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Nguyen Thanh Cong, Pham Thi Thieu Thoa, Dung Hoang Tien
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 74-88; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001774

Abstract:
This study aims to build a regression model when surveying the milling process on S50C steel using Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) of Vietnamese peanut oil-based on Response Surface Methodology. The paper analyses and evaluates the effect of cutting parameters, flow rates, and pressures in minimum quantity lubrication system on cutting force and surface roughness in the milling process of S50C carbon steel materials after heat treatment (reaching a hardness of 52 HRC). The Taguchi method, one of the most effective experimental planning methods nowadays, is used in this study. The statistical analysis software, namely Minitab 19, is utilized to build a regression model between parameters of the cutting process, flow rates and pressures of the minimum quantity lubrication system and the cutting force, surface roughness of the part when machining on a 5-axis CNC milling machine. Thereby analyzing and predicting the effect of cutting parameters and minimum quantity lubrication conditions on the surface roughness and cutting force during machining to determine the influence level them. In this work, the regression models of Ra and F were achieved by using the optimizer tool in Minitab 19. Moreover, the multi-response optimization problem was solved. The optimum cutting parameters and lubricating conditions are as follows: Cutting velocity Vc=190.909 m/min, feed rate fz=0.02 mm/tooth, axial depth of cut ap=0.1 and nozzle pressure P=5.596 MPa, flow rate Q=108.887 ml/h. The output parameters obtained from the above parameters are Ra=0.0586 and F=162.035 N, respectively. This result not only provides the foundation for future research but also contributes reference data for the machining process
Nadia Mohammed Jassim, Alyaa Hussein Ali, Ammar Jassim Mohammed
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 3-10; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.002147

Abstract:
The object of research is studying Raman scattering technique, photoluminescence and some optical properties of silver nanoparticles created by eco-friendly technique which independent on a long time, effort, energy and high temperatures, and with the highest adsorption capacity in order to achieve a high inhibition to paralyze the activity of the bacterial wall, by achieving the highest surface plasmon resonance (SRR). Silver nanoparticles were prepared using Matricaria Flower extract. Characterization of silver nanoparticles and detection of their effectiveness against microbial using two types of bacteria (Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus aureus ), these nanoparticles were measured using a number of measurements, X-ray diffraction measurement, Energy Dispersion (EDX), (FESEM), U–V Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Photoluminescence (PL) properties of silver nanoparticle at room temperature and Raman scattering spectroscopy were investigated. The Scherrer’s equation was used to calculate the crystallite size of Silver nanoparticles, the average crystallite size is 48.64 nm. The PL spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibit two emission bands: one is in the UV region 350 nm and the other is in the visible region 650 nm. This is roughly identical to the absorption spectrum results. The antimicrobial activity was tested against gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Prepared Ag NPs exhibited inhibitory activity in both types of bacteria strains at best selectivity against gram-negative bacteria. An eco-friendly technique is used for synthesizing technique to produce silver nanoparticles with the expected best application properties. These research results suitable to be use the Silver nanoparticles in sensors and many electronic, electrical, medical and biological applications
Olga Stotska, , Aleksandr Stockiy
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 29-31; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002128

Abstract:
Metabolic changes in the body of dogs with atopic dermatitis and the causes of its occurrence still remain poorly understood. This study confirms the need for biochemical blood tests for the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in animals. The aim of the research. To identify metabolic changes in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Methods. Serum samples from five ill animals and five intact animals were tested. The diagnosis of the nosological form of skin lesions was established based on the results of anamnesis and clinical manifestations of the disease. Additionally, biochemical studies of the serum of sick animals were performed. Blood of dogs (n=5) was taken from the anterior subcutaneous vein of the forearm or the lateral subcutaneous vein of the tibia into blood tubes. Results. In the study of mineral metabolism, it was found that the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the serum of sick animals is reduced by only 0.01 mmol/l, but the concentration of total calcium by 10.0 %. The concentration of cholesterol increases 1.3 times and exceeds the reference values by 0.16 mmol/l. In the blood of sick animals, the activity of alanine aminotransferase is significantly reduced by 21.0 % and aspartate aminotransferase – by 20.0 % compared to intact animals. The enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase probably increases by 1.51 times (P<0.05) in sick dogs, but does not exceed the reference values. Conclusions. It was found that in atopic dermatitis in the serum of dogs decreases the activity of alanine aminotransferase by 21.0 % and aspartate aminotransferase – by 20.0 %, while the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase increases 1.51 times. The results show the toxic effect of an allergic agent on animals, especially on the liver, which confirms the previous diagnosis – atopic dermatitis.
Volodymyr Grabko, Stanislav Tkachenko, Oleksandr Palaniuk
Published: 29 October 2021
Abstract:
Object of research: development of a technology for determining the temperature of the winding of a power oil transformer, in particular, the analysis of thermal processes in the winding of a power transformer during short-term overloads, taking into account the influence of the environment. Investigated problem: temperature distribution in the winding of a power oil transformer taking into account short-term load surges in the problem of assessing the residual life of the insulation of the transformer winding by temperature aging. The calculation of the temperature distribution in the winding was carried out using the passport data and characteristics of the power oil transformer, including the winding, transformer oil, load currents. Main scientific results: a mathematical model was calculated, with the help of which the results of temperature distribution in the transformer winding were obtained during short-term load surges or constant work with an increased load. According to the presented model, the analysis of the cooling time of the transformer winding after short-term overloads is carried out. Comparing the results obtained on the simulation model with the known results of experimental studies of the temperature distribution in the winding of a power transformer, the adequacy of the mathematical model is proved. It is shown that the use of the laws of heat transfer in a homogeneous plate to analyze the temperature distribution in the transformer winding is not wrong, but requires clarifications and simplifications. The area of practical use of the research results: enterprises of the machine-building industry and energy companies specializing in the production and operation of transformer equipment. Innovative technological product: simulation model of heat distribution in a transformer winding, which can take into account the load of the transformer, the effect of the environment on the insulation of the transformer windings. An innovative technological product: a method for diagnosing the duration of the non-failure operation of a transformer, which makes it possible to ensure trouble-free operation and save money for the repair of transformer equipment. Scope of application of the innovative technological product: design and development of diagnostic systems for windings of power oil transformers
Shaka Yesufu
Published: 29 October 2021
Abstract:
The objects of this research are: first, to explore the uniqueness and visionary thinking of Dr W.E.B. Du Bois concerning the concept of race and racism over time. Second, to highlight the socio-economic conditions and disempowerment of blacks living in different countries of the world. Third, is an attempt to review his work and its relevance to African scholarship by using the qualitative research method, enabling us to understand the philosophical impetus arising out of his valuable contribution to African scholarship. The author investigated the following problems: social problems, caused by racism, discrimination race, exploitation, black disempowerment, inequality, and social justice. The main results of the research are: The findings of this study are: first, the importance of unity of the Africa people is crucial for its development. Second, the implementation of educational policies, political leadership, a vibrant economy, and the establishment of the military to protect Africa’s global interests are all very important for its survival and development. Third, is the highlighting of the level of grave injustice faced by both Dr Du Bois and his wife in the hands of the US law enforcement services. Fourth, it was found that the African continent is not economically independent. Fifth, it is only through the unity of African peoples and countries that it can eventually lead to its development and progress. The area of practical use of the research is for all citizens, directly or indirectly affected by race, racism, disempowerment, and social inequalities that still permeate contemporary societies.
Olena Salyenkova
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 22-25; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002154

Abstract:
The aim. The research was provided to obtain immunohistochemical changes in scalp biopsies of female patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) I-II stages according to the Ludwig scale and to detect possible changes after usage of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections in combination with topical minoxidil 2 % lotion. Materials and methods. Skin biopsies of 30 patients with AGA were examined by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment, which lasted for 3 months and included 3 PRP sessions (once per month) and topical application of minoxidil 2 % lotion twice daily. Results. It was found that AGA is accompanied by inflammatory perifollicular infiltration by T-lymphocytes CD3 +, CD4 + and CD8 +, macrophages (CD68 +); imbalance of growth polypeptides VEGF, TGF-β1, EGFR; accumulation of oxidative stress enzymes eNOS and iNOS; accumulation of pathological fraction of Collagen IV. The use of platelet-rich plasma in combination with topical 2 % minoxidil as AGA therapy leads to the normalization of immunohistochemical parameters of the skin, which indicates the possibility of its use for long-term therapeutic effect. Conclusions. This study supplemented the understanding of the pathogenesis of AGA and serves as the basis for improving treatment regimens for this pathology. But more research is required to further study the pathomorphology of androgenetic alopecia and to standardize the technique of using platelet-rich plasma in patients with this disease.
Mingcheng Liu, Oksana Kasianenko
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 39-41; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002153

Abstract:
Streptococcus suis 2 is an important emerging zoonotic pathogen. It mainly causes meningitis in pigs. We use SS2 to infect bEnd.3 to get stable cDNA for next research on differences in gene expression and protein expression of cytokines. The paper presents an SS2 study for bEnd.3 infection to obtain stable cDNA for subsequent study of differences in gene expression and cytokine protein expression. Objective: The aim of this study was to extract the total RNA from mouse brain-derived Endothelial cells (bEnd.3) infected by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and transcript to complementary DNA (cDNA). Materials and methods: SS2 strain were obtained from Jilin University, China. BEnd.3 was from Henan institute of Science of Technology, China. Reverse transcription kit was from Takara company, Japan. Trizol was from Bioteke company,China. Nanodrop instrument was from Thermo company, USA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrument was from Biometra company, Germany. We used SS2 to infect bEnd.3 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 for 12h. Cells were harvested and Trizol method was chose to extract the total RNA of bEnd.3 infected by SS2. Nanodrop instrument was used to measure the concentration of RNA and the values of OD260/280 and OD260/230. RNA were transcripted to cDNA with reverse transcription kit by PCR instrument. Results: trizol method used in this study was reliable and high-quality RNA were obtained. Stable cDNA were obtained by reverse transcription kit. Conclusion: in this experiment high-quality RNA was obtained and reverse transcribed to stable cDNA for subsequent detection of related cytokines. This study provides an approximate RNA extraction method and good experimental foundation for downstream research.
Pavlo Ivanchev, Maxim Bilyachenko, Anton Kurbanov, Oleksii Lissov
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 10-12; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002151

