about the emergence of new human figures, among which the technological man (Homo Technologicus) occupies a prominent place, but also the emergence of a new image of the Earth, where the natural is replaced by the technological. The scope of practical use of the research results: the research results can be used in teaching normative courses "Philosophical Anthropology", "Ethics", "Sociology" for students and undergraduates, graduate students of humanitarian and natural faculties. Innovative technological product: the plurality of existing technologies (economic, medical, educational, humanitarian, etc.) destroys the new European concept of culture and man, which were provided within the framework of the monoparadigm. The anthropological dimension of technology testifies that the latter are beginning to act as a condition for human expansion. This situation has a significant impact on the existentials of human existence. The scope of using the innovative technological product: the intensive technologization of the last decades not only provokes environmental risks and changes the state of the Earth, the natural reality of the Earth is replaced by an artificial one, which allows to conclude that the Earth is formed by a technological one.
Mykola Porokhnia, , Svitlana Bukhkalo, Tetiana Novozhylova
Published: 30 June 2021
ScienceRise pp 3-11; doi:10.21303/2313-8416.2021.001917

Abstract:
Object of research: optimization of the operation period of bicarbonate columns by optimizing their design features. Investigated problem: increasing the efficiency, environmental friendliness and duration of the bicarbonate columns by optimizing the design of the sludge discharge unit. Main scientific results: the article analyzes the main design features of bicarbonate columns for the production of purified sodium bicarbonate. A relationship has been established between the design of the apparatus, the intensity of mixing and the duration of the apparatus operation without stopping for washing. On the basis of the existing problems, laboratory and industrial experiments were carried out at one of the soda plants, aimed at increasing the efficiency of operation of the bicarbonate columns of the purified sodium bicarbonate shop. So, due to the modernization of the design of the sludge unloading unit and the identification of the optimal amount and month of the location of the mesh trays, an increase of 1.5-2 times in the duration of operation of the columns without stopping for washing was achieved. This contributed to an increase in plant productivity and environmental friendliness of the process due to a decrease in the amount of liquid waste generated during the washing of the column equipment. Area of practical use of the research results: enterprises for the production of purified sodium bicarbonate of food and pharmaceutical quality. Innovative technological product: design solutions for bicarbonate columns and the technology of carbonization of soda-bicarbonate solution for the production of purified sodium bicarbonate. Scope of application of the innovative technological product: soda production, food and pharmaceutical industries.
Abdul Kabil Khan, Anna Shnaider
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 41-58; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001858

Abstract:
This article refers to the brief history of the development of online media in Bangladesh starting from the beginnings of the Internet to the contemporary stage. Since 2006 Bangladeshi news organizations have been reshaping their strategy towards being a digital-only news outlet. News organizations are now using different features of mobile devices and social media to tell stories and engage with their target audiences. Today both the digital-only news outlets and mainstream media use QR codes, messengers, social media platforms, which enable them to reach a wider area of audiences. By using yet inexpensive digital tools journalists can easily create and distribute content for digital-only platforms. We consider digital-only platforms as new media, social media, and convergence media platforms. Social media platforms have provided the opportunity for traditional journalists to share news quickly, get feedback from the audience, and have two-way communication with the reader. Previous studies have looked at the genres of online journalism from a western perspective. Little has been done on the topic from the context of Bangladesh. In this article, we analyze the basic features of online news media that exist in contemporary Bangladesh and provide an account of the development trends. We outline the new genres, techniques, and use as a sample two most famous online news platforms: The Daily Star and bdnews24. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 5 different professionals from Journalism and mass media. This study is based on both primary and secondary sources of qualitative data to understand the new genres of online news media, challenges, and opportunities to work in the ever-changing media landscape.
Patience Moyo,
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 3-14; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001758

Abstract:
Despite producing top of the range products and services, entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe's rural Gokwe face limited access to markets. Access to local and regional trading markets is further aggravated by inadequate technological infrastructure and financial resources to carry out business activities. Aim: This article investigates the role of digital design and technology in expanding market outreach in Zimbabwe. Methods: A mixed methods research design was adopted. The qualitative data, obtained from semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion, was analysed through thematic analysis. The quantitative data was obtained from the administration of a questionnaire and used to corroborate the findings of the qualitative tool. Results: The findings revealed that while digital design and technology had little effect on identifying entrepreneurial opportunities and communicating with potential customers in Gokwe, there were clear signs that plans were being made to integrate digital technology and internet connectivity in at least one sector of the rural economy of the district. Implications: The findings may provide vital information for rural entrepreneurs and policymakers looking to benefit from the digital revolution. Recommendation: The paper encourages the use of digital marketing and advertising to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities.
Alina Tkachenko, Ivan Syrokhman, Lyudmyla Guba, Yulia Basova, Elena Goryachova
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 36-40; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001882

Abstract:
Studies of quality and safety of organic flour and oils for the development of cookies are considered. The objects of the study are samples of organic spelt, corn and coconut flour; and samples of organic oils (camelina and hemp). The purpose of the study is to substantiate the feasibility of using organic raw materials for the development of new cookie recipes. To determine the quality and safety of organic flour, the nutritional value, physicochemical parameters and safety indicators (content of salts of heavy metals) have been analyzed. To determine the quality of organic oils, the fatty acid composition has been analyzed. Standard methods have been used for the study. The moisture content of the flour has been determined by the drying method. Ash content – by the method of organic matter charring. Atomic absorption and flameless atomic absorption methods have been used to determine the safety indicators of the flour. The fatty acid composition of oils has been determined by gas chromatography. It has been proved, that organic raw materials meet the safety requirements of the Regulation of maximum levels of certain contaminants in food, approved by the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 368 of 13.05.2013 and can be used as a promising enrichment for the nutritional value of cookies
Alan Bird,
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 15-27; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001841

Abstract:
The current Private Higher Education Institution (PHEI) landscape in South Africa is developing at a rapid rate, with over ninety private tertiary institutions, registered with the Council for Higher Education (CHE). However, stakeholder perceptions of these PHEIs are generally negative, largely as a result of the negative perceptions of the qualification, obtained from the private institutions by both parents and students, and questions around the sustainability of the institutions in the long run. Media reports, lack of Department of Education (DHET) support and funding, as well as minimum, if any, marketing and advertising from the PHEI are factors, cited for these firmly entrenched perceptions from the general public. The article was driven by both current and emerging branding models as a benchmark for value-added branding of PHEIs in South Africa. International markets, in countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, India and Brazil are included; not as a comparative study, but more as a review of literature on how tertiary education is branded in the private sector in these countries. In addition, developing countries and emerging markets needed to be taken into consideration in the light of their experience in sustaining private education entities. The subsequent investigation of these models proved invaluable in respect of providing similarities and, in some instances, huge differences, which contributed to the establishment of a generic value-added branding model critical for sustaining PHEIs in South Africa. The knowledge of which dimensions the branding of a PHEI should focus on to nullify the negative perceptions associated with a PHEI is paramount.
Anna Sobko, Karуna Svidlo, Victoria Horobets
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 53-62; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001884

Abstract:
The relevance of the study is due to the establishment of scientific data on the inferiority of child nutrition and the possibility of improving the diet through innovative technologies of beverages based on vegetable raw materials. The data on the substantiation of the choice of vegetable raw materials for the production of child smoothies are given. Their expediency, nutritional and energy value are characterized. Data on the chemical composition of the created beverages are given, which confirm the effectiveness of used raw materials. Functional foods should meet 10‑50 % of daily needs. When creating functional compositions, a key place is occupied by a set of predicted functional and technological characteristics and properties, compatibility and specificity of interaction with other components of recipe mixtures and finished products. Just this complex determines the feasibility of using functional compositions for culinary products. Functional products are created on the principle of food combinatorics by reasonable quantitative selection of basic raw materials, ingredients, food supplements, the combination of which provides the formation of the desired organoleptic and physicochemical properties, as well as a given level of nutritional, biological and energy value. The aim of the study: to establish the chemical composition of vegetable raw materials and the development of innovative technologies for child food beverages based on functional compositions, recipe mixtures and finished products
Yana Biletska, Olha Bilovska, Anna Krivtsova, Irуna Нuzhva,
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 41-45; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001875

