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Dilla Melani, Nurliyani Nurliyani, Indratiningsih Indratiningsih
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 47-55; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.12494

Abstract:
Kefir is one of milk products, produced by the addition of bacteria and yeast-containing kefir starter. This study aimed to evaluate the microbial characteristic, antibacterial activity, chemical and physical characteristics, antioxidant activity, and organoleptic characteristic of goat milk kefir which treated with angkak (red yeast rice) extract supplementation during storage. The study was initiated with milling to produce angkak flour, which then was diluted on sterilized distilled water on 1:2 ratio. Kefir were obtained by fermenting goat milk using 3% kefir grain for 18 hours at room temperature. Different treatments on the study were angkak extract supplementations on level of 0; 2; 4; and 6% for three different storage periods, i.e., 0, 7, and 14 days. The parameter of microbial characteristics observed on this study were total of lactic acid bacteria, TPC, total yeast, and antibacterial activity. Chemical tests performed on this study included the value of acidity, pH value, alcohol content, and water content. Meanwhile, the physical evaluations included viscosity, color test (brightness value, red value, and yellow value), and followed with antioxidant activity test on DPPH method and organoleptic test. Data from chemical, microbial, and physical evaluation were analyzed on one way ANOVA for these following parameters: total count of lactic acid bacteria, TPC, antibacterial activity, value of acidity, pH value, alcohol content, water content, viscosity, brightness value, red value, yellow value, antioxidant activity, and sensory values (alcoholic taste and acceptability). The analysis were further continued on two way ANOVA for total count of lactic acid bacteria, TPC, antibacterial activity on E. coli and S. aureus, alcohol content, viscosity, brightness value, red value, yellow value, and antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the organoleptic characteristics were analyzed on non-parametric Kruskal Wallis, followed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). Data were analyzed on computer program of Software Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 18 for windows. The study revealed that angkak extract supplementation on goat milk kefir during 0, 7, and 14 days of storage had significant effects (P
Aswadi Aswadi, Husnurrizal Husnurrizal, Mulyadi Adam, Tongku Nizwan Siregar
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 1-5; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.57335

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of PGF2α injection on the post-thaw motility (PTM) in sperm of Nubian goats. Three male Nubian goats (3-4 years) with good reproductive ability were used. This study used a 3 x 3 Latin square design. The experimental animals received a physiological NaCl injection as a control (P1); 37.5 mg of PGF2α (P2), and 75 mg of PGF2α (P3). Semen was collected using an artificial vagina with one-week storage intervals between treatments. The collected semen was then diluted and frozen using a simple freezing method. Observation of semen quality before freezing included macroscopic and microscopic examinations. Macroscopic examination consisted of volume, pH, color, odor, and consistency, while microscopic examination consisted of motility, concentration, viability, and abnormality. PTM examination was done by mixing a drop of sperm suspension and one drop of physiological NaCl on an object glass and covered prior to observation under microscope.. The results were analyzed using a Latin square pattern variant analysis, followed by Duncan's test. The PTM values of sperm (%) of Nubian goats in P1, P2, and P3 respectively are 28.71±10.24, 50.03±13.70, and 54.84±12.04 (P
Engkus Ainul Yakin, Sri Sukaryani, Catur Suci Purwati
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 27-32; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.61589

Abstract:
This experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of fermented cocoa pod as feed for Bligon goats. Sixteen Bligon goat with a body weight of 11-13 kg were put into individual cages which were equipped with feed and drink containers. The study design used a randomized block design, where initial body weight in as peragam with four treatments and four replications. Fermented cocoa pod used Trametes versicolor. The experimental treatments were T1= 30% of fresh king grass + 50% of dried king grass + 20% of concentrate; T2= 30% of fresh king grass + 30% of dried king grass + 40% of concentrate; T3= 30% of fresh king grass + 30% of cocoa pod + 40% of concentrate; and T4= 30% of fresh king grass + 30% of cocoa pod fermented + 40% of concentrate. Observed variables were feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion. The result showed that fermented cocoa pod at the level of 30% had higher (P
Dwiko Budi Permadi, Nafiatul Umami, Ananto Triyogo, Rini Pujiarti, Bekti Larasati, Ratih Madya Septiana
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 56-65; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.58435

Abstract:
The successful rehabilitation of Wanagama teaching forests, which began in the late of 1960s, has created a distinctive forest ecosystem. Currently the forests become the habitat of Apis cerana, enterprised by the surrounding villagers to produce natural forest honey as a non-timber forest product. This paper aims to explore the adoption of smallholder beekeeping of A. cerana, the beekeepers’ socio-economic characteristics, the potential and value of forest honey production, the distribution of bee-boxes inside the forests and potential tree sources of nectar and pollen. Data collection was carried out in July - September 2019 with in-depth interview techniques to 38 beekeepers. Field observations and ground checks were carried out on the sites where beekeepers were placing the bee-boxes in the forest. In addition, an analysis of aerial photograph images taken with drone was also carried out to identify the area of trees as sources of nectar and pollen. The results show that between 1982 and 2019 the development of the adoption of the A. cerana beekeeping increased significantly. The total production of honey from 506 bee-boxes reached 658 liters or 894.9 kg in year of 2018/2019. The number of bee-boxes placed in Wanagama was mainly distributed inside Compartment of 13, 17, 14, 16, 5, and 18. Acacia mangium, eucalyptus, cajuput and mahogany were the main types of nectar-producing trees, in addition to the abundance of flowering undergrowth plants. Many of the challenges faced by honey beekeepers included climate change, the shortage of nectar and pollen sources, pests and diseases and human disturbances. This research suggests the need for a social, institutional and technical approaches to increase the forest productivity as sources of nectar and pollen. It is suggested encouraging the smallholders to adopt beekeeping as the main livelihood alternatives in future and planting more trees in Wanagama forests.
Cut Intan Novita, Rosna Sari, Eka Meutia Sari
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 6-13; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.60455