Abstract:
The aim of the research. Analysis of results and development of surgical tactics for the treatment of DU with multiple combined complications. Materials and methods. The results of the analysis of surgical treatment of duodenal ulcers with multiple combined complications (3 and 4 combined complications) for 3 periods are presented: 1st (1983–1995) (group A) – 77 patients, 2nd (2000–2007) years (group B) – 30 patients and 3rd (2008–2020) (group C) – 46 patients. Results. 153 patients (100 %) underwent surgery for complicated duodenal ulcer (DU), of which 130 patients (84.9 %) had a combination of three complications and 23 (15.1 %) had four complications. Bleeding complications were noted in 139 of 153 patients, accounting for 90.8 %, and ulcer perforation in 69 patients, accounting for 45.1 % of all other complications. Based on the obtained data of the analysis, there is a steady tendency to increase the proportion of organ-preserving operations (OPO) by 1.5 times (from 50.7 % to 76.2 %), reducing the number of gastrectomy (GR) by 3 times (from 14.5 % to 4.8 %) and palliative operations (PAL) 3.3 times (from 15.8 % to 4.8 %) with a relatively stable number of performed organ-saving operations (OSO): in group A – 17 (24.6 %) interventions, in group B – 4 (21.1 %), group C – 6 (14.3 %). Conclusions. The use of modern measures of endoscopic hemostasis allowed to operate on patients in the delayed period, and their share from the second period to the third increased 2.8 times. The number of patients who underwent emergency surgery with perforation of the ulcer as one of the complications decreased in the third period compared to the second by 2.6 times, due to the widespread use of PPIs in the conservative treatment of DU. According to the results of the analysis it became known that the chosen active-individualized tactics and developed algorithms for choosing the type of surgery allowed to achieve a stable level of postoperative mortality at 8.3 %.
Varvara Hryhorenko
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002130

Abstract:
Ovarian cancer remains one of the most fatal pathologies among women around the world due to late diagnosis on the advanced stages of the tumor process. Serous ovarian carcinomas (SOC) often recur, which worsens the prognosis for patients’ recovery and survival. The identification of prognostic clinical and morphological factors that predict the appearance of recurrence remains an urgent problem. The aim of the research was studying relationships between the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and the expression of surface cancer stem cells (CSCS) markers to identify recurrence predictors among women with low grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSC). The material were paraffin blocks and slides of 43 patients with LGSC I-IV FIGO stage. The study included 30 cancers without recurrence and 13 tumors with it within 24 months. The expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, CD44 and CD117 was studied using immunohistochemical (IHC) method. Results. Development of recurrence is typical for women with stage III-IV (p=0,01), the expression of Vimentin at level 51–100 % (p=0,001) and E-cadherin at 10–50 % (p=0.04). CD44 was expressed in 51.16 % of tumors and level didn`t depend on age, recurrence, but depended on disease stage (p=0.001). Recurrent LGSCs are characterized by the expression of CD117> 10 % (p=0.0001), its direct correlation with the stage (p=0.0001) and the recurrence (p=0.0001). A direct relationship was found between the CD117 and Vimentin expression. Conclusions. Prognostic markers of recurrence should be considered stage III-IV, levels of Vimentin 51–100 %, E-cadherin 10-50 % and CD117> 10 %. A correlation between CD117 and Vimentin expression indicates the commonality of EMT and CSCS in progression and recur. CD44 has no independent prognostic role.
Tetiana Fotina, Dasha Slasten, Oleksii Fotin
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 35-38; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002124

Abstract:
The results of the study of antimicrobial and fungicidal properties of the experimental preparation “Sukhodez” against microorganisms E. coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi Candida albicans in the laboratory are presented. The aim of the research. To study the antimicrobial and fungicidal properties of powdered disinfectant and analyze the prospects for its further use in a set of anti-epizootic measures in particular in poultry farms. Materials and methods. The research was conducted during 2021 at the Department of Veterinary Examination, Microbiology, Zoohygiene and Safety and Quality of Animal Products of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Sumy National Agrarian University. Evaluation of bactericidal properties of the experimental agent “Sukhodez” was determined on museum strains of E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, fungicidal properties were studied on fungi Candida albicans. All cultures were standardized to 109 CFU / cm3. Results. It is established that as a result of the conducted researches at studying preparation “Sukhodez” antimicrobic properties, it had high efficiency concerning action on strains of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It had a detrimental effect on bacteria when applied to concrete at an exposure of 1 hour with a rate of 75 mg per 1 m2, and had the same effect as when applied to a wooden surface, where it expressed antimicrobial action at a rate of 50 mg/m2 after 4 hours. When determining the fungicidal properties, it was found that when exposed to 5 hours, the preparation “Sukhodez” had an effect on study contaminated objects with a rate of 50 mg/m2, and with a rate of 75 mg/m2 inhibited the growth of fungi for 1 hour. Conclusions. It was found that the most sensitive to the preparation “Sukhodez” were the culture of Salmonella enteritidis – at a rate of 25 g / m2 and action on concrete and wooden surfaces, the disinfectant inhibited the growth of the culture when exposed to 5 hours, and at a rate of 50 g / m2 – for 2 years. Staphylococcus aureus was the most stable bacterial culture, so at a rate of 50 g / m2 on concrete and wood surfaces, bacterial growth was inhibited for 4 and 5 hours, respectively. At the same time, in the study of fungicidal properties, “Sukhodez” showed a fungicidal effect on Candida albicans when applied to a concrete surface at a rate of 50 mg / m2 for 3 hours, when applied to a wooden surface – for 4 hours. In general, at a rate of 75 g / m2, “Sukhodez” has an instant bactericidal and fungicidal effect on bacteria and fungi applied to concrete and wooden surfaces
Olha Proshchenko, Iryna Ventskivska, Natalia Kamuz
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 3-6; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002155

Abstract:
The article presents an analytical assessment of long-term postoperative consequences in women of reproductive age after hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. The aim of the study to determine the structure of long-term results of hysterectomy for uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age using different approaches to the possibility of optimizing the diagnostic algorithm in the preoperative period in the future. Materials and methods – 160 women aged 40 to 50 years with symptomatic uterine fibroids, who underwent hysterectomy performed by vaginal, laparoscopically assisted vaginal, abdominal, were examined. Research methods are the following: physical examination of patients, assessment of pelvic floor (cough test, Valsalva maneuver, “Stop Test” with Kegel cones), diagnosis of urogenital dysfunction using a standardized POP-Q system; instrumental examination:, complete urodynamic testing, cystometry, (for assessment of the severity of urinary incontinence the classification of the International Continence Society (ICS) was used); assessment of the patient’s quality of life on the 10th day after surgery, 3, 6, 12 months and three years after surgery using the international standard questionnaire MOS SF-36; study of the local infectious status of the female body (bacteriological and bacterioscopic examination of discharge from vagina and urethra, determination of vaginal pH Results and their discussion. The structure of distant postoperative manifestations was determined (after 36 months of postoperative monitoring): clinical manifestations of intestinal function discomfort in the same degree in patients of three subgroups, 2.4 and 2.9 times less often in group I patients indicated chronic pelvic pain, in 1.7 times less often - for genitourinary disorders, vaginal prolapse in a third of cases, especially in women with abdominal HE and classic vaginal HE (30.0±5.0 % and 37.8±5.0 %, respectively, against 17.8±4.0 % – in the group with laparotomically assisted HE). Conclusions. Given the data on genitourinary disorders and vaginal prolapse in almost a third of observations after hysterectomy for uterine fibroids, it is advisable to consider additional examination of latent signs of genitourinary syndrome at the preoperative stage to optimize the choice of access, the volume of surgical treatment.
Kateryna Ponomarova
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 7-9; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002150

Abstract:
The aim of the study: to study retrospective analysis results of the surgical treatment of thymus tumours for predicting long-time results. Methods. Study included 35 patients who were treated at the Department of Thoraco-abdominal Surgery from September 2019 to May 2021. The control group included 20 patients with SVCS were treated with conventional techniques, while the experimental group included 15 patients who underwent a novel bypass surgery developed by us. Results. The venous bypass was mandatorily complemented with cytoreduction. Complications in the post-operative period were reported from the experimental group and included auriculo-subclavian bypass thrombosis, post-operative complications were reported in the control group including haemorrhage from the sternotomy wound in 1 (3.3 %) case, superior vena cava thrombosis in 2 (6.6 %) cases, pneumonia in 2 (6.6 %). The relative risk of complications and lethal outcome was calculated for patients from both groups. It was found that the risk of complications was twice as high in the control group as in the experimental group (standard error of relative risk equals 0.64). Conclusion. The first mandatory step of the radical surgery in patients with thymomas with SVC invasion should be the auriculo-jugular and auriculo-subclavian bypasses, which can reduce the relative risk of post-operative complications by a factor of the risk of lethal by a factor of 3.5
Viktor Moiseev, Eugenia Manoilo, Oleg Khukhryanskiy, Kalif Repko
Published: 29 October 2021
Abstract:
The object of research: mass transfer processes on a combined contact element in a column apparatus. Investigated problem: determination of the regularities of process parameters in the processing of gas-liquid systems in a foam layer, as well as to interpret the obtained experimental data. The problem of processing industrial gas flows is solved by conducting the process in an intensive mode. The main scientific results: as a result of the study, the regularities of ammonia absorption were revealed depending on the main parameters of the experiment: gas velocity in the column cross-section, ammonia concentration, free cross-section of the combined contact element, and liquid loads. The process of mass transfer in the gas phase is significantly influenced by hydrodynamic parameters – the gas velocity in the apparatus and the specific load on the liquid, which indirectly affect the height of the liquid layer on the plate and the gas content of the layer. The area of practical use of the research results: sorption processes for processing gases and liquids in technological processes, absorption of harmful substances in the treatment of gas emissions. Innovative technological product: new block poppet-nozzle contact device that operates in a stabilized hydrodynamic mode; new ball-shaped weighted nozzle for three-phase foam layer. Scope of application the innovative technological product: technological processes in the treatment of gas emissions or technological gases.
Alina Yakimenko
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 13-15; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002139