Abstract:
A study to determine the total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and mass fraction of iodine in chocolate using non-traditional raw materials has been conducted. The object of the study was chocolate products, containing stevioside, erythrol, germinated soy flour, enriched with iodine. Carrying out this set of studies is important because it will determine the content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and iodine in the developed chocolate. Based on the obtained patterns, it is possible to determine the percentage of satisfaction of the recommended daily requirement and to set the recommended amount of consumption of the developed product per day. As a result of research, it has been found, that the total content of phenolic compounds in the control type of chocolate per 198 mg of GA / 100 g of the initial raw material is less compared to the sample of chocolate, where non-traditional raw materials were used. The results of the study correlate with the results of determining the total content of flavonoids. The developed types of chocolate exceed control samples by 229 mg of C / 100 g of the initial raw material. That satisfies 88.6% of the recommended daily amount. It has been found, that the developed type of chocolate is a carrier of iodine in the amount of 63 μg / 100 g. In the control sample of chocolate there were found only traces of mass fraction of iodine. It has been determined, that the use of germinated soy flour, enriched with iodine in the amount of 10%, due to the reduction of cocoa mass satisfies 42% of the recommended daily amount of iodine for a woman aged 30… 40 years of average labor intensity. The obtained results are useful and important because they will allow to develop recommendations for the consumption of chocolate using non-traditional raw materials. What will affect the solution of an important social problem - maintaining high efficiency, confrontation with environmental factors under the pandemic due to the influx of test substances
Alla Parfenuk, Liliia Havryliuk, Irina Beznosko, Larisa Pasichnіk, Yuliia Turovnik, Yuri Ternovyi
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 11-20; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001874

Abstract:
The article presents the results of analysis of biodiversity and spatial-functional structure of the microbial complex in the soil rhizosphere, and development of ways to regulate the number of phytopathogenic micromycetes in the rhizosphere of soybean plants in organic production. Varieties of plants of soy were grown using the biopreparation "Philazonit", which was developed in the company "Philazonit of Ukraine". The study determined the effect of phylazonite biopreparation on the mycobiome of the rhizosphere of soybean plants. The interaction of plants of soy varieties Kent and Suzir’ja with phytopathogenic micromycetes in conditions of the organic production in the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine (Research farm “Skvyrske” of Institute of Agroecology and Nature Management of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine (IANM of the NAAS) was investigated. The number of phytopathogenic micromycetes in the rhizosphere of plants of different varieties of soy is determined depending on the variety and technology of its cultivation. It was established that the biopreparation Philazonit inhibits the formation of the number of phytopathogenic micromycetes in the rhizosphere of plants of the soy variety Suzir’ja and Kent during the growing season. It is proved that the representatives of genera: Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus are dominated in the rhizosphere of plants of soy of both varieties. In the rhizospheres of plants of the soy Suzir’ja variety the representatives of genus Penicillium (32.8%) most often occurred. The smallest number of micromycetes were members of the genus Aspergillus (9.5%). In the rhizosphere of plants of the Kent variety dominated by representatives of the genera Alternaria and Fusarium (35.6% and 34.1% respectively). Representatives of the genus Penicillium were 15% and Aspergillus – 15.3% It is proved noted that during the studies there was a correlation between the development of micromycetes and the hydrothermal coefficient – in the flowering phase (r=0.8) and in the ripening phase (r =0.9) except for the germination phase
Uliana Kuzmyk, , Roman Svyatnenko, Yulia Zheludenko, Mykhailo Kurmach, Roman Shvaiko
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 29-35; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001848

Abstract:
Prospects for the use of vegetable raw materials in the technology of sour-milk desserts have been substantiated. According to the results of organoleptic and physicochemical parameters, a rational ratio of recipe components in the product has been established. The results of the organoleptic evaluation show that the introduction of sublimated fruits in an amount of less than 5 % does not give a pronounced taste and smell. And the introduction of dry whey protein concentrate in an amount of more than 6 % contributes to a heterogeneous consistency with the presence of lumps. It has been investigated, that with increasing the amount of sublimated fruits in the sour-milk dessert, the active acidity slowly decreased in the range of 4.8…5.4 pH units. Due to which the process of fermentation of the mixture is slow. The moisture holding index increased with the addition of sublimated fruits by an average of 4 %. The presence of a dry whey protein concentrate gives the products a delicate plastic consistency due to the high dispersion of whey protein micelles and the peculiarities of gelation. Therefore, it is recommended to add sublimated fruits to the sour-milk dessert not more than 7 %, dry whey protein concentrate not more than 6 %. The nutritional value of the sour-milk dessert in accordance with the most important components according to the daily requirement has been studied. The consumption of sour-milk dessert will ensure the content of easily digestible biologically complete milk protein within 5–8 g/100 g. The combination of the sour-milk base with raw fruits will provide potassium content by 166–267 g/100 g, magnesium content by 16–24 g/100 g, calcium by 135–180 g/100 g, sodium by 53–70 g/100 g
Judy Kobus-Olawale, ,
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 28-40; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001778

Abstract:
Despite South Africa’s progressive and comprehensive labour legislation that promotes gender equality in the workplace, this goal has not been fully achieved as yet. This is particularly evident when comparing managerial ranks, particularly in top management at South African banks. This phenomenon is still present today despite overwhelming evidence, supporting the benefits of a diverse management team. This study, therefore, explores the factors, influencing the underrepresentation of women in top management. Therefore, the main objective was to determine the challenges women face in progressing into top management at a South African bank. The study used a qualitative research approach in the form of a case study at one of the largest South African banks. The population for the study included women in top and senior management of the case study bank. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through Atlast T. I. Findings indicate that poor career progression prospects exist, mainly hampered by organisational structure, lack of sponsorship and a hostile working environment. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge by providing insights into barriers to women's progression in the financial services sector and providing practical implementation measures to promote career progression for women.
Valeriy Bohunenko
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 58-64; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001862

Abstract:
Transformations of the administrative-territorial status of monoprofile cities of Donbas in the context of development of structural-settlement structure of the region in the late 1940s and 1980s are considered. The urgency of the study is due to the reform of decentralization in Ukraine – changes in the order of local self-government and territorial organization of power. Its goal is to create communities that are self‑sufficient and effective in the economic, administrative and socio‑cultural dimensions. In the course of reform, monoprofile cities often acquire the status of centers of united territorial communities. In assessing the relevance of such decisions to the purpose of the reform, it is advisable to examine the relationship of structural-settlement, socio-economic and administrative-territorial status of these cities in historical retrospect. It turns out that the monoprofile cities of the region are an industrial-urban phenomenon, the genesis of which influenced the formation of the specifics of the settlement structure of Donbas. During the study period, the number of such cities more than doubled, reaching more than sixty cities in the late 1980s. Their share among the settlements of the region with the administrative status of a city was at that time two thirds. The emergence of monoprofile cities in the region in large numbers in the 1940s – 1980s is associated with government-industrial policy. At the same time, the structural and settlement importance of these settlements was reflected in their acquisition of the administrative-territorial status of region or district cities. From the beginning of the study period, the vast majority of cities with a narrow industrial base in the region belonged to the cities of district subordination, as they did not meet high enough urban criteria. In the urbanized region, in the presence of other, more powerful urban centers, the corresponding role in the administrative-territorial organization programmed the secondary nature of their structural settlement development. In particular, it did not contribute to the formation of micro-regions around these cities, which must be taken into account in the current conditions of reforming local self-government and territorial organization in the country.
Shaka Yesufu
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 72-84; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001861

Abstract:
Unarguably, the South African Police during the apartheid era was characterised by brutality and state repression, including the political executions of several South African citizens who dared oppose the apartheid regime. The post-apartheid era has also witnessed deaths of citizens at the hands of the police during demonstrations, demanding better service delivery, higher wages, improved working conditions, and an end to marginalisation and poverty. The author presents some cases of police human rights violations concerning policing citizen’s protests. This is a qualitative study, relying on extensive literature review by previous researchers. The findings of this study are: The South Africa Police Service continues to violate citizen's right to protest, which is enshrined in the Republic of South Africa’s constitution under chapter 2 “Bill of Rights” and other international legal jurisprudence. The South African police have failed to perform their duties professionally and effectively when it comes to policing protests. Crown management remains an elusive issue both during the apartheid and post-apartheid eras. The author recommends a demilitarization of the police consistent with the South African government policy recommendation, found in the National Development Plan 2030.
Mykola Yatskov, , Oksana Mysina, Nadia Budenkova
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 21-28; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001883