Abstract:
This research aimed to know the effect of the addition of jamblang leaves extract (Syzygium cumini) in skim milk-egg yolk diluent material on motility, abnormality, and viability of Aceh cattle stored at 4ºC. The research design used was Complete Randomized Design consisting of 5 treatment and 5 repetitions. The treatments consisted of J0 (SSKT), J1 (SSKT+ EDJ 0. g/ 100 ml), J2 (SSKT+ EDJ 0.4 g/ 100 ml), J3 (SSKT+ EDJ 0.6 g/ 100 ml) and J4 (SSKT+ EDJ 0.8 g/ 100 ml). The data obtained were analyzed descriptively by determining the mean value and standard deviation using Microsoft Excel. The research result indicated that the addition of jamblang leaves extract in skim milk-egg yolk diluent material maintaining the motility, viability and abnormality of the spermatozoa of Aceh cattle stored at the temperature of 4ºC. Based on the research that has been carried out, it can be concluded that the addition of jamblang leaves extract in skim milk-egg yolk diluent material can maintain the quality of Aceh cattle spermatozoa, while the use of incorrect dose becomes toxic and disrupt the spermatozoa activities to cause death.
Norma Nuraina, Atikah Nur Hamidah, Despal Despal, Epi Taufik
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 66-74; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.60880

Abstract:
This research aims to measure supply chain performance of dairy concentrate in cooperative with the SCOR-AHP approach and develop improvement based on the performance result, and to analyze the quality suitability as a basis to develop a comprehensive quality standard and its quality control mechanism. This research was conducted at a dairy farmer cooperative located in West Java. The analysis used to measure the performance was supply chain operation reference-analysis hierarchy process (SCOR-AHP). For measuring the product quality, ten post-production concentrate samples, 27 samples after the distribution process, and 25 samples for homogeneity test from five mixer machines were taken. Concentrate quality parameters were moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, total digestible nutrients (TDN), and salt content. Post-production samples data were compared with Indonesian National Standard (SNI) using one-tailed one-sample t-test, samples data from the field were tested using two samples independent t-tests compared to post-production samples data, and homogeneity test was seen from the coefficient of variation value of the salt content. The results show that the supply chain performance value of dairy cow concentrate at the cooperative is excellent. The nutrient content complies with SNI, but the homogeneity of the mixture is classified as poor category. The nutrient content of samples taken from the field shows differences with post-production samples except for TDN. The excessive total cost can be utilized to enhance performance in generating a better quality product. The cooperative should enhance homogeneity by concerning the mixing process and maintain the quality consistency by reformulating, stabilizing the quality of feedstuff, and calculating stock properly to avoid longer storage.
Maria Kristina Sinabang, Rukmiasih Rukmiasih, Tuti Suryati, Jonathan Anugrah Lase
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 38-46; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v43i2.38428

Abstract:
This study aims to evaluate the age of off-odor detection to ensure more efficient and economical provision of antioxidants in the production of Cihateup ducks. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 different treatments of slaughter age, i.e. 4, 8 and 12 week. Each treatment consisted of 6 replications and each replication consisted of 13 ducks. The results showed that the percentage of fat content at the age of 12 weeks was higher than the age of 4 and 8 week. High fat-containing meat tends to undergo fat oxidation. High levels of Fe at 12 week of slaughter age cause high levels of myoglobin in duck meat. Fe2+ is a catalyst in the process of fat oxidation. the brightness value (L) is inversely proportional to the value a of Cihateup duck meat. The darker brightness of the meat causes the flesh to be redder due to myoglobin level in duck meat. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ALTJG) is 4- and 12-week slaughter age lower than 8 week of age. The high levels of MDA at 12 week of slaughter age are due to fat oxidation which causes off-odor. Based on the result, the conclusion is that the high fat content, Fe content, color of Cihateup duck meat at 12 weeks of slaughter age caused the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ALTJG) to be low due to fat oxidation. Fat oxidation caused high levels of MDA in duck meat (12 weeks of slaughter age) resulting in Off-odors in Cihateup duck meat.
Widya Kenshiana Putri, Cuk Tri Noviandi, Kustantinah Adiwimarta
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 21-26; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.58433

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and gas production based on fermentation in the rumen of nine types of forage tropical feed commonly used in Indonesia. The forages used in this study were: mahogany leaves (Swietenia mahagoni L. Jacq.), tayuman leaves (Bauhinia purpurea), bamboo leaves (Bambusa arundinaceae), canary leaves (Canarium indicum L.), tea leaves (Camellia sinensis), ketapang leaves (Terminalia catapa L.), lamtoro leaves (Leucaena leucocephala), tehtehan leaves (Duranta repens), and turi leaves (Sesbania grandiflora). Measurements of in vitro gas production were carried out at 10 observation points (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 hour). Tannin activity was measured for each sample at observation points using measurements of gas production divided into three groups with modified levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG), ie samples without PEG (P1); sample + PEG in the amount of 200 mgDM (P2); and PEG + samples of tannins contained in each forage based on literature studies (P3). Data were analyzed for a variance by following the factorial completely randomized design (CRD) pattern. Statistical analyzes were performed on all data by following the general linear procedure in PROC GLM from SAS. The data obtained were analyzed for variance at the 5% significance level. The results of gas production calculations showed that crude protein (CP) from each forage ranges from 5.75 - 22.37% where the highest CP was owned by turi leaves (S. grandiflora). The content of crude fiber (CF) ranged from 5.30 - 20.93%. The most optimal measurement of gas production was in the sample given PEG in the amount of 200mg/kg with a significant difference (P
Hamdani Maulana, Endang Baliarti, Astrid Listia Astrini
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 33-37; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.61764

Abstract:
The decline in forage production during the dry season has an impact on the growth performance of livestock at the level of smallholder. The development of agricultural system by utilizing dried agricultural by-product is an alternative solution to the problem of limited feed during the dry season. Production of water spinach reaches 12,697 tons of dry matter/year and has potential to be used as a fiber sources for livestock. Studies on the use of water spinach straw (WSS) as feed for local sheep have not been widely carried out. This study was aimed to determine the productivity of Garut sheep (GS) and thin tailed sheep (TTS) fed water spinach straw. The results of this study were expected to provide information on the use of dry WSS as a substitute for forage for local sheep for fattening purposes. GS (n = 26) and TTS (n = 27) with an age of 8-12 months and body weight ranging from 10-20 kg were feedlots for 42 days. Sheep are kept intensively in colony pens (4-5 head/pen) with an approaching of body size and body weight. Feeding is done every morning and evening. Drinking water is always available. WSS is given ad libitum and the concentrate is given increasing periodically according to the treatment phase, Starter (1-14 days), Grower (15-28 days), and Finisher (29-42 days). Data were analyzed using One way ANOVA, operated by SPSS 20.0 program. The results showed that GS and TTS had no significant differences in productivity (gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, feed cost, and feed cost per gain) (P>0.05). GS and TTS had the highest gain in the starter phase (2.04±1.08kg and 1.99±1.02kg, respectively) then decreased in the grower phase (1.46±0.83 kg and 1, respectively. 55±0.77 kg) and the finisher (1.61±0.77 kg and 1.59±0.74 kg, respectively). Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the GS and TTS had good productivity when fed by WSS as basal feed.
Nirmala Fitria Firdhausi, Achmad Farajallah, Dyah Perwitasari
Published: 28 February 2021
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 45, pp 14-20; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i1.48557