Abstract:
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks 2nd in the structure of mortality from malignant neoplasms (MN). One of the criteria for the prognosis of CRC may be a tumor stroma, which has not been widely used in clinical practice. The aim was to determine the main morphological features of the stroma CRC T3N0-2M0 and search for prognostic criteria for their recurrence and lethal outcome according to the operating material and autopsy. Materials and methods. Group I included primary CRC without recurrence. The average recurrence-free period was 5 years (62.5±16.5 months). Group II – primary CRC with recurrence; IIA – with recurrences within 5 years from the date of tumor removal that did not lead to death; IIB – with the appearance of recurrence and lethal consequence of the generalization of the tumor process within 5 years from the moment of removal of the primary tumor. CRC micropreparations made according to the standard method with G + E staining were studied; immunohistochemical study was performed using monoclonal antibodies to smooth muscle actin alpha. Results. Stromal-parenchymal ratio >50 % is a prognostic criterion for recurrence (p<0.05) and shorter recurrence-free survival (p<0.001) of patients with stage IIA-IIIB CRC. Immature stroma type CRC stage IIA-IIIB is associated with the presence of tumor budding (p<0.001), G3 differentiation (p<0.01), shorter recurrence-free survival (p<0.001); among recurrent CRCs, the immature type of stroma is associated with the lethal outcome of patients (p<0.05). Expressed levels of tumor-activated fibroblasts are one of the criteria for immature CRC stroma (p<0.003), but as an independent prognostic criterion has limited prognostic value. Conclusions. TSR and immature type of stroma are prognostic criteria for recurrence and recurrence period of CRC pT3N0-2M0, more typical of tumors of patients with recurrence and lethal outcome with the same ratio of tumors by differentiation.
Yaroslav Tytukh, Yurii Musiienko, Natalia Grebenik
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 32-34; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002137

Abstract:
The problem of treatment of subclinical mastitis often arises after calving, especially in cows of the first lactation. The paper presents the results of the therapeutic effect of Bacillus megaterium in subclinical mastitis in cows. The aim of the research. To determine the effect of Bacillus megaterium on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract and colonies of microorganisms isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. Materials and methods. The research was conducted in a dairy farm growing Holstein. Cows with subclinical mastitis of the experimental groups were given concentrated feed with the addition of Bacillus megaterium (1 × 109 CFU/g) at a dose of 15–35 g per animal. The control group of cows was given the usual diet for dairy cows. The experiment lasted 30 days. Results. The use of Bacillus megaterium (1 × 109 CFU/g) at a dose of 35 g per animal had a pronounced effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of cows. The amount of Lactobacillus sp. was 67 % higher and Bifidobacterium 58 % higher than the control. In addition, the level of opportunistic pathogens on Escherichia coli decreased by 45 %, Clostridium by 27 %, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus by 75 %, and Candida by 80 % compared to controls. The amount of microflora in milk decreased by 40.2 % and the number of somatic cells by 87.9 %. Conclusions. The therapeutic efficacy of Bacillus megaterium (1 × 109 CFU/g) at a dose of 35 g per animal for 30 days in subclinical mastitis has been proven. After treatment, the amount of microflora in cow's milk decreased by 40.2 % and the number of somatic cells by 87.9 %. A positive effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of cows, where the number of Lactobacillus sp. increased by 67 % and Bifidobacterium by 58 %. The level of opportunistic pathogenic microflora decreased by Escherichia coli – by 45 %, Clostridium – by 27 %, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus – by 75 %, Candida – by 80 %, compared to the control.
Galyna Polishchuk, Uliana Kuzmyk, Nataliia Yushchenko, Tetiana Osmak, Mykhailo Kurmach, Oksana Bass, Oksana Kyrychenko
Published: 29 October 2021
Abstract:
Research object: rheological characteristics of fermented milk pastes with spices. Investigated problem: according to the results of the degree of syneresis and rheological properties, the consistency of the product is characterized. This allows to improve and optimize the technological process for the production of fermented milk products. Main scientific results: the results of the dispersion analysis of spices show that their particle size is in the range of 250 … 400 microns. This size is optimal for the extraction of biologically active substances of spices, which will contribute to greater assimilation by the human body. And also optimally to avoid caking of raw materials and the manifestation of moisture-absorbing properties. It was found that the degree of syneresis of fermented milk pastes with spices is within 10 %. With the addition of cinnamon and fenugreek spices, the degree of syneresis is lower compared to other examples. This is due to the fact that spices contain a solution of fiber, which allows them to retain free moisture. The spice cinnamon is a dried bark that naturally contains polysaccharides, while fenugreek contains up to 30 % mucus, which also has a high moisture-absorbing capacity. With such a low serum separation, the stabilizing effect is sufficient to prevent spontaneous whey separation. Based on the results of the rheological properties of the product, it was established that fermented milk pastes belong to viscoplastic systems with a normal consistency. There was a slight difference in the shear stress index for pastes based on fermented milk low-fat soft dietary cheese and sour cream with a fat mass fraction of 20 % – by an average of 50 Pa. This characteristic is due to the hydrophilic characteristics of the protein. The area of practical use of the research results: scientific research concerns the technology of dairy products in the food industry. Innovative technological product: the obtained scientific result is an opportunity to improve the technological process of fermented milk products. The scope of implementation of an innovative technological product: the results obtained give grounds to assert the ability to translate into a real industrial creation.
Аndrii Borysenko, Inna Tkachenko,
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in medicine pp 26-28; https://doi.org/10.21303/2585-6634.2021.002146

Abstract:
In the structure of regional and planetary pollutants, pesticides are in the top ten, and among food contaminants along with heavy metals – they occupy first place in the world. It is known that pesticides and agrochemicals, which belong to the group of biologically active compounds, are one of the important factors affecting the human body. The aim: comparative hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk when using pesticides by different methods of application (knapsack, rod, ventilator, unmanned and aviation) on the example of the fungicide Amistar Extra 280 SC. Materials and methods. Field studies were conducted in 2018–2021. When applying the formulation knapsack sprayer SOLO-10, trailed boom sprayer AMAZON 1201 UF combined with a tractor MTZ 82.1 Belarus, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for spraying fields Agras T16, AN-2 aircraft combined with OZh-2 were used. Results. As a result of field researches of working conditions of employees during the performance of production operations on the pesticides application, it was found that in the air treatment areas and in areas of possible drift the levels of studied active ingredients were below the limit of quantification of the method. The difference between azoxystrobin (0,04±0,003) and cyproconazole (12,4±0,5) for the tank refueler and the UAV external pilot in the field studies is significant according to Student's criterion (p >0,05). For the operator who applied the pesticide with a knapsack sprayer, the values of inhalation risks were significantly higher than for the tankers of the sprayer tank at p >0,05. The values of the combined risk when using a fan sprayer (0,46±0,02) significantly exceeded the data obtained when using a rod sprayer (0,14±0,006) Conclusions. Analysis of the obtained results showed that the values of the combined risk are significantly higher for the operator / tractor driver, signalman than for their refuelers (at p <0,05). The values of the combined risk of the external pilot were significantly lower than those of the tanker when using a pesticide using a UAV.
Vadym Horeniuk
Published: 29 October 2021
Abstract:
Object of research: the process of movement of cars with internal combustion engines or the electric drive on a road curve. Investigation problem: assessment of the stability of cars with internal combustion engines or electric drive on a road curve and determination of conditions of its ensuring. The main scientific result. The article evaluated the stability of cars with internal combustion engines or electric drive on a road curve and determines the conditions of its ensuring using an algorithm that combines mathematical models of car movement on a road curve, synthesized based on balance equations of both kinematics and dynamics. The proposed models consider the change in speed of cars while driving on a road curve, and therefore belong to the class of differential equations. The analysis of these models allows calculating changes in time of values of limiting and critical speeds of movement of the car on a road curve. The article identifies the prospects of integration into this set of mathematical models another one, synthesized in the space of linguistic variables that characterize the uncertainty of the road surface and the degree of tire wear on different wheels of the car. The area of practical application of the research results: Automotive enterprises specializing in equipping cars with traffic control systems. Innovative technological product: A method of determining the limiting parameters of movement of the car on road curves, at which the car does not overturn while passing turns, and an algorithm for its implementation, which combines kinematic and dynamic mathematical models of car movement on the road curve. Scope of application of the innovative technological product: Equipping cars with additional control systems that assess the critical values of the traffic parameters on turns to ensure the conditions of non-overturning when the car passes these turns
Natalia Prytulska, Petro Karpenko, Dmytro Antiushko, , Nataliia Shapovalova
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.002095