Abstract:
The aim of the research is to improve the technological scheme of treatment of iron-containing wastewater from etching operations by creating combined systems, including reagent wastewater treatment, their mutual neutralization, regeneration of etching solutions, deep post-treatment using a magnetic device. The main volume of wastewater is treated in centralized systems with partial return of water to the production process. Spent solutions from etching operations are subject to regeneration with return to the production process and partial dosing into the main wastewater stream from flushing operations. The consumption of commercial HCl is reduced by 50%. The use of hydrogen peroxide can increase the effect of extracting iron from etching solutions by 30% (total purification effect of 70%). Given that deep purification from iron-containing impurities is provided using a magnetic device, the possibilities of practical implementation of reverse osmosis to obtain "pure" water in centralized systems, which can be used for preparation of process solutions and in a mixture with technical water - for flushing operations, increase. In experimental and industrial conditions the expenses of reagents, their concentrations, dosing time are established
Volodymyr Biesieda
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 65-71; doi:10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001836

Abstract:
The article analyzes one of the main problems of physical rehabilitation of children with psychomotor disorders – the problem of motivation in corrective motor activity. This determined the aim – to determine the main directions of the motivational sphere formation in the process of correctional play activity of children with psychomotor disorders. The following research methods were used: the method of analysis, which made it possible to identify the main characteristics and types of motivational support of children for various types of activity; the method of pedagogical observations and the method of synthesis revealed the powerful method of motivating – theatricalization of the correctional process using physical education. The research results were expressed in the definition of the concepts: motive, motivational field, motivational impulse, which are the components of the concept of motivation, the variety of which is defined in four types. There were made following conclusions: The motivation of corrective motor-play activity is based on the unconscious influences of the unconscious, caused by the external use by the teacher of the corresponding children's fairy-tale archetypes and the emotional experiences, caused by them. One of the main methods of increasing motivation is the use of the possibilities of pedagogical "drama" in the form of a method of dosed dramatization of the motor-game plot of a remedial lesson, which should be considered as a physical culture fairy tale. For the implementation of effective dramatic motivation, it is necessary to provide points of dramatization of different influence strength.
Alina Chumak, Valeriia Shcherbina, Natalia Fedosova, Vasyl' Chekhun
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 3-10; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001878

Abstract:
Macrophages (Mph) are highly plastic cells that are able to change their functional activity (polarization) and perform their functions in different physiological and pathological processes (including cancer). Changes in the functional activity of Mph can occur due to the action of a number of external stimuli (cytokines, colony-stimulating factors, products of microbial synthesis, etc.). The aim of the research was to study the effect of lectin from B. subtilis IMV B-7724 on the state of macrophage polarization in intact mice of the Balb/c strain. The cytotoxic effect of lectin from B. subtilis IMV B-7724 on the peritoneal Mph of intact Balb/c mice was evaluated in vitro; indices, characterizing the functional activity of Mph with M1 and M2 phenotypes and the levels of STAT-1 and STAT-6 mRNA expression, were determined. We have shown that the effect of bacterial lectin on peritoneal Mph is concentration-dependent: ≥0.1 mg/ml is cytotoxic while 0.02 and 0.05 mg/ml is stimulating. At low concentrations of lectin there is observed a significant increase in the ratio of NO production to the arginase activity of Mph (NO/Arg), which is characteristic of Mph with the M1 phenotype. Changes in the expression of STAT transcription factors under the influence of the lectin were similar to the changes, found under the combined action of LPS and IFN-γ on Mph. The detected changes in the functional activity of peritoneal Mph of intact mice under the influence of low concentrations of the lectin may be due to the changes in the expression of transcription factors of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Understanding the mechanisms of action of lectin from B. subtilis IMV B-7724 on Mph will open new perspectives for their modulation/polarization
Viktoriya Pogarskaya, Olga Yurieva, Aleksey Pogarskiy, Kateryna Balabai, Nadiya Maksymova
Published: 31 May 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 46-52; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001877

Abstract:
The aim of research is to develop a method for the production of a new generation of protein snacks using a protein vegetable and milk base and vegetable fortifiers from spicy and carotene-containing vegetables using cryo and mechanical destruction processes. The method is based on the use of a deep processing method as an innovation, which consists in a complex effect on vegetable and protein raw materials of cryo and mechanical destruction processes in modern quick-freezing and low-temperature crushing equipment. The proposed method allows to get new protein snacks with a high content of protein, BAR and phytocomponents in an easily digestible form. A new generation of protein snacks has been developed to strengthen the immune system using cryogenic protein base and vegetable raw materials. Nano-additives from dried peas and specially processed soft brine cheese are used as a protein base. Pea nanoadditives obtained using non-enzymatic catalysis – mechanolysis, mechanical destruction contain 21.5 ... 23.0% of complete protein, which includes 49% of amino acids in a bound state and 51% in a free state. During the special processing of soft brine cheese with the help of mechanical destruction, 50 ... 55% of the bound amino acids of the protein are transformed into free α-amino acids in an easily digestible form. The proposed method makes it possible to more fully reveal the biological potential of vegetable and protein raw materials, to transform protein, BAS and phytocomponents in a bound form into easily digestible nanocomponents into a free easily digestible form. In addition, the processed protein base and raw materials acquire new properties - structure formation, gelation, coloring ability. The obtained protein snacks are natural, differ from the traditional ones by their high content of complete protein and the absence of synthetic impurities (preservatives, thickeners, colorants, etc.). In addition, 100 g of new products can satisfy the daily requirement for biologically active substances (β-carotene, L-ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds)
Agus Tugas Sudjianto, Chandra Aditya, Abdul Halim, Fachrudin Fachrudin
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 127-139; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001860

Abstract:
In the millennial era, the development of information and communication technology is very fast, one of the telecommunications infrastructure is a monopole type telecommunications tower. This type of tower is one of 3 types of telecommunication towers whose main construction is made of steel. The monopole structure is supported by a tread foundation, which is one type of shallow foundation. The main factor in the design of the tread foundation is the bearing capacity factor. Calculation of foundation bearing capacity can be done directly in the field using Sondir data (CPT) and indirectly using laboratory data. In this study a study was conducted to compare the carrying capacity of monopole foundations between field data methods in the form of Sondir data or CPT with result data. Soil tests in the laboratory calculated with the Terzaghi formula. The research location was carried out in Gresik Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia at 3 sites, namely: Mojosarirejo, Kembangan Kebomas and Setromenganti. The results of the comparison of the calculation of the bearing capacity of the foundation (Q) at the Mojosarirejo site with the type of sandy soil. value of QSondir < 9.58 % of Qterzaghi. At the Krembangan Kebomas site with brown clay and gravely clay, the Q value was < 69.93 % of the Qterzaghi and at the Setromenganti site with brown clay soil type with the influence of water level depth – 1 m, the Q value was < 27, 62% of Qterzaghi. From the comparison of the average calculation in the 3 study locations, the bearing capacity of QSondir treads foundation is 26.50 % smaller than Qterzaghi, so the use of Sondir data is more accurate for use in tread foundation planning and provides greater security assurance for the tower foundation structure. monopole type
Bambang Sulistiyono, , Agus Suprapto,
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 119-126; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001839

Abstract:
The paper discusses the comparison of pack carburizing-nitriding SUS 316 with gas Nitrogen. The purpose of this study was to increase the hardness and corrosion resistance of SUS 316. The research used a pack carburizing-nitriding method with gas type Welding Grade (WG) and Ultra High Purity (UHP). The pack carburizing process uses teak wood activated carbon and barium carbonate as a bio-photo catalyst. The specimens were put into a Sealed Steel Container containing teak wood activated carbon, with a depth of 1 cm below the activated carbon's surface. The test material is then heated until it reaches 850 °C and is held for 1 hour in a heating furnace. Furthermore, the nitriding process, the specimen is put into a tightly closed nitrogen tube, then nitrogen gas flows until the pressure reaches 41 bar and is held for 24 hours. They are using Welding Grade (WG) and Ultra High Purity (UHP) gas types. Furthermore, microVickers hardness testing, optical microscope, and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were carried out. The results of the study include a. There was an increase in violence by 41.7 % for UHP and WG (17.3 %). b. The formation of nitride compounds and carbon dissipation on the specimen surface in the UHP carburizing-nitriding pack treatment is more than WG. The formation of a nitride layer is indicated by its fine and dense morphology and film bonding to the substrate. The chemical composition affects the diffusivity of nitrogen atoms in modifying the surface layer of the substrate. The higher the nitride compound formed, the smoother the substrate surface. Also, with UHP treatment, the lower the elemental content of Cr makes SUS 316 more resistant to corrosion. So that SUS 316 UHP can be recommended for use as an implant material
Aji Suraji, Ludfi Djakfar,
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 111-118; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001820