Abstract:
Madura Cattle is one breed of local cattle from Indonesia. Madura cattle are estimated to originate from a crossbreeding between Bos indicus and Bos javanicus. Another presumption is that Madura cattle are the result of a crossbreeding between B. indicus males and mixed B. javanicus or Bos taurus. Tracing the history of Madura cross and another cattle phylogenetic based on maternal lineage can be done by analyzing the variation of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The purpose of this study was to determine the clarity of the origin of Madura cattle based on maternal lineage using mtDNA markers Cyt b and D-loop. This research is expected to provide genetic information and the origin of Madura cattle, so that it can be used to help improve the breeding and conservation program for Madura cattle. The results of the phylogeny tree reconstruction, using the Cyt b and D-loop genes showed that Madura cattle originated from Sampang region (Polagan, Golbung, and Komis) were grouped into two types of maternal origin. Madura cattle clade I are grouped with B. indicus and B. taurus, while Madura cattle clade II are grouped with B. javanicus. A crossbreeding between B. javanicus and B. indicus is estimated to have been carried out since the entry of Hindu culture brought by the India peoples to Indonesia around 1800 years ago. The crossing between B. javanicus and B. indicus was then more intensively carried out at the time of the government's promoting the development of Ongol cattles (B. indicus) in the days of the Dutch East Indies. The length segment of Cyt b that can be amplified is 230 bp and the D-loop segment of varying length, 577 bp for the Madura 41 and 29 samples, and 624 bp for sample 32.
Hariadi Subagja, Durrotun Nikmah
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.34379

Abstract:
The research was aimed to analyze of broiler meat price fluctuation, identify the factors competitor foodstuffs price that influence of broiler meat price, and identify alternative foodstuffs of broiler meat at consumer level in Pasuruan. The determination of location was did deliberately with consideration that in 2013, the production of broiler meat in Pasuruan was fourth highest production after Malang, Sidoarjo and Jombang , it was 8,842 million kg. This research was used secondary data from January 2010 until November 2015. The analytical method used is the price volatilitass analysis and multiple linear regression. The results showed that the value of broiler meat price volatility in Pasuruan tend to be small (low volatility) and happen quickly. Factors competitor foodstuffs price that influence the price of broiler meat in Pasuruan simultaneously influenced by the price of local chicken meat, beef prices, the price of eggs, and prices of salted anchovies fish. While partially, broiler meat prices at the consumer level in Pasuruan influenced by the price of beef and the price of eggs. The relation between the both showed that: broiler meat is alternative foodstuffs for beef, eggs are alternative foodstuffs for meat broiler, salted anchovies fish is complements for broiler meat.
Renny Fatmyah Utamy, Herry Sonjaya, Kusumandari Indah Prahesti
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.55000

Abstract:
Smallholders beef cattle are facing many problems, such as the unsustainable supply, limited quantity, and poor quality of forage, which all are crucial to increase the population and productivity of their beef cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of monoculture and mixed cropping system between dwarf napiergrass with siratro and centro on growth characteristics, fresh and dry matter (DM) yield, and forage quality. The study was carried out for 4 months. There were 3 experiment treatments, namely P0 = dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv Mott) planted on monoculture system; P1 = dwarf napiergrass planted in mixed cropping system with siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum cv Siratro); and P2 = dwarf napiergrass planted in mixed cropping system with centro (Centrocema pubescent). All treatments were replicated 3 times. All plants on each treatment were planted on 3 3 m plots, with 1 m of distance between the plots. Data were collected four times after transplanting, i.e. August 20th, September 17th; October 28th; and December 16th of 2017, respectively. The results of study indicated that neither plant height nor tiller number in all treatments and measurement periods were significantly affected (p>0.05), except in month-3 (plant height) and month-4 (tiller number). Although treatments did not alter fresh and DM yield (p>0.05), the DM yield from mixed cropping system tended to be higher. Hence, it can be concluded that growth characteristic, productivity, and forage quality in mixed cropping system were better than in monoculture system.
Rony Marsyal Kunda, Slamet Diah Volkandari, Maman Rumanta, Pieter Kakisina
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.58934

Abstract:
Lakor goat survive in Lakor island in Southwest Maluku with high temperature and limited water. Growth trait in goat is interest to explore cause related with economic trait that encoded by growth hormone (GH) gene. The aim of this study was identify of polymorphism GH gene of Lakor goat in Lakor island. A total of 63 samples were collected from three locations (village) i.e Ketti Letpey (18), Werwawan-Yamluli (26), and Letoda (19). DNA was extracted from hair follicles. A 422 bp specific DNA fragment was successfully amplified and genotyped by PCR-RFLP method using HaeIII enzyme. Results showed that polymorphism was found with two variant of genotypes (AA and AB) and two alleles (A and B). AB genotype was dominant in all of populations (93.7%) with A and B alleles were 0.53 and 0.47, respectively. Heterozygosity observed and expected value reached 0.502 and 0.498, respectively while Polymorphic Information Content was in moderate values (0.374). All of populations were in disequilibrium genetic. It maybe caused limited buck and nonrandom mating in population that effect of low genetic variation. Inbreeding study are needed to explore it. The introgression of bucks from other families in several locations within Lakor island can be an alternative solution to increase the genetic diversity of the lakor goat population.
, Amelia Hana, Pudji Astuti, Claude Mona Airin
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.54669