Abstract:
It has been established, that the development and implementation of the practice of using biologically active components of nutrition is one of the areas of modern dietetics, which are developing dynamically. Apiproducts are a very promising source of biologically active substances. Fundamental studies of domestic and foreign scientists have proven their high biological value, versatile pharmacological activity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-radiation, etc.). The use of apiproducts for the prevention and treatment of a number of human diseases is a comprehensively studied phenomenon in terms of beekeeping, botany, chemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, medicine and pharmacy. It has been proved, that the action of individual apiproducts and their components allows to use them effectively in practical apitherapy. Because these products differ significantly depending on their chemical composition, they are divided into two groups. The first includes honey, flower pollen, perga (a product of conservation of flower pollen in a hive) and, in part, drone brood. As mixtures of valuable BAS and metabolites, they are used mainly to increase the biological value of traditional foods and create new compositions. The second group includes bee venom, propolis and, in part, royal jelly, which are therapeutic agents by their nature and are used to correct physiological functions and metabolism, have regulatory effects, and their action is realized through the effect on the lipid matrix of biological membranes and membrane proteins. It has been established, that the use of these food components in health nutrition and production of health and medical foods is a promising area
Foluso Adekanmbi, Wilfred Isioma Ukpere
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001995

Abstract:
This paper investigates employee engagement, authentic leadership and human capital factors’ influences on the creative behaviors of bank employees within Nigeria’s banking industry. This investigation’s sample was taken from a selection of banks (Guarantee Trust Bank Plc, First Bank Plc, and United Bank For Africa Plc) across the Lagos and Ibadan cities of Lagos and Oyo States, Nigeria. This paper adopts a survey study approach, and questionnaires were randomly circulated. However, out of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 273 were fit to be used for the research and analyzed via statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS vs. 26). The current findings suggest that the younger the bank employees, the more creative they are. The higher their educational level and work experience, the more creative they are within Nigeria’s banking industry. The current investigation further established that employee engagement and authentic leadership significantly and positively influence creativity amongst employees within Nigeria’s banking industry. Therefore, the management of the Nigerian banks needs to consider spurring of employees’ sense of belonging and engagement to help stimulate and nurture their creativity. They should also consider essential authentic leadership training for their managers to help them discharge their leadership functions, related to the positive development of their subordinates’ creative behaviors and the human capital factors in stimulating employee creativity.
Juliet Eileen Joseph
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 69-81; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002047

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a global security challenge for humanity. The COVID-19 pandemic, a non traditional security threat has exposed how regions respond to non traditional and emerging security threats. Similarly, the South African Development Community (SADC) region remains confronted with security ramifications due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The peace and security of the region has been disturbed due to an upsurge of conflicts in countries, such as South Africa (South Africa’s unrests, protests and the Phoenix Massacre), Lesotho (Eswatini protests) and Mozambique’s (Carbo Delgado insurgency), all amidst the coronavirus global pandemic. Further to this, SADCs human security challenges that have transpired and, in some cases, have been further exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, include economic decline, job losses, food insecurity and the loss of life to mention a few. Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, SADC Member Stateshave had to exercise greater regional pandemic management with diseases, such as Malaria, Human Acquired Immune (HIV/AIDs) and Tuberculosis (TB). SADCs efforts in combatting these human security threats have been progressive and notable. The study will analyse and build on the challenges, identified in Landsberg’s (2012) study The Southern African Development Community decision-making architecture, where he suggests that at the heart of SADCs progress is the need for greater implementation of their set goals and aspirations. The study will analyse recent efforts, undertaken by the SADC region, in order to determine the successes and challenges, faced by the sub-regional bloc. It is analysing peace and security of SADC under the Covid-19 pandemic through an upsurge of conflicts in the region and the early securitisation and cooperation of the Covid-19 pandemic. The article suggests, SADC strengthened regional cooperation efforts, such as early warning systems and regional execution methods, have fostered advanced regional security outcomesin the region.
Ivanna Moroz
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002023

Abstract:
The policy of external and domestic public debt management in different countries has its own specifics, and its results are not always unambiguous. Thus, the existing recommendations of the International Monetary Fund and the Maastricht criteria prove that the maximum value of public debt to GDP should be no more than 60 %. Exceeding this limit can lead to a deterioration in financial stability, debt sustainability, and ultimately to a technical default of the state. However, the practice of public debt management in many developed countries shows quite opposite trends, as a significant excess of the Maastricht criterion not only does not lead to default, but on the contrary allows countries to accumulate the necessary financial resources to ensure stable economic growth. Therefore, the study of European debt strategies and their effectiveness is a very important issue, especially given the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for developing countries. Given the growing external debt dependence of Ukraine as a result of both the war with the Russian Federation and the COVID-19 pandemic, the search for a better experience of European debt policy and consideration of ways to adapt it to domestic realities are discussed in our article. Based on the analysis of the debt policy of European countries, the expediency of using debt rules, aimed at regulating both the country's debt security and the effectiveness of the use of public borrowing to stimulate economic growth has been proved. Cluster analysis of debt strategies of some European countries has shown that the high level of dependence on external public debt has a negative impact on economic security in general, because in the event of deteriorating macroeconomic situation, the likelihood of foreign investors selling government securities increases, and in the case of external loans from international financial and credit organizations – the risks of negative impact of burdensome non-financial obligations on the national economy grow.
Yaroslav Shevchenko
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 47-60; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001976

Abstract:
The study is devoted to substantiating the tactics of choosing the signs of the patient's condition for diagnostic decision-making on corrective medical intervention in mobile medicine. The aim of the research: to study a creation of a methodology for determining the integral informativeness of the patient's symptoms during remote monitoring of his condition. Materials and methods: this article is based on search results in PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, UK NHS HTA articles published between January 1991 and January 2021 and containing the search terms “information technology”, “Mobile medicine”, “digital pathology” and “deep learning”, as well as the results of the authors' own research. The authors independently extracted data on concealment of distribution, consistency of distribution, blindness, completeness of follow-up, and interventions. Results: concluded that to determine the Informativeness of symptoms in mobile monitoring of patients, it is possible to use risk indicators of predicted conditions as a universal method. Given that the Informativeness of the patient's condition changes constantly, for online diagnosis of conditions during remote monitoring of the patient it is recommended to use the function of informative symptoms from time to time and use a set of approaches to assess the Informativeness of patient symptoms. It is proposed to use the strategy of diagnosis and treatment using probabilistic algorithms based on the values of the risk of complications of the pathological process, as well as the formulas of Kulbach and Shannon to determine individual trends in the pathological patient process. Conclusion: there was proposed to use risk indicators of predicted conditions as a universal method for determining the informational content of symptoms in mobile monitoring of patients.
Natalia Zhelezniakova,
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 17-26; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001854

Abstract:
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about a quarter of the world's population and it is closely linked to hypertension (HT). Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in the pathology progression, and the search for non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of NAFLD remains an important issue. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of IL-1β and IL-10 in assessing the progression of liver parenchyma changes in patients with NAFLD and HT comorbidity. Materials and methods. A study of 115 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. The main group consisted of 63 patients with NASH and HT, 52 patients with isolated NAFLD represented the comparison group. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated, IL-10 and IL-1β levels were measured by ELISA method, ultrasound steatometry and elastography were performed in all patients. Results. The attenuation coefficient and median liver stiffness in NAFLD and HT group significantly exceeded the results in the isolated NAFLD group and in the control group. The IL-1β level in NAFLD and HT group was 17.55 pg/ml, and in isolated NAFLD group the indicator averaged 15.72 pg/ml, which exceeded the control values (8.26 pg/ml). IL-10 level was 12.69 pg/ml and 14.34 pg/ml in patients with comorbid and isolated NAFLD, respectively, while control results averaged 16.19 pg/ml. It were found strong relationship between IL-1β, IL-10 and CRP levels in patients with NAFLD and HT (r=0.61, p=0.024, and r=-0.69, p=0.036, respectively). Inverse correlations were also found between the cytokines IL-1β and IL-10 in NAFLD patients with and without HT (r=-0.61, p<0.001, and r=-0.57, p<0.001, respectively). Changes in the cytokine status of patients with NAFLD at different stages of steatosis and liver fibrosis had been identified. Conclusions. The presence of concomitant HT in patients with NAFLD is associated with greater severity of liver parenchyma changes. NAFLD manifestation is accompanied by increase of IL-1β and decrease of IL-10 levels, and deepening of these deviations were found in patients with comorbidity of NAFLD and HT. Interleukins IL-1β and IL-10 can be defined as biomarkers of NAFLD progression both in its isolated course and in its comorbidity with HT. The possibility of using biomarkers as an independent non-invasive test of diagnosing NAFLD requires further study.
Waliu Adegbite,
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 101-112; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002015

Abstract:
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is a strategy to create effective talent pools and meet business needs for competent and work-ready graduates. There are limited empirical studies on how WIL student demographic profiles (i.e., age) may affect the effectiveness of WIL projects and learning experience. Guided by the research question: Does undergraduate student age affect WIL preparation and experience? A survey was conducted through a quantitative approach among final year undergraduate students who participated in the WIL programme. Sixty-six copies of the questionnaire were distributed, forty retrieved and consider valid for further analysis. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings show that age could be an important factor in a student's WIL experience. Students in the age group of 21 years may have better WIL experiences than younger or older WIL students. Although age is not considered a major factor in determining overall WIL experiences, student demographical information is important for successful WIL projects. Findings further show that WIL preparation is an important factor towards better WIL project outcomes and enhanced student experiences. This paper adds to the body of knowledge on WIL student demographic considerations and creates awareness that student demographics must be considered if WIL projects are to be successful.
Ihor Zupanets, , , Yurij Stolper
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 69-80; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002014