Abstract:
Bus transportation performance must be able to demonstrate safety performance capabilities, one of which is the condition of the vehicle. Therefore, to achieve bus vehicles' safety performance, research must be carried out to determine the causes of accidents. This study aims to determine the causes of accidents related to vehicle conditions. Some of the variables that are observed include brake, wheel, equipment, stability, and worthiness. The data collection method used is to collect secondary data on the incidence of accidents from each Resort Police Office in each district traversed by the intercity public bus route. The roads traversed by the public bus transportation routes between the cities that are the object of the study include Sidoarjo Regency, Pasuruan Regency, Probolinggo Regency, Mojokerto Regency, Madiun Regency, and Ngawi Regency. The analytical method to obtain mathematical modeling is to use Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that five factors analyzed, four main actors, cause intercity bus accidents, namely brakes, wheels, stability, and worthiness. The four factors are interrelated with each other, where these factors support each other and trigger accidents and obtained a mathematical model of the factors causing the accident which can be explained by two mathematical equations, namely PC1=0.61X1+0.70X2+0.46X3+0.63X4+0.72X5 and PC2= 0.47X1 0.17X2+0.76X3 0.26X4+0.31X5. The study results also illustrate that accidents caused by an inappropriate wheel are always followed by a breakdown of the braking system that is not functioning properly, and the wheel system consisting of wheel and brake conditions will be a problem triggering the accident
Ali Abdulwahab Ismaeel, Nassr Fadhil Hussein, Kadhim H. Suffer,
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 35-44; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001850

Abstract:
Heat exchangers are widely used in industry, however, raising their performance are important for the variety of applications. Consequently, efficiency improvement associated with low production cost is considered in this experimental work. The current study aims to enhance the rate of heat transfer in pipe-type heat exchangers experimentally by using a novel nozzle as a turbulator. The cross-sectional shape of the nozzle is hexagonal, and the diameter ratio DR is equal to 0.5. Constant heat flux was maintained in the vicinity of the section of the test tube, while the working fluid was pumped into the open system at six discrete Reynolds number values ranging from 6000 to 19500. To investigate the effect of distance among the pieces, three turbulators with different numbers were assigned and named as (N=4, 5 and 6). The results indicated an increase of 172 %, 194 % and 216 % of the heat transfer rate for cases 4, 5 and 6 respectively comparing to the benchmark tube. On the other hand, the friction factor values increased remarkably due to the inserting of turbulators by about of 722.9 % for N=4, 823.9 % for N=5 and 886.7 % for N=6 compared to a plain tube case. Moreover, it has been established that with the insertion of 6 pieces two enhancements was observed; heat transfer rate and thermal performance, where, thermal performance of all cases exceeds unity (maximum thermal performance of 1.62 has been obtained by inserting 6 pieces of hexagonal nozzles turbulators). A comparison with another types of vortex generators shows the gap between the turbulator and heated surface offers a solution for problems occurred in the pipes of heat exchanger. The study therefore suggests a wider practical implementation of the turbulators
Tuan-Linh Nguyen
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 85-98; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001698

Abstract:
The selection of the optimal external cylindrical grinding conditions importantly contributes to increase of productivity and quality of the products. The external cylindrical grinding is a method of finishing machine elements surface with an indeterminate blade shape. External cylindrical grinding can process surfaces that require high gloss and precision, although it can also be used to remove large surplus stock. Therefore, multi objective optimization for the external cylindrical grinding process is a problem with high complexity. In this study, an experimental study was performed to improve the productivity and quality of grinding process. By using the experimental date, the surface roughness, cutting force, and vibrations were modeled. To achieve the minimum value of surface roughness and maximum value of material removal rate, the optimal values of external cylindrical grinding conditions were determined by using the combination of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and weighting method. The optimum values of surface roughness and material removal rate are 0.510 μm and 5.906 mm2/s, respectively. The obtained optimal values of cutting parameters were a feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev, a workpiece speed of 188.1 rpm, a cutting depth of 0.015 mm, and a workpiece Rockwell hardness of 54.78 HRC. The optimal values of cutting parameters, and workpiece hardness were successfully verified by comparing of experimental and predicted results. The approach method of this study can be applied in industrial machining to improve the productivity and quality of the products in external cylindrical grinding process of the T1 tool steel
, Dung Hoang Tien, Nguyen Tien Tung, Nguyen Duc Luan
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 71-84; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001824

Abstract:
In this study, the influence of cutting parameters and machining time on the tool wear and surface roughness was investigated in high-speed milling process of Al6061 using face carbide inserts. Taguchi experimental matrix (L9) was chosen to design and conduct the experimental research with three input parameters (feed rate, cutting speed, and axial depth of cut). Tool wear (VB) and surface roughness (Ra) after different machining strokes (after 10, 30, and 50 machining strokes) were selected as the output parameters. In almost cases of high-speed face milling process, the most significant factor that influenced on the tool wear was cutting speed (84.94 % after 10 machining strokes, 52.13 % after 30 machining strokes, and 68.58 % after 50 machining strokes), and the most significant factors that influenced on the surface roughness were depth of cut and feed rate (70.54 % after 10 machining strokes, 43.28 % after 30 machining strokes, and 30.97 % after 50 machining strokes for depth of cut. And 22.01 % after 10 machining strokes, 44.39 % after 30 machining strokes, and 66.58 % after 50 machining strokes for feed rate). Linear regression was the most suitable regression of VB and Ra with the determination coefficients (R2) from 88.00 % to 91.99 % for VB, and from 90.24 % to 96.84 % for Ra. These regression models were successfully verified by comparison between predicted and measured results of VB and Ra. Besides, the relationship of VB, Ra, and different machining strokes was also investigated and evaluated. Tool wear, surface roughness models, and their relationship that were found in this study can be used to improve the surface quality and reduce the tool wear in the high-speed face milling of aluminum alloy Al6061
Daniel G. Taborda, Jorge Sierra-Del Rio, Juan Diego Perez-Alvarez, Arley Cardona-Vargas, Daniel Sanin Villa
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 45-59; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001828

Abstract:
Fossil fuels are energy sources that supply a large part of the world's energy generation. However, they produce greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates that increase global warming. For this reason, other forms of renewable energy such as hydropower have begun to be implemented through turbomachinery such as Pelton turbines, which significantly reduce these emissions since they are highly efficient turbines based on the use of natural resources (water). Pelton turbines are based mainly on three components for their operation, which are the Pelton injector, the bucket and the wheel. The injector is an important component in the energy transformation of Pelton turbines. Although to analyze its behavior, it is possible to use fluid dynamics (CFD) software to predict the trajectory of the flow through a solid or free surface. The objective of this work is to analyze by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the incidence of the length and the needle tip angle of a Pelton turbine injector on the generated power. For this, an ANSYS 2020R2 computational fluid analysis software was used to study how the variation of the injector needle tip angle influences through the volume of fluid (VOF) method, starting from the generation of a commercial model with a tip angle of 60° and two (2) geometries of 55° and 75° respectively. Numerical results show a better performance for the 75° angle of 96 % and lower for the 55° and 60° with 94.1 % and 95.5 % respectively, whereby steeper angles achieve higher performances. In summary, the present study pretends to increase the power generation, in the face of phenomena occurred in the energy transfer. Although the performance of the injector in each angle configuration must be tested in practice
, Lahsen Ait Brahim, Abdellah Abdelouafi
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 26-34; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001724