Abstract:
The study aimed at evaluating the hematological and chemical parameters of the blood of female fat tail sheep raised with fermented complete feed (CF) management. It used 40 adult female fat tail sheep age 24-36 months and body weight in 30-35 kg and 3-4 of body condition score, which was raised in the individual stall with fermented complete feed (CF) management. Samples of blood were drawn once from the jugular vein before feeding in the morning. The results of hematological parameters were RBC (12.11±2.18 x106/µL), hemoglobin (12.40±1.96 g/dL), hematocrit (36.49±5.47%), MCV (30.46±3.38 fL), MCH (10.30±0.75 pg), MCHC (34.00±1.86 g/dL), eosinophils (3.15±7.70%), neutrophils (7.13±14.90%), lymphocytes (11.93±23.85%), and monocytes (0.30±0.88%). The results of chemical parameters were sodium (147.58±3.75 mmol/L), chloride (106.51±3.12 mmol/L), magnesium (3.66±1.38 mg/dL), albumin (3.36±0.31 g/dL) and glucose (40.28±9.12 mg/dL). The results of hematological and chemical parameters in the study could be the reference in monitoring the health of the adult female fat tail sheep raised with the fermented complete feed (CF) management.
, Yosi Fenita, Kususiyah Kususiyah, Kiki Rusdi, Elsa Marta Savitri, Novriska Winni Simanjutak
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.52285

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the effect of turmeric or garlic supplementation to fermented Sauropus androgynus-bay leaves (FSBL) containing diet on performance, carcass quality and meat organoleptic status in broilers. This study used a completely randomized design. Two hundred 15-day-old female broilers were grouped into 5 groups with 4 replications as follows: Diet with 0.5% commercial feed additive (P0); 1.25% FSBL containing diet (P1); 1.25% FSBL containing diet plus 1 g turmeric powder (P2); 1.25% FSBL containing diet plus 2 g garlic (P3); 1.25% FSBL containing diet plus 1 g turmeric and 2 g garlic (P4). The results showed that the use of turmeric or garlic to FSBL containing diet did not affect body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, meat bone ratio, drip loss, and taste, odor, and texture of broiler meats (P>0.05) but affected cooking loss (P
Manap Trianto, Hari Purwanto
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.55539

Abstract:
Systematics of bees has developed rapidly. Several studies have attempted to infer the kinship between each group of bee. One way is the use of phylogenetic analysis using molecular data. This study explains the phylogenetic relationship of stingless bees in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia based on the 16S rRNA gene. The research has been carried out in five districts and cities in the region from June to September 2019. In the study, the stages implemented include; place determination of stingless bees sampling, sampling, and molecular identification (DNA extraction, DNA amplification, and sequencing), followed by the data analysis using NCBI database and MEGA X software. The result of this study indicated that among seven morphospecies from Yogyakarta, there are six species of stingless bees that have a closest genetic relationship with the same species data from Genbank, namely Tetragonula laeviceps, T. iridipennis, T. sapiens, T. sarawakensis, Lepidotrigona terminata, and Heterotrigona itama. Since the genetic distances of T. laeviceps, T. iridipennis, T. sapiens, are wider than 3,5%, the data indicate that there is a possibility that the three morphospecies are actually belong to a different species with a similar morphology. Meanwhile, for the morphospecies T. biroi, the closest hit is on T. pagdeni 16S rRNA DNA because the T. biroi 16S rRNA DNA data is not available on the database. This study is expected to contribute to the preservation and utilization of one of Indonesia's important biodiversity resources.
Andriyani Astuti, Rochijan Rochijan, Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.59155

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) in diets of lactating dairy cows on feed intake and nutrient digestion. The experiment was run according to completely randomized design with three treatments of complete feed rations containing different levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) and four replications for each treatment. In a digestibility trial, twelve Friesian Holstein cows were divided into three groups at each group consist of four cows and given three dietary treatments containing three levels of RUP, namely 7.43% of total crude protein /CP (P0), 8.49% of total CP (P1), and 9.45% of total CP (P2). Diets consisted of forages (King grass, Pennisetum hybrid) and concentrates at ratio of 50:50 in dry matter basis. The diets contained 18.25% CP and 61.75% total digestible nutrient (TDN). The cows fed diet (P0) were considered the control group. Drinking water was given ad libitum. This experiment was conducted for 21 days of adaptation period and seven days of collection period. In the collection period, samples of feed, refusal feed, and faecal were collected to get the chemical content includes dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), crude protein (CP), nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). The data obtained were processed with one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and the difference existed between the means (P
Insun Sangadji Sangadji
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.58960

Abstract:
This experiment aimed to know nutrition quality and fiber fraction of complete feed silage based on sago by-products, Imperata cylindrica, and Leuchaena leucocephala in different compositions which fermented for three weeks. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Feed Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Pattimura which lasted for three months. The main ingredients used to make silage complete ration in this study consisted of sago pulp, reeds, lamtoro, concentrate and plus coconut water. Complete ration silage fermented using coconut water plus which is a mixture of urea 95% and coconut water 5%. This research conducted by using randomized complete design with five factors of silage compound that are P0 = 60% forages + 40% concentrate (for control) ; P1 = 10% sago by-products + 40% Imperata cylindrical + 10% Leucaena Leucocephala + 40% concentrate ; P2 = 20% sago by-products + 30% Imperata cylindrica + 20 % Leucaena Leucocephala + 30% concentrate ; P3 = 30 % sago by-products + 20% Imperata cylindrica + 30 % Leucaena Leucocephala + 20% consentrate ; dan P4 = 40% sago by-products + 10% Imperata cylindrica + 40% Leucaena Leucocephala + 10% concentrate. Each treatment used four replicates. The variable observed were the percentage of water content, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and lignin. The results showed that sago by-products, Imperata cylindrica and Leuchaena leucocephala can be used for basic materials of complete feed silage in ruminants feed because they have no difference quality of nutrition and fiber fraction compared with control P0.
Riyan Nugroho Aji, Panjono Panjono, Ali Agus, Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto, Tety Hartatik, I Gede Suparta Budisatria, Ismaya Ismaya, Akhmad Fathoni, Dwi Astuti, Sigit Bintara
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.45944