Abstract:
One of the main problems in the production of tablets, which has significant negative consequences, is the segregation of the tablet mixture leading to inhomogeneity of dosage units, material losses in the manufacturing process and improperness of the specified pharmaceutical technical characteristics of the mixture. The aim of the research. This work aims at the pharmaceutical technical study of the substances N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and Actimask® Acetaminophen and determination the uniformity of the powder mixture of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to predict the optimal technology for obtaining a pharmaceutical formulation with the acceptable properties. Materials and methods. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (Zhejiang Candorly Pharmaceutical, China) and Actimask® Acetaminophen (SpiPharma, USA) were used. Scanning probe microscope Solver P47N-PRO ("NT-MDT", Russia), optical microscope, flowability tester VP-12A, laser diffraction particle size analyzer SALD-2201 ("Shimadzu", Japan), liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity II with Diode Array Detector (Agilent Technologies, USA), spectrophotometers Shimadzu UV-1800 ("Shimadzu", Japan) were used. The study of API pharmaceutical technical properties (microscopic characteristics, moisture absorption capacity, flowability, bulk volume and tapped volume, particle size distribution by sieve analysis and laser diffraction), as well as vibration simulation and following chromatographic study were carried out in this work. Results and discussion. The shape of the particles N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and Actimask® Acetaminophen, which was determined by microscopic analysis, demonstrated the possibility of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine particles to stick to Actimask® Acetaminophen ones. The experimental study allowed to reveal the hygroscopicity of both APIs; poor flowability, unsatisfactory Hausner ratio, and Carr index for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; excellent flowability, Hausner ratio, and Carr index for Actimask®. Vibration caused segregation of the powder mixture. It was found that all layers do not meet the requirements and an excessive content of Actimask® is registered, which indicates the stratification of the powder mixture. Conclusions. The physical properties of the substances were determined and found to have significant differences in their particle size distribution. Segregation of the mixture after vibration was confirmed by laser diffraction and assay analysis. In order to solve the segregation problem, the granulation of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine may be proposed.
Ihor Vakaliuk, Khrystyna Levandovska, Natalia Tymochko
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.001793

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine the futility of NT-pro BNP level analysis during dosed physical exercise for diagnosing decompensated HF in the postinfarction period and the possibility to determine the HF functional class. Materials and methods. 160 patients with previous MI were examined, patients’ average age was (56.67±5.72) years. The patients were randomized in 2 groups dependently on the presence of the signs of II А-B according to V. Kh. Vasylenko and M. D. Strazhesko classification and FC III-IV (according to NYHA) decompensated chronic HF. Group I consisted of 120 patients with Q-QS and non-Q MI; group II (the control one) had 40 patients with MI without signs of decompensated HF; 20 healthy people made up a norm group. Results. Signs of coronary insufficiency such as dizziness and signs of poor peripheral perfusion (cyanosis/paleness) occurred in 104 (86.7 %) and 79 (65.8 %) cases that differ from the same values in the second group 4 (10.0 %) and 14 (35.0 %) respectively. 88 (73.3 %) patients with the signs of decompensated HF felt general weakness, fatigue, and expressed a request to stop the test. The HR in the postinfarction patients with the signs of decompensated HF was before the exercise (88.2±3.18) bpm (p≤0.05); in the patients with past MI without the signs of decompensated HF, it was (75.32±3.41) bpm (p≤0.05); and in the practically healthy people, it was (77.73±3.02) bpm. We found out a reverse moderate correlation between the distances that had been covered by a patient during the 6MWT NT-proBNP level in blood serum of examined patients. Conclusions. Inadequate response to dosed physical exercises and increased immunological parameters as quantitative HF markers could be useful not only for diagnostics, but also for the risk stratification for decompensated HF that had occurred in patients on different rehabilitation stages after an acute MI.
Shaka Yesufu
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 12-23; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002050

Abstract:
The Spaza retail outlet is predominately found in South Africa’s black populated areas or townships. It also has a historical significance to it because, during the apartheid years, black people were not allowed to move freely by the white minority rule. This study is qualitative research where the author carried out an extensive literature review to look first, at the background, characteristics, challenges, and future directions that affect the Spaza micro businesses in South Africa. The research aims to first highlight the importance of micro-businesses. Second, to highlight the need for South Africa’s government initiatives to support small businesses for sustainable growth of the economy and to explore whether this support is far-reaching enough to protect the Spaza retail shops. The authors rely on Karl Marx's theory of class struggle as the theory informing the study. Some of the findings are: Spaza owners need to be more trained in business management, entrepreneurial skills, advertisement, social networking and marketing research, accounting and bookkeeping, technology, and innovation concerning promoting their businesses. The Spaza's annual revenue stream for the South Africa government currently stands at 5.2 % of the GDP.
Kateryna Leshchenko, Maksym Serik, Yevgen Pyvovarov, Andrii Zahorulko,
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.002089

Abstract:
The results of research on the effect of protein-mineral improved additive (PMIA) on the rheological parameters of minced meat, which can be used for manufacturing culinary products, including chopped semi-finished products of a high degree of readiness, are presented. It has been proven, that the additive can be used both as an ingredient, enriching calcium-digestible compounds and to improve a number of technological properties of minced meat, in particular after freezing, storage and thawing. The aim of the study was to determine the dependences of changes in the structural and mechanical characteristics of minced meat after the addition of PMIA and subsequent freezing to a temperature of –16…–18 °C and storage for 20 days. It has been found, that the addition of up to 7 % of PMIA leads to a marked increase in the conditionally instantaneous modulus of elasticity and highly elastic modulus in 4.4 times for minced beef and 2.7 and 4.4 times for chicken, respectively. It has been established, that the best stabilization of these indicators after freezing occurs at the content of PMIA at the level of 2…5 %. Studies of plastic viscosity and adhesion have shown that the use of up to 7 % of PMIA leads to an increase of 11…20 % and 26…64 %, respectively. After freezing, the plastic viscosity and adhesion of minced beef in the control decreased by 22.0 and 52 %, respectively, minced chicken – by 23.4 and 40.9 %. In the samples with a content of 7 % of PMIA, the decrease in plastic viscosity and adhesion is 7.2 and 4.4 % in minced beef and in chicken – 5.9 and 3.1 % respectively. It has been proven, that the use of PMIA in the amount of up to 7 % in the technology of minced meat production minimizes the negative destructive effect of low temperatures on the structural and mechanical characteristics of the finished product. Thus, it is expedient to use up to 7.0 % of the improved protein-mineral additive in the composition of minced meat to enrich the finished product with digestible calcium compounds and improve their structural and mechanical characteristics, in particular after freezing and storage
Zahar Linnik, Oksana Sergienko, Tetiana Harbovska
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 18-25; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.002087

Abstract:
Relevant in the selection of each crop, including watermelon is a comprehensive study of the source material to identify sources of valuable traits and include them in the selection process in order to expand the genetic diversity of the culture. According to the results of research, to create a new source material for heterosis selection of watermelon, screening and monitoring of the vegetation period duration (number of days from germination to ripening) and its components 118 (101 varieties, 17 hybrids) genotypes of watermelon in the forest-steppe of Ukraine have been conducted. Research methods are generally accepted: field experiment, observation, accounting, analysis, statistical. According to the results of determining the duration of the components of the vegetation period, the samples were divided into five groups of ripeness: early (65–80 days) – 80 (68 %), medium-early (81–85 days) – 14 (12 %), medium (86–95 days) – 18 (15 %), medium-late (96–105 days) – 4 (3 %) and late (106 days) – 2 (2 %). Variety-samples, selected by morphological and economically valuable characteristics, belong mainly (80 %) to early and medium-early. Only 6 % of genotypes belong to the medium-late and late-ripening groups. 52 samples with the smallest separate interphase periods were isolated. According to the results of the research, 8 sources with the high early ripeness were identified, the vegetation period of which was 66–70 days: Yellow early 108105 (66 days), Karapuz 108109, Surprise 108121 (67 days), Gift of the sun 108109, Lezheboka honey 108116, Thailand №1 108153 ( 69 days), Sweet Diamond 107874, Northern Lights 108127 (70 days). Sources are involved in the selection process
Frank Ojwang
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 82-100; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002063

Abstract:
This is a comparative ethnographic research, comparing the primary school level migrant learners’ performance in the learning of the national language of the host countries in Finland and Tanzania. A response from nine teachers, drawn from Tanzanian International Schools, attended by expats’ children, was collected through structured interviews. Additionally, two In-Depth Interviews, targeting Tanzanian Swahili teachers at the international schools, was conducted using the narration approach. The study uses MAXQDA to comparatively analyze the findings of fourteen research articles on immigrant pupils’ learning challenges of the Finnish language as a second language in Finland, and gathered information from this study’s survey is used to analyze the use of Kiswahili as a second language in Tanzania. The research focuses on a comparative analysis of the learning and use of official languages of the host countries as second languages, used in facilitating learning among primary school learners. In Finland, the official language analyzed is Finnish, whereas in Tanzania, the official language analyzed is Kiswahili. The International schools in Tanzania offer Kiswahili lessons to all learners in primary school as guided by national education policy, whereas all public and international schools in Finland offer Finnish lessons for all learners under the education policy. The responses in both Finland and Tanzania are deconstructed qualitatively to illuminate the similarities and differences between European migrant learners and African migrant learners using a second language for learning, and to further deconstruct the nuanced epistemological injustice against minorities. The theories in this research are derived using the grounded theory approach.
Jean Luc Kalambayi, Darlington Peter Onojaefe, Sophie Nguepi Kasse, Robertson K. Tengeh
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 34-48; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002037

Abstract:
Currently, there is a dearth of research, examining how project managers' leadership styles influence the performance of construction company workers in Cape Town. Other research has discussed this subject on a national or international level. Still, comprehensive data on Cape Town construction firms is lacking. This has prevented local enterprises from understanding the role of their project managers’ leadership styles on employee performance outcomes. This article sought to ascertain how leadership styles influence employee performance in construction firms and to develop a conceptual framework for improving leadership and performance. Through quantitative techniques, 456 questionnaires were distributed at construction sites across Cape Town. Responses were then analysed using an ANOVA test (with the descriptive and regressive methods) and a post-hoc test (using the Bonferroni Method) and correlation analysis. The results reveal a statistically significant positive relationship between project managers’ leadership styles and the performance of subordinate employees. These findings have subsequently been used to develop a conceptual framework of leadership quality development tools, including training, empowerment, coaching, participation, and delegation. The research contributes to new knowledge that will promote local project managers’ leadership development, improve employee performance, and in doing so, increase successful project outcomes across the city.
Viktoriia Olkhovska, Olga Olkhovska, Zalina Yeloyeva
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002098