Abstract:
As in other hilly and mountainous regions of the world, the hillslopes of Bujumbura are prone to landslides. In this area, landslides impact human lives and infrastructures. Despite the high landslide-induced damages, slope instabilities are less investigated. The aim of this research is to assess the landslide susceptibility using a probabilistic/statistical data modeling approach for predicting the initiation of future landslides. A spatial landslide inventory with their physical characteristics through interpretation of high-resolution optic imageries/aerial photos and intensive fieldwork are carried out. Base on in-depth field knowledge and green literature, let’s select potential landslide conditioning factors. A landslide inventory map with 568 landslides is produced. Out of the total of 568 landslide sites, 50 % of the data taken before the 2000s is used for training and the remaining 50 % (post-2000 events) were used for validation purposes. A landslide susceptibility map with an efficiency of 76 % to predict future slope failures is generated. The main landslides controlling factors in ascendant order are the density of drainage networks, the land use/cover, the lithology, the fault density, the slope angle, the curvature, the elevation, and the slope aspect. The causes of landslides support former regional studies which state that in the region, landslides are related to the geology with the high rapid weathering process in tropical environments, topography, and geodynamics. The susceptibility map will be a powerful decision-making tool for drawing up appropriate development plans in the hillslopes of Bujumbura with high demographic exposure. Such an approach will make it possible to mitigate the socio-economic impacts due to these land instabilities
Mustafa Tuncay, Ali Haydar
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 14-25; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001857

Abstract:
Differential Evolution algorithm (DE) is a well-known nature-inspired method in evolutionary computations scope. This paper adds some new features to DE algorithm and proposes a novel method focusing on ranking technique. The proposed method is named as Dominance-Based Differential Evolution, called DBDE from this point on, which is the improved version of the standard DE algorithm. The suggested DBDE applies some changes on the selection operator of the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and modifies the crossover and initialization phases to improve the performance of DE. The dominance ranks are used in the selection phase of DBDE to be capable of selecting higher quality solutions. A dominance-rank for solution X is the number of solutions dominating X. Moreover, some vectors called target vectors are used through the selection process. Effectiveness and performance of the proposed DBDE method is experimentally evaluated using six well-known benchmarks, provided by CEC2009, plus two additional test problems namely Kursawe and Fonseca & Fleming. The evaluation process emphasizes on specific bi-objective real-valued optimization problems reported in literature. Likewise, the Inverted Generational Distance (IGD) metric is calculated for the obtained results to measure the performance of algorithms. To follow up the evaluation rules obeyed by all state-of-the-art methods, the fitness evaluation function is called 300.000 times and 30 independent runs of DBDE is carried out. Analysis of the obtained results indicates that the performance of the proposed algorithm (DBDE) in terms of convergence and robustness outperforms the majority of state-of-the-art methods reported in the literature
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 3-13; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001829

Abstract:
The article proposes the principles for the development of a fuzzy rule-based physician decision support system n to determine the stages of the most common hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among malignant tumors of liver. The stages of HCC, i.e., critical situations, are expressed by different combinations of clinical signs of input data and emerging clinical conditions. These combinations shape the multiplicity of possible situations (critical situations) by forming linguistic rules that are in fuzzy relations with one another. The article presents the task of developing a fuzzy rules-based system for HCC staging by classifying the set of possible situations into given classes. In order to solve the problem, fuzzy rules of clinical situations and critical situations deviated from them are developed according to the possible clinical signs of input data. The rules in accordance with the decision-making process are developed in two phases. In the first phase, three input data are developed: nine rules are developed to determine possible clinical conditions based on the number, size, and vascular invasion of tumor. In the second phase, seven rules are developed based on possible combinations of input data on the presence of lymph nodes and metastases in these nine clinical conditions. At this stage, the rules representing the fuzzification of results obtained are also described. The latter provide an interpretation of results and a decision on related stage of HCC. It also proposes a functional scheme of fuzzy rules-based system for HCC staging, and presents the working principle of structural blocks. The fuzzy rule-based system for HCC staging can be used to support physicians to make diagnostic and treatment decisions
Pavlo Herasymenko
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 60-70; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001823

Abstract:
Induction heating provides contactless, energy-efficient, accurate, and fast heating of electrically conductive materials. Due to its advantages, IH is increasingly used in different fields such as industry, medicine, and the household sector. High-frequency transistor converters for the induction heating system are often based on series-resonant inverters. This paper analyzes a phase-shift-controlled voltage-source series-resonant inverter for induction heating systems. Mathematical analysis was performed in order to obtain the expressions that describe the output current of the phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter in the steady-state mode. Based on the analysis and the obtained expressions of the output current, analytical expressions of the dead-time between the transistors’ control signals of the SRI are obtained. The analytical expressions for determining the value of the dead-time are obtained for two cases: 1) zero value of the phase-shift; 2) the phase shift is greater than zero. To verify the obtained analytical expressions of the output current, validation was performed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment by comparing the peak current values. The verification showed the high accuracy of the obtained expressions, the deviation between the calculated and simulated values of the peak current is less than 0.1 %. The made simplifications of the dead-time expressions also were verified by calculation, the deviation between the calculated values of the drain-to-source voltage at the end of the commutation and the expected value is no more than 3.6 %. The SRI prototype has been designed and implemented in order to validate the analytical and simulation results
Hennadii Khudov, Iryna Yuzova, Bohdan Lisohorskyi, Yuriy Solomonenko, Serhii Mykus, Artem Irkha, Volodymyr Onishchuk, Serhii Sukonko, Galina Semiv, Semen Bondarenko
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 140-150; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001821

Abstract:
The mathematical formulation of the problem of determining the coordinates of targets in the network of counter-battery radars is formulated. It has been established that the problem of estimating the coordinates of targets in the network of counter-battery radars for an excessive number of estimates of primary coordinates should be considered as a statistical problem. The method for determining the coordinates of the firing positions of roving mortars has been improved, in which, in contrast to the known ones, the coordinates of targets on the flight trajectory are coordinated with space and time and the information is processed by a network of counter-battery radars. The developed simulation mathematical model for determining the coordinates of the firing positions of roving mortars by a network of counter-battery radars. Simulation modeling of the method for determining the coordinates of the firing positions of roving mortars by a network of counter-battery radars has been carried out. It has been established that the use of a network of radars makes it possible to increase the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the firing means on average from 23 % to 71 %, depending on the number of counter-battery radars in the network. It has also been found that the appropriate number of counter-battery warfare radars in the network is three or four. A further increase in the number of counter-battery warfare radars in the network does not lead to a significant increase in the accuracy of determining the coordinates of artillery and mortar firing positions. In carrying out further research, it is necessary to develop a method for the spatial separation of elements of a group of targets and interfering objects by a network of counter-battery warfare radars
, Andriy Barsuk, Nurlana Karimova, , Yevhen Pelypenko, Vadim Shevtsov, Ivan Morozov, Vladimir Morozov
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 99-110; doi:10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001830

Abstract:
The object of research is hypoeutectic cast iron intended for cast parts operating under abrasive friction conditions. Such parts are mixer blades, the operational properties of which include durability, assessed by abrasion resistance and strength. To give the blades such properties, cast irons, which are materials of the blades, are alloyed with elements that contribute to the formation of carbides of various compositions. The main problem that impedes the targeted selection of materials for mixer blades or finished blades from different materials or different chemical composition is the lack of substantiated selection criteria. If the shipment is carried out only with the provision of data on the chemical composition of the alloy, it is necessary to be able to evaluate the expected mechanical properties, in particular abrasion resistance and strength. Using the methods of regression analysis, a mathematical model has been obtained that includes two regression equations, which allows for a targeted selection of the chemical composition that provides the maximum possible value of mechanical properties – ultimate strength and coefficient of wear resistance. Optimization of the chemical composition, carried out according to this model, made it possible to determine the following chemical composition: C=2.94 %, Ceq=3.3 %, Ti=1.56 %, providing the maximum ultimate strength σb=391 MPa; C=2.78 %, Ceq=3.14 %, Ti=1.61 %, providing a maximum wear resistance coefficient Kwr=12 %. In the case of priority of the strength criterion, the calculated optimal chemical composition makes it possible to reduce the mass-dimensional characteristics of the mixing units of the mixers. A procedure is proposed for using this model to select a batch of blades with the expected best performance properties
Yulia Zaikina, Nataliia Cherednichenko, Hanna Tymchenko, Gennadii Kochuiev, Maryna Kochuieva
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 31-36; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001842