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to observe the size of reproductive organ and to evaluate the sperm quality of Belgian Blue (BB) crossbreed cattle. This cattle are the crossbreeding result between a female Brahman Cross (BX) cattle inseminated with frozen semen from pure male BB cattle, by Artificial Insemination (IB) method, as a candidate of superior bull. The samples of this study were 2.5 years old (BB1), (BB2), and (BB3) crossbreed cattle. Its process involved general physical examination, genital organ inspection, sperm production, and quality assessment. The data obtained were analyzed through descriptive analysis. The results of this study were the three BB crossbred cattle showed the good appearance of normal reproductive organs with scrotum circumferences of each bull were 40.2 cm, 38.6 cm, and 39.8 cm respectively, and sperm quality of the good and the normal motility values of each bull were 82%, 81% and 80%, viability 84%, 83%, and 86%, and the sperm concentrations of each bull were 2.218 million/ml, 1.986 million/ml and 2.120 million/ml respectively. As a result, it could be concluded that those three BB crossbreed cattle are suitable for being used as a superior bull.
Bambang Suwignyo, Galih Pawening, Muhammad Humaidi Haris, Nafiatul Umami, Nilo Suseno, Bambang Suhartanto
Published: 30 November 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i4.56115

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the cultivation of tropical weed Synedrella nodiflora as forage. The study was conducted from May to July 2018. The treatments of the research were control (C), organic fertilizer (D) and organic fertilizer + urea (DU), with 3 replications that were arranged on experimental design with a completely randomized design, in a unidirectional pattern and continued with least significant different (LSD). Organic fertilizer dosage in this study was 5 tons/ha, while urea fertilizer was 350 kg/ha, with plant spacing was 45x60 cm. The observed parameters were plant height, forage production and chemical composition (5 weeks after planting). Plant height of C, D and DU were 41.59, 47,42, and 50.59 cm respectively. Forage production of dry matter after 5 weeks planting at C, D and DU were 1.69, 1.70 and 2.91ton/ha, with in vitro digestibility values ranging from 51.68 to 57.70% (IVDMD) and 51.71 to 61.98% (OMD) respectively. The chemical composition of native S. Nodiflora were 12.32% of dry matter (DM), 62.45% TDN count for cattle and 67.42% TDN count for sheep. Based on DM, The organic matter was 84.46%, crude protein 20,11%, crude fiber 13.26%, extract ether 7.77%, and nitrogen free extract 37.08%. The combination of organic fertilizer and urea increased the height and fresh and dry matter production S. nodiflora.
Agus Setiadi, Siswanto Imam Santoso, Edjeng Suprijatna, Teysar Adi Sarjana, Suryani Nurfadillah
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.51049

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the economic analysis, performance analysis and chemical quality of the meat of the utilization of pistia stratiotes (PS) in Magelang duck feed. Most duck feed is still very dependent on imports from other countries so there is a need to find alternative feedstuff that are not competing with humans. The experimental research was conducted at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Agriculture Undip using 4 treatments, namely T0 duck feed without the addition of PS in feed, T1 added 6% PS in feed, T2 added 12% PS in feed and T3 added 18% PS in duck feed. Parameters observed were final body weight, feed consumption, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), mortality, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, antioxidants, feed costs, income over feed costs, return on investment (ROI) and RC ratio. Feed consumption on T3 was the highest. Final body weight on T3 was not significantly different (P> 0.05) compared to T1 and T2 but higher than T0 (P0.05), but was lower than T0, duck mortality in this study 0. Blood chemistry analysis (cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL) showed that T2 and T3 were significantly better than T0 and T1. The results of the economic analysis showed that ducks given PS at T2 and T3 had significant lower feed costs compared to T0 and T1, while ROI from T1, T2 and T3 were significantly higher than T0. The highest IOFC was achieved when duck were fed (T2), while the lowest IOFC was at T0. R/C ratio of T1, T2 and T3 was not significantly different, but higher when compared to T0. Based on the results of technical and economic analysis, the use of PS in 12% duck feed gave the best result of technical and economic performance
Muhammad Hilman Bin Jahaluddin, Yusuf Ridwan, Chaerul Basri
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.54390

Abstract:
Level of farmer’s knowledge have an importance role in the disease prevention and control of livestock. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the level of KUNAK dairy cattle farmer’s knowledge regarding brucellosis and factors that associated to it. A series of questions were asked to the respondents regarding their knowledge of brucellosis. Respondents of 70 farmers were selected with cluster random sampling technique for this research. Data were collected through interviewing respondent using the questionnaire regarding the knowledge of brucellosis in terms of its mode of transmission, symptoms, prevention and treatment. Questionnaire was done in the form of closed question. The analysis was done using chi square test in determining the association of factors affecting level of dairy cattle farmer’s knowledge and odds ratio (OR) in determining the strength of affecting level of dairy cattle farmer’s knowledge. The general result of the level of knowledge of farmers in KUNAK were good being the majority of them were in that category. The farmers of KUNAK had a higher level of knowledge in terms of prevention and symptoms of brucellosis than mode of transmission or treatment of it. The factor that has the most significance to the level of knowledge of KUNAK dairy farmers are the ones with a working experience more than 5 years in this field with 18 times more knowledgeable than farmers with less than 5 years of working experience. The need of disease awareness programs was required for the farmers in broadening their minds towards other aspects of a disease for them to better combat the problems in their day to day business.
Hidayati Hidayati, Robbana Saragih
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.54183

Abstract:
Kuantan cattle is a local beef cattle of Riau Province that adaptive and breed well along the Kuantan river flow, found in Indragiri Hulu Regency and Kuantan Singingi Regency, have smaller morphometric performance compared to other local beef cattle and are relatively the same as Pesisir cattle. One of the genetic markers of growth determinant in beef cattle is the GH/AluI gene locus. Identification of the diversity of the GH/Alu I gene was carried out using the PCR-RFLP. Fifty four samples of Kuantan cattle consisting of 25 samples from Indragiri Hulu Regency and 29 samples from Kuantan Singingi Regency, as well as 25 samples of Pesisir cattle from BPTU-HPT Padang Mengatas Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, were used in this study. The oligonucleotida forward F-5’GCTGCTCCTGAGGGCCCTTC-3’ and reverse R-5’CATGACCCTCAGGTACGTCTCCG-3’ used in this study along 211 bp of GH Gene. The PCR mixture consisted of DNA templates 20 - 25 ng, 0.4 µL primer forward dan primer reverse (10 ng primer forward and primer reverse), 25 µL dream tag green master mix and ddH2O up to a 50 µL. PCR machine conditions consisted of 940C pradenaturation for 5 minutes, 940C denaturation for 30 seconds, annealing 650C for 1 minute, 720C extension for 50 seconds and 720C final extension for 5 minutes. Identification of GH gene diversity using AluI at an incubation temperature of 370C for 3 hours. The results in this study were found monomorphic of GH/AluI genes in Kuantan and Pesisir cattle. The monomorphic in Kuantan cattle can be used as an indicator to assess the purity of Kuantan cattle in this areas.
Ahmat Endang Two Sulfiar, Bayu Andri Atmoko, Budi Guntoro, I Gede Suparta Budisatria
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.52742