Abstract:
The aim of the work is to study the indicators of cellular and humoral immune response and FAN of patients with tonsillitis in children infected with HHV-6 type. Materials and methods of research. In 72 children aged 3–15 years (mean age 8.42±1.44 years), patients with streptococcal tonsillitis of moderate severity, the levels of the main subpopulations of blood lymphocytes were determined using monoclonal antibodies by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, phagocytic activity of neutrophils (FAN) using the nitrosine tetrazolium reduction test (HCT test) and serum IgA, IgM, IgG levels by radial immunodiffusion. The studies were carried out in the acute period and in the period of convalescence. Mathematical and statistical processing of the data obtained was carried out using Microsoft Excel 2003 and Statistica 6.0 programs. The significance of differences between the mean values was determined using the Student's test (t). Results. Different mechanisms of formation of pathological process at streptococcal tonsillitis at children depending on the concomitant HHV-6 type infection are revealed. In patients with mixed infection in the acute period of tonsillitis determine the signs of deficiency of the cellular immune system with the maximum deviation of CD-lymphocytes (t=3.13 vs. t=2.16 in mono-infection), the tension in the humoral link of the immune response Ig deviation (t=1.63 against t=0.91 in mono-infection) on the background of phagocytosis violation in terms of FAN deviation (t=3.22 against t=2.01 in mono-infection). By the period of convalescence, the restoration of the imbalance of specific and non-specific protection factors does not occur. Increased IgG content in the acute period is one of the features of streptococcal tonsillitis in children on the background of HHV-6t infection. Conclusions. Concomitant VGL-6 type infection in children with streptococcal tonsillitis affects the mechanisms of formation of the inflammatory process and the reactivity of patients, forming the preconditions for adverse outcomes of the disease. The obtained results can be the basis for early detection of herpes virus infection in patients with tonsillitis, will help to optimize the management of patients in different periods of the disease.
Oleksandr Chynchyk, Svitlana Olifirovych, Volodymyr Olifirovych, Kateryna Nebaba
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.002075

Abstract:
The results of a field experiment to study the effect of seed treatment with the biological product Rhizoactive (сompany BioNorma, Ukraine) on the formation and functioning of the symbiotic apparatus of common bean (grain) plants are presented. The experiment examined six varieties of common beans (grain), included in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine: Bukovynka, Halaktyka, Slaviia, Ros, Otrada, Nata. The influence of bacterial fertilizer based on nodule bacteria " Rhizoactive " on the indicators of symbiotic and grain productivity of these varieties of common beans was studied. It was found, that the maximum number and raw weight of active nodules in the studied varieties of common beans were formed in the flowering phase. A larger number of nodules, compared to the variety Bukovynka (control), was formed on the root system of bean varieties Ros, Otrada and Nata. The maximum raw weight of rhizobia in the plots without the use of Rhizoactive was formed by the common bean variety Otrada – 0.297 g/plant of active nodules. Inoculation of the seeds of the studied common bean varieties with Rhizoactive increased the raw weight of active nodules in the flowering phase by 0.016–0.042 g/plant. A larger mass of nodules, compared to the Bukovynka variety, was formed on the root system of Ros, Otrada and Nata beans. The maximum raw weight of rhizobia in areas without the use of Rhizoactive was formed by the variety of beans Otrada – 0.297 g/plant of active nodules. Inoculation of seeds of the studied varieties of beans with Rhizoactive increased the raw weight of active nodules in the flowering phase by 0.016–0.042 g/plant. The highest increase in grain yield from seed inoculation was obtained in 2018, which was more favorable in terms of moisture. Thus, the largest increase in grain yield from the use of Rhizoactive was provided by the varieties Halaktyka (0.14 t/ha or 5.7 %), Ros (0.15 t/ha or 5.5 %) and Otrada (0.22 t/ha or 7.7 %). On average, in 2018–2020, inoculation of bean seeds with Rhizoactive, depending on the variety, provided an increase in grain yield from 2.4 to 6.7 %. And the highest level of bean grain yield on average in 2018–2020 was provided by the varieties Otrada (2.60 t/ha), Nata (2.50 t/ha) and Ros (2.40 t/ha) for inoculation of seeds with Rhizoactive
Andrii Semeniuk
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 3-9; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002085

Abstract:
The aim. Minimization of the frequency of recurrence of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) in women of reproductive age with overweight (OW) depending on the tactics of treatment. Materials and methods. 90 women of reproductive age with endometrial hyperplasia and OW were selected. They, in turn, were divided into three groups: group 1 – 30 women who took a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist), namely at a dose of 3.75 mg intramuscularly once every 28 days; group 2 – 30 women who used progestin (norethisterone) at a dose of 10 mg per day from day 16 to 25 of the cycle, group 3 – 30 women who took combined oral contraception (COC) (30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel) in a cyclic mode 21/7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy included a clinical picture of the disease 6 months after the start of treatment, assessment of the variability of the average values of endometrial thickness and uterine size on ultrasound (US) of the pelvis 6 months after treatment. Also analyzed the effectiveness of therapy based on the results of morphological examination of the endometrium in a biopsy of the uterine mucosa, performed 6 months after the start of treatment. In addition, a general analysis of the frequency of EH recurrence was performed 6–24 months after treatment. Results. The results showed that in the group in which women were prescribed GnRH agonist, there was a significantly higher effectiveness of treatment, in particular the absence of uterine bleeding and menstrual disorders (MD). At the same time, in the other norethisterone group, 53.3 % (16) of women had intermenstrual uterine bleeding. In patients in the group in which women received COC, uterine bleeding was observed in 30.0 % (i.e. 9) of patients (p <0.05). Immediately after treatment, the average values of endometrial thickness in patients of group 1, according to ultrasound, was 3.59±0.47 mm, which was significantly less than in women of groups 2 and 3 – 6.81±0.59 mm (p<0.001) and 7.58±0.69 mm (p<0.001). In addition, patients in group 1 at 3, 6, 12, 24 months after the end of hormone therapy were registered significantly lower average values of endometrial thickness, compared with patients receiving norethisterone and estrogen-progestogen drugs. Conclusions. In a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment of endometrial hyperplastic processes in overweight women, it was found that the recurrence rate after 6–24 months occurs in 6.7 % (i.e. 2) of patients after GnRH agonist therapy, in 33.3 % (i.e. in 10) patients receiving norethisterone (p<0.001), and in 50 % (i.e. 15) of women treated with COC (p<0.001).
Andriy Fedets
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 49-57; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002078

Abstract:
Despite the steady spread of non-cash payment technologies, especially now in the pandemic, cash remains the most common method of payment in all countries. The availability of cash in banking institutions, cash centers, ATMs, various self-service devices is provided by the units of collection and transportation of currency values. Collection of funds and transportation of currency values ​​is an integral part of the cash circulation of any banking system, which consists in the collection, delivery and movement of cash by vehicles, from enterprises, institutions, organizations of various forms of ownership to banking institutions and vice versa. The cost of conducting cash collection, supporting cash registers, branches, and loading ATMs constitues a significant part of all operating expenses of banks and collection companies. Due to the high level of risk of attacks on the teams of collectors, the main task is to maintain an appropriate level of security to protect life and health of collectors, which requires significant financial costs. Business owners find a way out in the introduction of new innovative banking products and information technologies. The article examines the processes of cash collection operations by classical and electronic methods as well as modern innovative technologies for cash collection, cash processing, and protection of valuables. The results of scientific research show that the reduction of operating costs for cash collection increases the level of security, and optimization of cash processing is possible only with the active implementation and use of modern information technology and automated software. The article proves the need to improve the mechanism of state regulatory policy in the market of cash collection services in Ukraine, in particular, to amend the regulatory legal acts of the regulator, which is represented by the National Bank of Ukraine, in terms of refining and detailing legal norms that establish and determine the procedure operations on cash collection in electronic form and periodicity of collection units employees training.
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 3-11; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.002012

Abstract:
This article critiques the retail business management curriculum as currently offered in the Higher Education (HE) sector. The study used an exploratory qualitative approach, which involved conducting telephone interviews with a purposively selected sample of 25 participants conversant with the phenomenon studied, retail management practitioners, students and curriculum review experts. This was augmented by secondary literature. The study found out that by and large the retail business management (RBM) curriculum that is currently rolled out in the HE sector is largely based on Western epistemologies. The knowledge economy that is consumed by the recipients of the RBM curriculum in the HE sector is mainly from American and European academics and that is at the expense of the local or indigenous knowledge. It was found out, that the majority of the curriculum recipients do not identify with the current curriculum because it is divorced from their lived experiences that include their culture in particular their languages, beliefs and values. The study avers that indigenous knowledge systems were left out in the process of the RBM curriculum development and that partly explains its alienation from the lived realities of the local students and academic staff. The study therefore recommends that the current RBM curriculum needs to be effectively decolonised and the starting point for this decolonisation process is the involvement of all stakeholders in the curriculum development process. Secondly, the use of diverse educators to reflect the country’s racial mix is recommended. The study also recommends the convening of all stakeholder curriculum review engagements, the use of a local knowledge economy and local languages in teaching and learning of the RBM curriculum.
Rita Sahaidak-Nikitiuk, Karyna Holybtsova, Nataliya Demchenko, Vitalii Nikitiuk
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 61-68; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002052