Abstract:
The obese asthma is characterized by a more severe course. The feature of this comorbid condition is the reduced effectiveness of basic therapy with inhaled corticosteroids, which prevents optimal control of symptoms, requires increasing doses and increases the number of exacerbations and hospitalizations. The problem of life quality (LQ) research in patients with asthma and obesity is highly relevant today, which made it the reason for this study. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of obesity on LQ in patients with asthma. Materials and methods. We selected for participating in the study 46 patients with moderate severity asthma. Examination of the patients included: objective examination with an anthropometric evaluation, the test of the LQ with two questionnaires: general one – Medical Outcome Study SF-36 (MOS SF-36) and specialized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Results. The increase in body mass index (BMI) in patients with asthma according to the questionnaires MOS SF-36 and AQLQ is associated with significant reductions in viability (r=–0.33, p<0.05), physical activity (r=–0.37, p<0.01), social activity (r=–0.36, p <0.01) and the degree of reduction of the patient's tolerance to adverse environmental factors (r=–0.29, p<0.05) Conclusions. The presence of concomitant obesity in patients with asthma is associated with significant reductions in the parameters of physical and social activity, viability and with an increase in the subjective pain assessment (according to the questionnaire MOS SF-36) and characterized by significantly lower rates of activity, tolerance to adverse environmental factors and general life quality (according to the AQLQ questionnaire).
Maryna Koсhuieva, Vasyl Kushnir,
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 24-30; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001800

Abstract:
The aim. Assessment of the initial psychological status of men with first diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis and the study of its associations with the clinical course of the disease. Materials and methods. The study involved 54 men with first diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients had a dynamic complex clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination with an assessment of the psychological status according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results. The evaluating of initial psychological status in patients with first diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis, depressive states of varying severity were found in 47.05 % of patients, moderate state anxiety – in 74.51 % of patients, moderate trait anxiety – in 35.29 %. We revealed associations of the levels of anxiety and depression with the degree of bacterial excretion and the duration of the intensive phase of therapy. Conclusions. To assess the psychological status of patients with first diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, it is advisable to use the STAI and the BDI. Patients with first diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in 100 % of cases have psychological status disorders with a predominance of moderate state anxiety and the absence of depressive disorders in only half of them. More expressed violations of the psychological status (anxiety, depression) identifies patients who are married and have a steady job. In patients with first diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, an increase in the severity of anxiety and depression is associated with more expressed bacterial excretion, decrease in body weight, greater frequency of destruction of lung tissue, prevalence of the tuberculosis process by more than 2 lung segments, decrease in the effectiveness of standard therapy and prolongation intensive phase of treatment.
, , Khrystyna Klymenko, Olena Khomyn
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 45-52; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001835

Abstract:
Aim. To evaluate the features of pharynx tonsils mucous membrane colonization by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms by using the pharynx palatine tonsils epithelium electron microscopic examination of the patients with infectious mononucleosis and acute streptococcal tonsillitis. Materials and methods. Two patients – patient P., 12 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and patient A., 8 years old with confirmed acute streptococcal tonsillitis. The patients were taken a bacteriological examination of the mucus and epithelium scraping from the surface of the pharyngeal tonsils. Tissue samples were examined in the electron microscopy laboratory of the Lviv National University. Results and discussion. 36 tonsils epithelial tissue micro preparations of patient A. and 41 micro preparations of patient P. were studied. Streptococcus pyogenes, Str. pneumoniae, Str. viridans, Сandida albicans, as well as non-pathogenic bacteria: Diphtheroides sp., Neisseria sp., Corynebacterium spp. were identified as result of the patient P. bacteriological examination of mucus from the surface of the pharyngeal tonsils. Staph. aureus, Str. viridans, Str. pneumoniae were identified during a bacteriological examination of patient A. Eosinophils with a two-segmented nucleus, specific granularity, phagocytosed spherical bacteria in the cytoplasm were detected during the histological examination of the materials taken from the surface of the patient’s tonsils with acute tonsillitis. Research showed that bacteria were accumulated not only in the structure of extracellular detritus. Numerous bacteria accumulations were also found in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells in the patient with infectious mononucleosis. The cell's shape looked like a bunch of grapes. Conclusions. The electron microscopic examination showed differences in the coccal flora localization: the extracellular localization of bacteria in the patient with acute bacterial tonsillitis and intraepithelial presence of the bacteria in the patient with tonsillitis during infectious mononucleosis were found.
Oleksiy Pavlenko, Mikola Boiko, ,
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 69-78; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001845

Abstract:
Implementation of high-quality tissue connections and hemostasis in oral surgery is an urgent problem of modern dentistry, due to the lack of available universal methods that would help to facilitate the work of oral surgeon and reduce wound healing time. The aim of the research. To investigate and study the regeneration processes in the oral mucosa after high-frequency electric welding, suturing and medical adhesive composition. Materials and methods. This study compared the effect of three connection methods and hemostasis: high-frequency electric welding (EKVZ-300M1 “PATONMED®”, Ukraine), suture method (nylon 5/0 “PIRUS®”, China), adhesive composition (“Histoacryl®”, Germany). 72 rabbits were involved in experiment. An incision of the soft tissues of the vestibulum of the oral cavity of the maxilla with a length of 1.3–1.5 cm was made. On days 3, 7, 14 and 21, tissue samples were excised, histological and morphometric examination of the material were performed. Results. By statistical data processing of 72 rabbits was found that the reliability of differences in the levels of morphometric parameters between groups on each day is very high, as evidenced by the calculated values ​​of the U-test. In 38 cases (90.5 %), the significance level was p≤0.01, in the other 4 cases – p≤0.05. The lowest value level of neutrophilic granulocytes was in rabbits of group No.1 (electric welding). In rabbits of group No. 1 GFBC were not observed in the 8 fields of view throughout the experiment. Conclusions. High-frequency electric welding of soft tissues can be used for effective intraoperative hemostasis and connection of the intraoral wound edges. Due to the absence of a foreign body (adhesive masses, filaments) and moderate alterative effect, histological examination indicates accelerated activation of regenerative processes in the early stages of observation in rabbits of group No. 1.
Nikolay Shcherbina, Anastasiia Chekhunova
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 3-8; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001682

Abstract:
The aim of the research: to optimize the treatment of patients with combined genital pathology, including internal endometriosis (adenomyosis) and inflammatory diseases. Materials and methods: prospective study has been conducted on 160 women with adenomyosis. There were 24 (15 %) patients with the I degree of adenomyosis spreading, 72 (45.0 %) women with the II degree, 33 (20.6 %) patients with the III degree, and 31 (19.4 %) woman with the IV degree of adenomyosis spreading. Microbial flora analysis included bacterioscopic, bacteriological research methods with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics, and PCR method. The concentration of cytokines in the culture medium (supernatant) was determined by the enzyme immunoassay. Results: the obtained data from the study indicate a high percentage of the combination of adenomyosis with chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs. An immuno-inflammatory reaction preceding adenomyosis is accompanied by the violation of the local cytokine balance. In turn, the increased activity of cytokines and the presence of infectious agents can participate in the relapse of endometriosis. Conclusion: considering the immuno-inflammatory reaction, accompanied by the violation of the local cytokine balance in the development of adenomyosis. The study substantiates the necessity of using antimicrobial therapy in patients with combined genital pathology, including adenomyosis and inflammatory diseases
Irina Bondarenko, Andrey Lazorenko,
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 101-109; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001834

Abstract:
The results of the study of the effect of cord blood serum and “Actovegin” (Takeda, Ukraine) on the reproductive function of cows in a comparative aspect are presented. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of cord blood serum and Actovegin on the reproductive function of uterine cows in a comparative aspect. Materials and methods. The research was conducted during 2017-2020 in four dairy farms of Sumy region with tethered and untied maintenance. In 128 cows of different breeds and productivity, the timing of sexual cycling was studied and analyzed in comparison with the spontaneous sexual cycle with the use of cord blood serum and the drug "Actovegin" (Takeda, Ukraine). Results. It was found that in cows with tethered content, the number of days from the introduction of 15 ml of cord blood serum to the manifestation of the excitation stage was significantly less compared to the spontaneous manifestation of sexual desire (5.63±0.36 and 14.38±2.1, respectively). When cows with loose content were administered 10 ml of cord blood serum in combination with the drug "Actovegin", the number of days before the manifestation of sexual cycling was lower by 18.3 % compared with the rate of spontaneous sexual desire (4.31±0.38 and 18.25±1.89, respectively). Conclusions. As a result of using 10 ml of cord blood serum in combination with the drug "Actovegin", in cows of different productivity and under different housing conditions, the number of days before the onset of the stage of arousal is significantly reduced compared to the spontaneous manifestation of sexual desire. Cows of different productivity and with different housing conditions come to the sexual desire significantly faster with the use of 15 ml of cord blood serum compared to the spontaneous manifestation of sexual desire.
Tetiana Polishchuk, Serhii Vdovichenko, Oleksandra Lubkovska, Dmytro Ledin
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 16-23; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001853