Abstract:
This study was aimed to evaluate the characteristics and productivity of pasture for semi-intensive cattle system in South Konawe Regency during dry season. The study was conducted in August-September 2019 as dry season based on the weather condition and was determine by Department of Statistics Center of South Konawe Regency. A total of 55 selected smallholder farmers in two areas in South Konawe Regency, namely West Ranomento (30) and Konda (25) Districts. Data were obtained by interview to find out the farmers profile and pasture characteristics. Production was measured by forage sampling (1x1m) to calculate annual production. Samples were proximately analyzed to calculate dry matter production and the carrying capacity. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically with an independent sample t-test. The botanical composition in both locations was highly dominated (>90%) by field grasses. The grassland ownership was not different between two areas. Grassland ownership at West Ranomento and Konda were 0.78±0.14 and 0.21±0.04 Ha/farmer, respectively. The pasture production between West Ranomento (2.27±0.10 ton/ha) and Konda District (1.76±0.05 ton/ha) was significantly different (p
Cuk Tri Noviandi, Dibya Ratnopama, Ali Agus, Ristianto Utomo
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.53409

Abstract:
This study was done to determine the effects of bale sizes of bio-ammoniated rice straw on its nutrient quality and in vitro digestibility. Rice straw were bio-ammoniated by adding 2 g urea and 1 g probiotic/kg DM. By following a completely randomized design, rice straw was baled in 3 different weights (15, 25, and 35 kg) with six replications for each treatment, and then stored for 3 weeks. In the end of the week 3, bales were opened, aired, and then sampled for proximate analysis (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and crude fiber) and digestibility by in vitro gas production method. Using analysis of variance method, the proximate data showed that greater the bales size (15, 25, and 35 kg) increased crude protein (7.59, 7.86, and 9.95%, respectively; P
Dwi Ahmad Priyadi, Dyah Triasih, Sefri Ton, Ari Istanti
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.51434

Abstract:
The negative impact of chemical fertilizers use is soil fertility declining. The situation occurs because of biological, physical, and chemical properties of the soil is decreased. Agricultural waste is a large commodity which utilization can still be optimized, for example by using as raw material for organic liquid fertilizer. Agricultural wastes that have good quality as fertilizer include goat manure, chicken excreta, and coconut husk. The utilization of agricultural waste as organic fertilizer is one way of creating sustainable agriculture. This study aims to test the quality of liquid fertilizer (bioculture) of goat manure and chicken excreta by adding various levels of coconut husk. Bioculture is made by anaerobic fermentation for 21 days. The parameters observed included levels of C-organic, N, P, and K bioculture, as well as germination tests to determine the presence of phytotoxins. The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA. The treatment of P5 (5% coconut husk) showed the highest levels of N and P, while the K content was not significantly different from the treatment of P4 (2.5% coconut husk). The germination test showed no phytotoxin activity in bioculture.
Zulfan Zulfan, Muhammad Aman Yaman, Allaily Allaily, Enten Juni Marlina
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.52732

Abstract:
The purpose of present study was to evaluate the performance of broilers fed the commercial diet partially substituted with leubim fish (Canthidermis maculata) waste meal (LFWM) treated by fermentation and without fermentation. As many as 100 broiler chicks, MB 202 strain, unsex, were reared up to 5 weeks in this study. The research was set up into randomized block design (RBD) consisting of 5 treatments and 4 blocks with 5 birds each. Blocks were as replicate based on the body weights of the birds at the beginning of feeding experimental diets. The experimental diets were commercial diets partially replaced with LFWM administered by either fermentation or not with the level of 6 and 12% each, 6.5% and 13% yellow corn, and 0.5% topmix. The data was analyzed using an Analysis of Variance (AOV) and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) only if significant effects were detected among the treatments. The result of recent study indicated that the inclusion of feeds containing LFWM treated by either or not fermented combined with yellow corn and topmix as partially substitution of commercial diets significantly increased (P
Wisnu Bawono, Sudi Nurtini, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya Putra
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.47786

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the influence of the implementation of the meat self-sufficiency policy on the cattle farmers’ income in Indonesia. This study used secondary data of Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) that were collected in 2014. The IFLS are household data taken by survey at national level. This study used IFLS 5 data. The observed variables in this study included characteristics of farmer's household such as age, area of land cultivated, number of family members, education level, patterns integration of livestock farming and government assistance. Household income is derived from reduced revenue from agricultural sector and it cost as the dependent variable. The results of the study showed that mixed farming or livestock farming integration influenced farmer household income significantly (P
Depison Depison, Nabilah Ika Puteri, Gushairiyanto Gushairiyanto
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.57016

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the body weight, weight gain and morphometric characteristics of several local chicken strains. The research materials were KUB chicken, Sentul chicken, and Arab chicken. The method used was an experiment with a sample of 82 chickens from each strain. Data collected include body weight, weight gain, beak length, beak width, head length, head circumference, head height, neck length, neck circumference, wing length, back length, back height, chest length, chest width, shank length, shank circumference, tibia length, tibia circumference, third finger length, and pubic bone distance. Data collected were analyzed using the average difference test (t-test). The average value vector of body measurements of chicken lines was analyzed using the T²-Hotelling statistical test. Main Component Analysis statistical test was used to identify the shape and size characteristics of each chicken strain. The results showed that the body weight and morphometrics of KUB chickens at 3 months were significantly different (P0.05) from Sentul chickens, but it was significantly different (P
Edi Suryanto, Yuny Erwanto, Sylvie Astuti
Published: 31 August 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i3.36507