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to analyze the existing problems of adaptive management of manufacturing pharmaceutical companies and the development of methodological support for their management. Materials and methods. The research used methods of theoretical generalization, analysis and synthesis, synergetic approach and expert survey. 120 people were involved in the expert survey, divided into four groups: representatives of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises (30 people); representatives of pharmaceutical higher education institutions (30 people); pharmaceutical distributors representing wholesale companies (30 people); end users (30 people). Results. The article considers scientific and methodological approaches to improving adaptive management in the direction of forming competitive advantages of manufacturing pharmaceutical companies, the practical implementation of which requires business entities determination, flexibility and adequacy in the formation of modern management strategies and tactical planning and operational tasks of production, economic and commercial activities. There are external and internal factors influencing the formation of competitive advantages of the business entity. As the internal factors we include: organizational and legal form, and business entity organizational structure; the level of scientific and technical development of production; level of education and qualification of staff; business image of the enterprise; financial reputation of the enterprise. However, no less influence on the formation of competitive advantages of the management of manufacturing pharmaceutical companies have external factors, which, in contrast to internal, are not controlled by the entity: the state of the pharmaceutical market; technologies; workforce; scientific and technical development; etc. Conclusions. The directions of increasing the adaptive management efficiency are determined and it is concluded that the main criterion of efficiency is the quality of pharmaceutical products and the quality of management decisions in economic risks.
Alexander Paul Isiko, Paulous Serugo
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Social and Humanities pp 113-130; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2021.001958

Abstract:
Numerous studies on death in African societies with no doubt have been successfully conducted though their preoccupation has been with the religious and spirituality perspectives. There has been a great deal of theologizing about the spiritual connection between the life here and life after death. Most studies in the humanities have zeroed on burial rituals and rites as means of transition to the spiritual world. Others have concentrated on how different societies cope with the misfortune of death; through grieving, mourning, choosing an heir or heiress and the succession disputes that are always part and parcel of such a culturally acknowledged process. Death is largely constructed as a challenge and misfortune, and many a scholar in the humanities are concerned with how different societies define, perceive, handle and cope with this catastrophe. Most scholarly works have paid a deaf ear to the social value that comes with the demise of an individual. One such social value is the definition and shaping of moral order in society, in which death occurs. Busoga traditional society of Uganda is used as the case study. Busoga is both a geographical reality and cultural entity, found in the eastern part of Uganda. The authors argue that rather than militating life, death promotes and perpetuates moral values on one hand and discourages vices that destabilize society on the other.
Roman Ilyk, Markiyan Oliynyk
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002013

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to define and analyze the reproducibility of occlusal relationships according to the results of occlusogram in jaw closure using quantitative analysis of occlusion in adult patients with congenital cleft lip and palate before and after their prosthesis with different versions of dentures and types of their constructive features. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 37 patients with congenital cleft lip and palate, 11 (29.73 %) of whom had right-sided clefts, 11 (29.73 %) – left-sided and 15 (40.54 %) – bilateral. The number of occlusal contact points was measured for all patients before the treatment and after the orthopaedic rehabilitation. Research results. Significant differences were found between the number of occlusal contact points before (unusually small number) and after orthopaedic treatment (significant increase), regardless of the type of cleft (p<0.001). Such conditions in the oral cavity significantly complicate the tactics of orthopaedic rehabilitation, which affects the need to find more complex options for combinations of fixed and removable orthopaedic structures. Conclusion. Based on the conditions and objectives of this study, the application of the basic principles of a multidisciplinary approach determine the possibility of rehabilitation of such patients by orthopedic methods by making different versions of orthopedic structures. Adequate and high-quality prosthesis for defects and deformations of the teeth rows and occlusion in patients with CCLP leads to improved occlusal relationships and increase in the number of occlusal contact points.
Olga Vushnevska, Volodymyr Dmytrenko, Nataliia Zakharchuk, Tetiana Oliinyk
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 26-34; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.002067

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to determine the crop productivity, yield of tubers of seed fraction and infection of basic potato seeds with viral infection depending on the period of potato desiccation, application of mineral oil Sunspray, the number and species of winged aphids in the Polissia region of Ukraine. The study was conducted in the prebasic seed production nursery garden of the Institute for Potato Research, NAAS under the conditions of spatial isolation from the main sources and vectors of viral infections of potatoes, located in Nemishaieve, Borodiаnka distr., Kyiv region in the southern part of the Polissia region of Ukraine. The subject of the research is pre-basic and basic seed material of potatoes of mid ripening varieties Myroslava, Predslava, Alians. On average for 2018-2020 years of studies, the highest seed yield was obtained by potato desiccation 10 days after flowering of potatoes - 82.4-85.3 %. However, the level of total and seed yields was low. The efficiency of seed potato production increased with the haulm removal after 20 days - with the total yield depending on the variety 20.6-30.0 t/ha, the yield of seed tubers was in the range of 20.6-22.9 t/ha with the seed content in the crop structure - 71.0-76.3 %. Late haulm removal – on 30th and 40th days after potatoes flowering caused an increase in the yield of tubers of non-standard fraction, with desiccation on 30th day, the seed content in the crop decreased by 61.1-66.0 %, and with desiccation on 40th – by 54-59.8 %. Thus, during the early haulm removal, part of the crop was lost, which during haulm removal in the late stages consisted of large tubers. It has been found out, that potato plants, where the haulm removal during 2018, 2019 was carried out within 10 days after flowering, which was 4.0 % (9.0 % for the check) for the Myroslav potato variety, 3.0 % (10.0 % for the check) for the Predslava potato variety and 4.0 % (9.0 % for the check) for the Alians potato variety were the least infected with PVM. The level of PVM infection when removing the haulm on the 10th day after flowering with the application of Sunspray mineral oil at a rate of 6.0 l/ha decreased on average for the three varieties by 1.5–2.5 %. The best option to preserve the quality characteristics of seed potatoes was to desiccate the potato haulm on 20th day after flowering of potato varieties Myroslava, Predslava and Alians and the application of mineral oil Sunspray - 6.0 l / ha. The yield was 28.8-30.0 t/ha, seed fraction 20.6-22.9, seed yield - 71.0-76.3 %, viral PVM infection was 2.0 3.0 %
Olena Salyenkova
Published: 30 September 2021
EUREKA: Health Sciences pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002043

Abstract:
The aim of the research. To expand the knowledge about immunohistochemical changes in female patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) focusing on non-androgenic co-factors of pathogenesis of the disease, as this may serve as a basis for improving therapeutic regimens. Materials and methods. Scalp biopsies of female patients with androgenetic alopecia were examined by immunohistochemical method. The study included two groups: the main group of 30 female patients aged 22 to 40 years, average age 32,13±5,03 years, and the control group that included 20 skin samples from women aged 25–40 years (average age 34,75±4,19 years) who underwent autopsies. Results. It was found that AGA in women is characterized by a number of immunomorphological manifestations: the inflammatory infiltrate that consists of immunocompetent T-lymphocytes CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+, macrophages (CD68+); imbalance of growth polypeptides VEGF, TGF-β1, EGFR; accumulation of oxidative stress enzymes eNOS and iNOS; accumulation of pathological fraction of Collagen IV. Conclusions. The data obtained by this study helps to improve the concept of morphogenesis of AGA, and also can become a base to improve the standards of treatment of the disease. The pathological triade “oxidative stress-microinflammation- fibrosis” should be considered as a possible treatment target, as well as the imbalance of growth peptides.
Viktoriia Serdiuk,
Published: 15 September 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 35-45; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.002062

Abstract:
Ukraine, as a party to the Association Agreement, in accordance with Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, recognizes water as the most expensive resource on our planet, which must be protected and saved. Every country and every inhabitant of the planet must do everything possible to reduce the thoughtless use of water and stop water pollution. The priority is the identification of water users and "polluters", as well as the detection and prevention of pollution of water resources, which includes the identification of water sampling points around potential sources of pollution. The aim of the research is to determine the impact of pig farms on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of groundwater using existing water intakes to preserve natural water resources from pollution and depletion. An important point for monitoring in this situation is the use of existing water intakes (bores and wells) without additional construction of observation bores and interference in the environment. To complete the study, it is necessary to create an observation (monitoring) network of selected points and establish the frequency of their study. The observation network should determine the level (static and dynamic) as well as the quality of groundwater, which reflects background concentrations (natural or "conditionally natural"). "Conditionally natural" concentrations may indicate an excess of pollutants, associated with anthropogenic impacts that occurred prior to the activities of a particular entity, in respect of which the study is conducted. Given the changes in the quality characteristics of water, caused by external factors, "conditionally natural" concentrations can be taken as background. The obtained information will allow, depending on the quality and quantity of groundwater (their level) to make management decisions on the management of groundwater resources. Groundwater in rural settlements near enterprises is in most cases the only source of water supply. The laboratory analysis of water samples from selected points in 2020 showed an excess of color, odor at 60 °C, turbidity, total iron in bores and wells. The detected elevations are due to the peculiarity of the geological structure (aquifer of Eocene sediments). The excess in the hydrogen index is almost 10 times from the surface water body, which can be taken as "conditionally natural" (background) with further study of the specific impact of the complex on the environment. The main indicators that may indicate direct contamination of the pig complex, such as nitrates, nitrites, ammonium nitrogen and microbiological studies, do not exceed the normalized values, set for drinking water. In this case, the specific indicators are within normal limits. Petroleum products were not detected in the studied samples
Jasim Mohmed Jasim Jasim, Iryna Shvedchykova, Igor Panasiuk, Julia Romanchenko, Inna Melkonova
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 69-79; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001713