Abstract:
Aim of the research is studying the pecularities of the endometrium pathological processes in postmenopausal women on the basis of the hysteroscopy data evaluation, as well as conduction of histopathological and immunochemical studies. Materials and methods. To study the pecularities of intrauterine pathological processes, 100 postmenopausal women were selected and studied. All women underwent hysteroscopy with separate diagnostic scraping of the uterine cavity. Also, 10 samples of glandular-fibrous endometrial polyps (GFEP) in women of reproductive age and 9 samples of such pathology in the postmenopausal period were studied by immunohistochemical method, using 6 primary specific monoclonal antibodies. Results. The results showed that in 64 (64 %) postmenopausal women pathological changes of the endometrium were presented with GFEP, and in 2 patients (2 %) endometrial adenocarcinoma was found. It was also determined that the nuclei of epithelial and stromal cells of GFEP in postmenopausal women are characterized by lower expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, compared with women with such formations in the reproductive age. In addition, it was found that in postmenopausal women the expression of the apoptosis inhibitor bcl-2 and aromatase P450 in the epithelial and stromal cells of GFEP was more expressed, and the expression of the Bах antigen, on the contrary, was significantly lower than in women of reproductive age. Conclusions. Fundamental molecular-biological differences of GFEP in postmenopausal women compared with women of reproductive age were revealed. It was found that in postmenopausal women there is a significantly lower dependence of such polyps on the effects of estrogen and progesterone. In addition, the data indicate an increased risk of neoplastic transformation in such women.
Vladimir Golyanovskyi
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 9-15; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001849

Abstract:
Due to the morbidity of mothers and newborns caused by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia, preventive measures should be taken, especially in women at high risk of developing these conditions. Many studies have been conducted on the prevention of FGR and preeclampsia in high-risk women, especially anticoagulants, aspirin, paravastatin, nitric oxide, microelements (L-arginine, folic acid, vitamins E and C, phytonutrients, vitamin D) and calcium. The aim is to improve perinatal consequences by preventing FGR in high-risk women. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 137 pregnant women in the period of 110–136 weeks was conducted at the Perinatal Center in Kyiv. Pregnant women were divided into 3 groups. The main group included 47 women at high risk of FGR who received therapy (low doses of aspirin, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and vitamin and micro elements drugs). The comparison group included 45 women who had a high risk of FGR but did not receive treatment. The control group consisted of 45 women who were not at risk of FGR. The frequency of FGR and placental dysfunction were analyzed as well as a fetal distress was analyzed ante- and intranatally. Results: Therapy with low doses of aspirin, LMWH and a complex preparation of vitamins and micro elements improves the course of pregnancy and gestational complications. In the main group FGR was detected in 8.5 %, in the comparison group – in 17.8 %, in the control group – 4.4 %. Placental dysfunction was detected in 13.3 % in the control group, and only 6.4 % in the main group that was close to the control group – 2.2 %. Similar tendencies were found for fetal distress ante- and intranatally. Conclusions: The proposed prophylactic measures can improve maternal outcomes by reducing the level of gestational complications in pregnant women with biochemical signs of risk of FGR development. In addition, these preventive measures can reduce the frequency of children births with growth restriction, which significantly reduces early neonatal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Iriah Uwa-Agbonikhena, Viktoriia Gryb, Viktoriia Gerasymchuk, Marta Kupnovytska-Sabadosh, Liubov Maksymchuk
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 61-68; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001768

Abstract:
Motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment (CI) are the most prevalent and disabling among the stroke consequences. CI decreases the effectivity of motor rehabilitation, but motor dysfunction itself may also influence the manifestations and progression of CI. So development and study of novel physical therapy tactics, which are aiming to target both of these syndromes, becomes a subject of great interest nowadays. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of different physical therapy approaches on the upper extremity function, cognition and functional independence in patients in 1 year after ischemic stroke. Materials and methods. Totally there were 72 patients examined in the 1-year period after first-ever anterior circulation ischemic stroke. Neurological status, upper extremity function and functional independence were assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Functional Independence Measurement (FIM). Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Trail-making Test A and B tests (TMT). Patients in Group 1 received secondary stroke prevention therapy and performed the exercises complex for general muscle function improvement for 2 months; patients in Group 2 also performed the exercise complex for paretic hand function improvement for 2 months. Results. After 2 months of physical therapy a significant increase of the FIM “Self-care”, “Transfer” and therefore subtotal motor and total scores was observed in patients in Group 2; in Group 1 significant improvement was observed only in “Transfer” and subtotal motor scores. Adding of the hand exercise to the physical therapy complex (Group 2) appeared to be more beneficial for the upper extremity motor function. Patients in Group 2 after 2 months showed increase of the FMA “Wrist” score by 40 % (p<0.05), “Hand” score by 42.8 % (p<0.01) and “Total motor function” by 30.1 % (p<0.05), and the “Total motor function” score in Group 2 was 10.9 % higher in comparison with the Group 1 (p<0.05). In cognitive status significant differences compared to baseline level were observed only in Group 2; MoCA score increased by 14.3 % (p<0.05) and TMT-B performance time decreased by 14.8 % (p<0.05). Baseline MoCA score correlated with FMA “Wrist” (r=0.32; p=0.028), “Hand” (r=0.49; p=0.001) and “Total motor function” (r=0.46; p=0.004) scores. TMT-B score showed significant correlation with the FMA “Wrist” (r=-0.032; p=0.025), “Hand” (-0.45; p=0.009), “Speed/coordination” (r=-0.023; p=0.036) and “Total motor function” (r=-0.42; p=0.023). Conclusion. Adding of exercise for hand function improvement into the physical therapy complex for post-stroke patients contributes to better upper extremity motor performance and therefore is more favourable for patients’ functional independence. Upper extremity motor impairment, especially hand and wrist dysfunction, are associated with worse cognitive performance. Hand function and fine motor skills improvement could be beneficial for the patients’ cognition. Further research is needed in regard to the prognostic significance of these findings and their impact on the treatment and rehabilitation strategies.
Vadym Dudnyk
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 79-87; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001825

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to study the possibility of using immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of intravital stangulation. Materials and methods: Fragments of the neck skin from the strnaglulation zone were selected as objects of research. The main study group included 20 deaths due to hanging (10 men and 10 women). For the control group, 10 cases of acute coronary death (5 men and 5 women) were used. Using a complex of IHC markers, the labeling of the epidermis and epithelial structures, the features of cellular immune responses, the manifestation of oxidative steress were studied. Results: Peculiarities of morphological manifestations of strangulation furrow in mechanical asphyxia were studied. It is established that the key link of its morphogenesis is impaired vascular wall permeability with loss of type IV collagen in the basement membranes of epithelium and skin vessels, migration into tissues of activated CD15+ granulocytes, CD68+ macrophages and CD117+ labrocytes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibrinogen protein and transforming growth factor β1. Conclusion: Such changes in the tinctorial properties of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue can be recorded by immunohistochemical (IHC) and serve as an important diagnostic criterion for the viability of the formation of the strangulation furrow.
, Natalia Palagina
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 95-100; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001851