Abstract:
Contamination that decreased chicken meat quality could be prevented using natural preservatives. Bay leaves (Syzygium polyanthum) contain volatile fatty acids, tannin, and flavonoid that possess bacteriological and fungicidal activity as well as preventing bacterial spore growth. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fresh bay leaf infusion on microbiological, chemical, and physical qualities of chicken meat. This study used bay leaves, water, chicken meat, eight strain of bacteria, chemicals and materials for the analysis of chicken meat. The experiment consisted of two steps, the first was the antibacterial properties of bay leaves and the second was the application of bay leaf infusion for chicken meat. Eight bacteria was used for the bacterial inhibition of bay leaf at the concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The experiment on antibacterial properties of bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum) used one way randomized design with five concentration treatments, while the application of bay leaf infusions on chicken meat using factorial completely randomized design 2x5 (2 types of soaking and 5 observation time). At the second step, chicken meat was divided into 2 groups, the first group was soaked in water only and the second group was soaked in 15% bay leaf infusion. They were then stored for 0 (control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours at the room temperature. Each treatment was repeated four times. The microbiological, chemical, physical qualities of chicken meat were observed. The results showed that bay leaf infusion had the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria (P
Suci Wulandari, , Dadik Pantaya
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.48544

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of S. cerevisiae as a probiotic for producing low cholesterol and antibiotic-free broiler meat. This study used 250 broilers (14 days old) which were divided into 5 treatment groups, those were T0 (rations without S. cerevisiae addition), T1, T2 and T3 (rations added with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g/kg DM of S. cerevisiae respectively), and K group (commercial feed). Broilers were reared until 36 days old prior to slaughter. The carcass quality, abdominal fat, internal organs, cholesterol content of breast meat, the number of LAB and E. coli of intestinal tract were observed. The addition of S. cerevisiae tended to increase the number of LAB in intestinal tract, whereas the number of E. coli significantly decreased. The highest slaughter weight was found in group fed with commercial feed. There were no significant effects of S. cerevisiae addition on carcass, abdominal fat and weight of internal and immunity organs. The lowest cholesterol content was showed on broiler fed with rations added with 1 g/kg DM S. cerevisiae. Therefore it could be concluded that the addition of S. cerevisiae up to 1 g/kg DM rations showed health improvement and able to produce low cholesterol broiler meat.
, Muhamad Hasan Hadiana, Ujang Hidayat Tanuwiria
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.39917

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to study reproductive performance of Friesian Holstein (FH) dairy cows in the three different agro-ecosystems at the operational area of Bayongbong’s cooperative, Garut regency, Indonesia. The method used in this study was the survey method. The study was carried out in Lebakjaya village, which has drylands and rainfed agricultural ecosystem (AES DL-Rainfed); Cintanagara village which has drylands and irrigated rice field agricultural ecosystem (AES DL-IRF); and Pamalayan village which has drylands tropical forest (AES DL-Forest). The total samples were 208 dairy farmers and 315 head of FH dairy cows from the three places, 18 dairy farmers and 44 head in Lebakjaya village, 95 dairy farmers and 120 head in Cintanegara village, and 95 dairy farmers with 151 head in Pamalayan village. The study used a simple random sampling and the reproductive performances data were obtained from the field and artificial insemination practices. The data were descriptively analyzed using SPSS 22.0. After that, it was tested using T-Student statistical analyses. The results showed that the reproductive performances in AES DL-Rainfed were S/C 2.23 ± 0.45 times, days open (DO) 148.89 ± 65.52 days, and calving interval (CI) 431.00 ± 65.18 days. The reproductive performances in AES DL-IRF were S/C 2.31 ± 0.54 times, DO 161.95 ± 61.99 days, and CI 444.47 ± 61.21 days, and the reproductive performances in AES DL-Forest were S/C 2.11 ± 0.62 times, DO 138.38 ± 47.18 days, and CI 419.86 ± 46.95 days. The reproductive performances of AES DL-Forest were more efficient (P
Noraimah Binti Sulaiman, Cece Sumantri, Irma Isnafia Arief, Cahyo Budiman
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.45544

Abstract:
The physicochemical characteristics and microbiological quality of buffalo meat are influenced by differences in muscle type. This study aimed to evaluate the physiochemical characteristic and microbiological quality of the topside (active muscle) and longissimus dorsi (passive muscle) of Indonesian local buffalo meat. Samples used in this study were buffalo meat from local swamp buffalo, aged more than four years old on the topside and longissimus dorsi. This study used a completely randomized design, with three repetitions in each treatment. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result of the study on the topside and longissimus dorsi area showed a significant difference in the pH and cholesterol levels of the buffalo meat. The longissimus dorsi area had a lower level of pH and cholesterol compared to the topside area. Furthermore, this longissimus dorsi meat has a higher color, protein, ash, fat, essential amino acid, and lactic acid bacterial (BAL) content than the topside meat. However, the topside meat had higher carbohydrate, essential fatty acid, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) content compared to the longissimus dorsi meat. Longissimus dorsi meat had better physicochemical characteristics and microbiological quality than the topside meat
Freshinta Jellia Wibisono, Bambang Sumiarto, Tri Untari, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Dian Ayu Permatasari, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.51347

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the resistance profile and the nature of multidrug resistance in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E.coli) against several classes of antibiotics. Positive isolates of ESBL-producing E.coli were tested for antibiotic sensitivity using the VITEK® 2 compact method which then analyzed automatically. The results showed an antibiotic resistance profile against ESBL-producing E.coli showed the highest level of antibiotics in beta lactam, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone at 100%. Subsequent results found a relatively high level of resistance in the antibiotics aztreonam (86.36%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (77.27%), gentamicin (72.73%), and ciprofloxacin (68.18%). Antibiotics from carbapenem groups such as ertapenem and memenem, and antibiotics from the aminoglycosides (amicasin) and tigecycline groups of tetracycline still showed a high sensitivity level of 100%. The most common resistance patterns found in ESBL-producing E.coli isolates are AM/AMP/KZ/CTX/CRO/ATM/GM/CIP as much as 22.73%, and AM/AMP/KZ/CTX/CRO/ATM/GM/CIP/SXT patterns of 18.2%. The results of multi-class antibiotic resistance showed that 86.36% had multidrug resistance. The highest multidrug resistance pattern in ESBL-producing E.coli occurred with a BL/AG/Q/SP pattern of 50%. Other patterns of multidrug resistance in ESBL-producing E.coli that can be found in this study are, the BL/AG/Q/SP pattern is 18.20%, the BL/AG/Q/SP pattern is 13.64%, and the BL/AG/Q pattern is 4.55%. The high profile of resistance and the nature of multidrug resistance in ESBL-producing E.coli has the potential to spread these resistant genes, thus risking the use of antibiotics as a public health therapy and animal health, therefore further evaluation and control are needed.
, Amelia Hana, Pudji Astuti, Sarmin Sarmin, Trini Susmiati, Okti Herawati
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.45508