Abstract:
An approach is proposed to carry out multivariate calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the working gaps of a plate polygradient matrix of an electromagnetic separator, based on a combination of the advantages of two- and three-dimensional computer modeling. Two-dimensional geometric models of computational domains are developed, which differ in the geometric dimensions of the plate matrix elements and working air gaps. To determine the vector magnetic potential at the boundaries of two-dimensional computational domains, a computational 3D experiment is carried out. For this, three variants of the electromagnetic separator are selected, which differ in the size of the working air gaps of the polygradient matrices. For them, three-dimensional computer models are built, the spatial distribution of the magnetic field in the working intervals of the electromagnetic separator matrix and the obtained numerical values of the vector magnetic potential at the boundaries of the computational domains are investigated. The determination of the values of the vector magnetic potential for all other models is carried out by interpolation. The obtained values of the vector magnetic potential are used to set the boundary conditions in a computational 2D experiment. An approach to the choice of a rational version of a lamellar matrix is substantiated, which provides a solution to the problem according to the criterion of the effective area of the working area. Using the method of simple enumeration, a variant of the structure of a polygradient matrix with rational geometric parameters is selected. The productivity of the electromagnetic separator with rational geometric parameters of the matrix increased by 3–5 % with the same efficiency of extraction of ferromagnetic inclusions in comparison with the basic version of the device
Nguyen Van Thien,
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 23-35; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001743

Abstract:
This article presents empirical study results when milling SCM440 steel. The cutting insert to be used was a TiN coated cutting insert with tool tip radius of 0.5 mm. Experimental process was carried out with 18 experiments according to Box-Behnken matrix, in which cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth were selected as the input parameters of each experiment. In addition, cutting force was selected as the output parameter. Analysis of experimental results has determined the influence of the input parameters as well as the interaction between them on the output parameters. From the experimental results, a regression model showing the relationship between cutting force and input parameters was built. Box-Cox and Johnson data transformations were applied to construct two other models of cutting force. These three regression models were used to predict cutting force and compare with experimental results. Using parameters including coefficient of determination (R-Sq), adjusted coefficient of determination (R-Sq(adj)) and percentage mean absolute error (% MAE) between the results predicted by the models and the experimental results are the criteria to compare the accuracy of the cutting force models. The results have determined that the two models using two data transformations have higher accuracy than model not using two data transformations. A comparison of the model using the Box-Cox transformation and the model using the Johnson transformation was made with a t-test. The results confirmed that these two models have equal accuracy. Finally, the development direction for the next study is mentioned in this article
Oleksii Korzhyk, , Sergii Kurdiuk, Valeriia Nizhynska, Maxim Korzhyk, Anton Naida
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 133-146; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001292

Abstract:
In the article was solved the problem of radiation of a sound by the electroacoustic transducer which is executed in the form of a thin spherical cover, using a pass-through method. The outer and inner surfaces of the shell are completely electroded. The application of this method provides an opportunity to avoid inaccuracies that arise during the traditional formulation of boundary conditions for acoustic mechanical fields, the use of equivalent substitution schemes and the absence of boundary conditions for the electric field in general. Given methodology eliminates these shortcomings by applying conjugation conditions, taking into account the types of electroding of the surfaces of piezoceramic transducers, the introduction of boundary conditions for current and voltage. The results of the solution demonstrate the high capabilities of this pass-through method, in terms of taking into account the peculiarities of determining the characteristics of these fields, values and dependences of the main complex characteristics of the electroelastic transducer, and auxiliary material constants of the piezoelectric material. The proposed approach is relevant, because it allows to increase the reliability of modeling the operating conditions of acoustic transducers in the context of wave problems of acoustics. Aim is to enhance the range of performances and build algorithms solving problems of stationary mode hydroelectroelasticity sound radiation. The expected results are presented in terms of improving approaches to studying the features of the oscillatory process of the active elements of sound-emitting systems and the accompanying effects of the transformation of interconnected fields involved in the formation of the acoustic signal in the liquid
, , Mochamad Choifin, Wigo Ardi Winarko
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001996

Abstract:
This study investigates the effect of attracting and repels magnetic fields with the materials of vegetable oil in the form of a mixture of coconut oil and jatropha (B50) against the behavior of stability and characteristics of flame in the process of premixed burning. The fuel for a mixture of vegetable oil of 600 ml was filled into the boiler heated with a gas stove to be evaporated at a temperature of 300 °C and 3 bar pressure was kept constant was mixed with air from the compressor in the burner room. Then a flame was ignited at the end of the nozzle to form a diffusion flame, the flame formed was then given north (N) and south (S). The results showed that the flame speed of the attractive magnetic field was 52.22 cm/sec, the repulsive magnetic field was 50.49 cm/sec while without a magnetic field was 49.79 cm/sec. The increase in the laminar flame speed in the attractive magnetic field is caused by the electron spin becoming more energetic and due to the change in the spin of the hydrogen proton from para to ortho. The attractive magnetic field has the strongest effect on increasing the flame speed. This makes the flame more stable in the equivalency ratio range of 0.75–1.17 compared to without a magnetic field in the same equivalency ratio range. This was so because O2 where it is in nature of paramagnetic was pumped more crossing the flame from south to north poles whereas the heat brought by H2O in nature of diamagnetic was pumped more crossing north to south poles. Whereas on the repel magnetic field, it was hotter when brought by H2O pumped into the flame whereas O2 tended to be pumped going out of the flame. This caused the combustion in the flame was smaller and the reaction was not maximum. As a consequence, the laminar flame speed was more lacking and the reaction was not to the fullest. As a consequence, the laminar flame speed in the repel was fewer than the attract magnetic field
Hryhorii Ivanets, Stanislav Horielyshev, Martin Sagradian, Mykhailo Ivanets, Igor Boikov, Dmitro Baulin, Yurij Kozlov, Aleksandr Nakonechnyi, Lyudmila Safoshkina
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 121-132; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.002007

Abstract:
Emergency prevention is based on analysis, forecasting and early response to emergencies. A systematic approach to solving the problem of preventing emergencies envisages forecasting emergencies by type, level and possible losses caused as a their results both in the state as a whole and in its regions. To implement a systematic approach based on a formalized mathematical model, an organizational and technical method has been developed for predicting emergencies and possible losses caused as their results. The method is a combination of a variable order polynomial regression method, a weighted least squares method, and a probabilistic statistical method. This allows to compensate for the shortcomings of some at the expense of others, which will lead to an increase in forecasting accuracy. A control algorithm has been developed for the implementation of an organizational and technical method for predicting emergency situations and possible losses caused as their results. Its use involves the implementation of a number of interrelated procedures. At the first stage, the collection, processing and analysis of information on emergency situations in the country for a certain period of monitoring is carried out. This is the basis for predicting the processes of emergencies in general, in nature, level and types, as well as losses due to them both in the state and its regions. The information received is taken into account when forming a decision on the actions of civil protection units in order to adequately respond to emergency situations and eliminate their consequences. Based on the analysis of the effectiveness of the actions of the response units, the decisions on the elimination of emergency situations are adjusted. The developed method makes it possible to reasonably approach the planning and implementation of organizational and technical measures to prevent emergency situations, taking into account the potential threats to the territories and population of the country's regions
Sugeng Hadi Susilo, Agus Setiawan
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 62-68; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.002001

Abstract:
The paper discusses the performance of the pump in relation to the impeller. The impeller section is determined by the number and angle of the blades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the role of the number and angle of impeller blades on the performance (discharge and discharge pressure) of centrifugal pumps based on experiments and simulations. The method used is experiment and simulation. Using a centrifugal pump type GWP 20/4 SW, Maximum Output: 6.5 HP/3500 rpm, Inlet/Outlet: 2 Inch, Dimensions: 475x375x370 mm. Experiments and simulations by varying the number of blades 2, 4, and 6 with a blade tilt angle of 130°, 150°, and 160°. For flow simulation using solid works program. The results show that pump performance is related to discharge pressure, impeller with 2-blades and an angle of 130° the pressure increases 0.45–2.45 bar, for 150° increases 0.14–2.96 bar, and 160° increases 0.29–3.07 bars. For a 4-blade impeller and an angle of 130°, the pressure increases by 0.48–3.12 bar, for 150° it increases by 0.39–3.39 bar, and for 160° it increases by 0.36–3.48 bar. While the impeller for 6-blades with an angle of 130° the pressure increases from 0.6 bar to 3.72 bar, for 150° increases from 1.36 to 4.34 bar, and 160° increases by 0.36–4.74 bar. While it related pump performance to flow rate, increasing the number of blades causes a decrease in flow rate. The highest flow rate is in a 2-blade impeller with a blade angle of 130° is 404.91 l/s. The lowest flow rate is on a 6-blade impeller with an angle of 160° is 279.66 l/s
Emin Musa Afandiyev, Mahammadali Nuraddin Nuriyev
Published: 13 September 2021
EUREKA: Physics and Engineering pp 80-87; https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.001765

Abstract:
In oilfield equipment, a significant place is occupied by clamping mechanisms used to grip pipes during tripping operations. They are mainly divided into 2 groups. The first includes mechanisms with a forced clamping of the part. The second group includes self-clamping devices with a wedge mechanism. Here, the clamping force increases in proportion to the axial shear force. In these clamping devices, clamping jaws serve as a common element. In addition to smooth jaws, there may be jaws with notches on the inner cylindrical surface. Such notches contribute to an increase in the coefficient of adhesion when clamping cylindrical parts, in particular pipes. During the operation of clamping devices with corrugated jaws, the teeth of the notch are introduced into the pipe walls under the action of the clamping force. The shearing force can then displace the pipe relative to the jaws. The adhesion coefficient µ is the ratio of the shear force P to the clamping force Q, i.e. P/Q. Exceeding the shear force P of the limit value causes the pipe to be clamped to move. The correct choice of the place of load application is also of great importance. Optimum clamping performance can be achieved by clamping workpieces without slipping from shear forces. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure reliability, efficiency, productivity. Therefore, all factors that determine the holding capacity of clamping mechanisms should be considered. These factors include the coefficient of adhesion, the design of the working surfaces of the clamping elements, the type of notch of the corrugated jaws and the place of application of the clamping force
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