Abstract:
The aim. To study the cerebroprotective activity of a new derivative of 4-aminobutanoic acid the compound KGM-5 on the effect on survival and behavioural responses, cognitive impairment and neurological deficits in rats with acute cerebrovascular accident. Materials and methods. Acute cerebrovascular accident (ACVA) was simulated in rats by irreversible unilateral carotid occlusion (UCO) under anesthesia with sodium thiopental (35 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, IP). Five groups of animals were used: intact control (IC, n=6), a group of animals with ACVA, which were not treated (control pathology, CP, n=13); group of animals with ACVA, which were treated for 5 days after surgery (first injection 30 min before surgery) with the compound KGM-5 (ACVA+KGM-5, n=14) at a conditionally effective dose of 30 mg/kg body weight of animals, a group of animals with ACVA (ACVA+CD “Picamilon”, n=13), who received IP for 5 days, the comparison drug (CD) “Picamilon” at a dose of 17 mg/kg and pseudo-operated animals (POA), n=8), which were operated without ligation of the carotid artery, which allows to level the effect of anesthesia and surgery on the studied indicators. The cerebroprotective effect of the studied agents was assessed by an integral criterion – survival of animals (throughout the experiment), indicators of neurological deficit (24, 48, 72, 94 hours after ACVA modelling), the state of cognitive functions in the test of extrapolation escape test (EET) (72 hours after ACVA modelling) Results. The KGM-5 compound contributed to a significant reduction in the severity of neurological deficit, as evidenced by significant differences in this indicator compared with CP, respectively, the first (0.5 points vs. 1.25 points, p<0.05), the third (0.0 points against 1.0 point, p<0.05) and the fourth day (0.0 points vs. 0.5 points, p0.05). Both studied agents - the compound KGM-5 and CD “Picamilon” contributed to the improvement of cognitive functions of rats with ACVA, as evidenced by a significant reduction (p<0.05) of the latent period of diving in the EET, respectively, 1.8 and 1.7 times compared with CP and did not show a significant effect on animal survival. Conclusion. The cerebroprotective activity of a new 4-aminobutanoic acid derivative in the conditions of acute cerebrovascular accident in rats was established in terms of the ability to reduce the severity of neurological deficits and improve cognitive functions in the extrapolation escape test. The severity of cerebroprotective activity of the new compound is not inferior to GABA-ergic drug “Picamilon”.
Victor Zabashta, Bogdan Fedak, Inna Lobova
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 88-94; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001813

Abstract:
Diseases of the circulatory system and their most severe form – acute myocardial infarction (AMI) – is one of the most important problems of modern medicine due to the steady increase in morbidity, negative impact on quality of life, early disability of patients. 19.5 % of patients die from AMI, 50 % among which die 90-120 minutes after the first symptoms of the disease. The aim of the research was to analyse the impact of hospitalization on the mortality of patients with AMI and predict the risk of death in case of untimely hospitalization of this category of patients. Materials and methods. We have conducted a retrospective analysis of 876 medical records of patients diagnosed with AMI who were treated in the cardiology department of Kharkiv Regional Clinical Hospital in 2019. During the study, we have used retrospective, logical, medical and statistical methods. Odds ratios and a 95 % confidence interval were also calculated. Results and discussion. The research revealed the impact of hospitalization on the organization of medical care and hospital mortality of patients with AMI. It was found that the largest share of patients with AMI, both among the dead and those who left the hospital, were hospitalized in the period from 2 to 12 hours from the onset of the disease (49.6 % and 52.33 %, respectively), as well as in period after 24 hours – 28.00 % and 21.70 %, respectively. The largest share of patients with AMI, regardless of the time of hospitalization were persons older than 60 years. The results of the analysis showed that in the period up to 2 h from the onset of the disease, the share of hospitalized patients with more severe heart muscle damage (presence of Q wave) was 91.35 % against 8.65 % of patients with AMI without ST segment elevation. It should be noted that in almost 50 % of cases, patients with AMI without ST segment elevation were hospitalized after 24 h from the onset of the disease. At the same time, the largest share of deaths in this group of patients was observed in the hospital stay from 12 to 24 hours. According to the results of the research, risk factors for fatal outcome in AMI were identified, in particular male gender, the presence of an established ECG diagnosis of NSTEMI, conducting SKA in patients with AMI. It was also found that timely hospitalization of patients within the therapeutic window reduces the chances of hospital mortality by 52 %. Conclusions. The obtained data indicate a strong relationship between the time of hospitalization and the organization of medical care and hospital mortality of patients with AMI. It is reliably established that timely hospitalization of patients within the therapeutic window reduces the chances of hospital mortality by 52 %: HS is 0.483 (95 % CI 0.238 – 0.981), p=0.175.
Vira Tseluyko, Tetiana Pylova
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 53-60; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001844

Abstract:
The aim. To identify features of exercise response in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients depending on coronary artery condition and to identify factors associated with a positive test in patients with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA). Materials and methods. The study included 105 patients diagnosed with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) who were hospitalized at the City Clinical Hospital No. 8 of the Kharkiv City Council. The criteria for diagnosis of ischemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) were met by 53 patients who formed group I. Group II included 52 patients who were consistently hospitalized in the period from June to December 2020, and had obstructive CAD for more than 50 % according to their coronary angiography (CAG). Results. According to the results of bicycle exercise stress test, a positive test was significantly more often registered in group II – n=30 (57.7 %) patients compared to group I – n=19 (35.8 %) patients (p=0.0249). The duration of the test in patients of group I was significantly longer than 420 seconds [290–540], compared with group II – 300.0 [210.0–540.0] (р=0.0352). Also, in patients in group II, the maximum volume of the test performed was probably lower than in group I (p=0.0324). When calculating the double product, it was also found that in group I its value was significantly higher compared to group II (p=0.0292). In group I there was a significantly higher rate of chronotropic reserve (44.0 [26.0–60.0]), compared with group II (p=0.0168). Elevated total cholesterol (above 5 mmol/l) is a statistically significant and independent factor of a positive exercise test in patients with INOCA (OR, 1.98 [0.9992-3.926], p=0.05). A correlation was found between the level of exercise tolerance and smoking in INOCA-patients (r =-0.388975, p=0.010899). Patients who underwent MINOCA also showed reduced tolerance to exercise (r=-0.3104, p=0.042721) Conclusions. The sensitivity of bicycle exercise stress test in patients with CAD depends on the presence and severity of atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries (63 % in stenotic atherosclerosis, 36 % in no obstructive coronary arteries. It was found that exercise test duration, double product, chronotropic and inotropic reserve of the heart in patients with a positive exercise test with INOCA were significantly higher compared with patients with obstructive CAD. Independent factors associated with a positive exercise test in patients with no obstructive CAD are an increase in total cholesterol (multivariate regression logistic analysis).
, Andriy Krasnoyaruzhskyi, , Dmytro Dubovyk, Kateryna Ponomarova, Anastasiya Sochnieva,
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 37-44; doi:10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001852

Abstract:
The aim of the study: to study and demonstrate the potential and technical aspects of the surgical treatment of locally advanced thymus tumours with the tumour infiltrate affecting superior vena cava and its branches. Methods. 56 patients with locally advanced thymomas complicated by SVCS were study. The control group included 30 patients with SVCS were treated with conventional techniques, while the experimental group included 26 patients who underwent a novel bypass surgery developed by us. Results. Based on our observations, patients tolerated these surgeries much better. The venous bypass was mandatorily complemented with cytoreduction. Auriculo-jugular (left and right) and auriculo-subclavian (left and right) bypasses were used in our observations Complications in the post-operative period were reported from the experimental group and included auriculo-subclavian bypass thrombosis, post-operative complications were reported in the control group including haemorrhage from the sternotomy wound in 1 (3.3 %) case, superior vena cava thrombosis in 2 (6.6 %) cases, pneumonia in 2 (6.6 %) cases and thromboembolism of small pulmonary arteries in 2 (6.6 %) cases. Post-operative lethality in the study groups was reported in the control and in the experimental group. Total lethality rate was 8.9 % (5 patients). The relative risk of complications and lethal outcome was calculated for patients from both groups. It was found that the risk of complications was twice as high in the control group as in the experimental group (standard error of relative risk equals 0.64), whereas the risk of lethal outcome increased by a factor of 3.5 in the control group (standard error of relative risk equals 1.09) Conclusion. It has been established that the superior vena cava syndrome in patients with locally advanced thymoma is an emergency condition whose surgical correction must be personalised depending on the anatomic and topographic classification of SVC lesion types. It is known that an obligatory pre-condition of the perioperative period in this category of patients is an adequate vascular approach to the superior vena cava system. The first mandatory step of the radical surgery in patients with locally advanced thymomas with SVC invasion should be the auriculo-jugular and auriculo-subclavian bypasses, which can reduce the relative risk of post-operative complications by a factor of the risk of lethal by a factor of 3.5.
Page of 29
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top