Abstract:
This research aimed to investigate the influence of gradually feeding rejected laying hens after molting on the performance of production. This research used 6,000 rejected laying hens of 80 weeks old in Subur Farm. Molting method was a modification method by reducing the feed gradually. At the beginning of this research, the feed was given 120 g/laying hens/day and it would be reduced by 10 g/laying hens/day until it reach 50 g/laying hens/day. In the next phase, all chickens fasted for seven days then the chicken was given 10 g/laying hens on the first day. The feed was increased 10 g/laying hens every two days up to 120 g/laying hens/day. Data Collection of Feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, amount of feed, and egg production were taken at the start of re-feeding. The results showed that during the period of molting until refeeding, mortality was 3.6%, an increase in egg production was seen since week 1, peak of production was 78% at week 9 with FCR 2.3. The results of statistical analysis showed significant differences (P
Zaituni Udin, Masrizal Masrizal, Hendri Hendri, Syafri Nanda
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.52181

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate different recovery techniques of oocytes and the duration time between ovary collection and processing in the laboratory on the quality and quantity of Simmental cross bovine oocytes in vitro maturation. A total of 75 bovine ovaries were divided into three groups. Experiment-1; the storage duration of ovaries were 6, 9 and 12 h. Experiment -2; the techniques for oocytes recovery were slicing, aspiration and slicing + aspiration. The ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse and kept in saline solution during transportation to laboratory. A total of 136 oocytes were used for experiment-1, and 246 oocytes for experiment-2. This study found that the number and quality of oocytes were significantly different (P0.05) on oocytes quality. The average of oocytes of groups slicing, aspiration and slicing plus aspiration were 14.66±2.09; 9.46±2.99 and 16.40±6.86, respectively. Both experiment was significant effect (P
, Yon Soepri Ondho, Agung Subrata, Pramesti Kusuma Pratiwi, Mutiara Briliana Zahra, Trisna Itmamulwafa, Tertyani Kartika Pratiwi, Muslichatun Nisa, Widiyanto Widiyanto
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.55338

Abstract:
SOYXYL supplementation as a source of high-quality protected protein in rumen (Rumen Protected Protein) has proven to improve reproduction performance of bulls. The SOYXYL is an extrusion product of soybean (Glycine max) as a source of rumen protected protein. The potential of the protein supplementation is maximally expressed when it is supported by sufficient of metabolic rate. In this case the choline chloride supplementation increases the metabolic rate. The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of choline chloride supplementation on reproduction performance and hematologic status related to reproduction performance of bulls fed protected protein in the ration. The materials used were 12 bulls aged 5 years having weight of 700 ± 2.75 kg that were divided into 4 treatment groups, each of which consisted of 3 heads. The treatments applied were T0 (control): ration (grass + commercial concentrate) + protected protein supplement “SOYXYL”; T1: control + choline chloride 0.145% dry matter (DM) concentrate/head/day; T2: control + choline chloride 0.290% DM concentrate/head/day; T3: control + choline chloride 0.435% DM concentrate/head/day. Variables measured were nutrient consumption, blood lipid status, blood protein status, and reproduction performance. Data were analyzed using ANOVA in a completely randomized design and statistically processed using SAS program. The result showed that choline chloride supplementation by 0.435% from DM concentrate increased (p
Sulvia Dwi Astuti Sw, , Ali Agus, Lies Mira Yusiati
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.54103

Abstract:
Gliricidia maculata which has long been used as a forage for animal feed may contain a variety of glucogenic amino acids variants. The objective of this study was to identify the glucogenic amino acids content in Gliricidia maculata as an alternative source of energy for high-yielding periparturient dairy cows. The samples were the edible portion of plants, harvested randomly at the optimal cutting age (80 days), from the feed plant collection garden of The Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Lyophilization was carried out by drying the samples at 55°C for 3 x 24 hours continouesly in a Sanyo Drying Oven MOV-112. Pulverization was done by the Foss Tecator CyclotecTM 1093 Sample Mill with 300 mesh (1 mm screen). The hydrolysis of amino acid was carried out using HCl solution while amino acid derivatization used O-phtalaldehyde (OPA) solution. Separation, determination, and quantification of amino acid were carried out by an analytical method in gradient elution using the Thermo ScientificTM DionexTM UltiMateTM 3000 UHPLC Systems with Rapid Separation Fluorescence Detector. Result showed there were at least fourteen kinds of amino acids identified from the samples, i.e.: aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, histidine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosin, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine. Gliricidia maculata contains 1349 ppm glucogenic amino acids, 412.7 ppm ketogenic amino acids and 444.7 ppm glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. Moreover, there were three types of glucogenic amino acids with the highest concentration were serine (288.7 ppm), glutamic acid (245.5 ppm) and phenylalanine (197.1 ppm) respectively. Glucogenic amino acids can be used as an energy source for dairy cows through gluconeogenesis. This study suggests that Gliricidia maculata may use to supply the precursors of energy for high-yielding periparturient dairy cows to prevent ketosis.
, Osfar Sjofjan
Published: 31 May 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i2.54713

Abstract:
Numerous efforts have been undertaken to develop suitable alternatives in order to counteract the anticipated drawbacks associated with the ban of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). The research purpose is to carry out the possible effect of mannan-riched fraction (MRF) and probiotic enhanced water as natural growth promoters (NGPs) on performance, relative organ weight, serum blood biochemistry, intestinal properties, and intestinal micro flora. 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments and 4 replicates of 20 birds per cage. four treatments used for research were dietary with control (T0), basal diet + MRF 80 g (T1), Drinking water + 2 mL/L combination feed additive (T2), and basal feed + MRF 80 g+ drinking water 2 mL/L combination feed additive (T3). The results showed that using mannan riched fraction (MRF) and combination with probiotic-enhanced liquid acidifier presented significant difference (P > 0.05) on body weight gain at 1-28 days and intestinal properties. On the blood biochemistry, the effect of supplementation began to reduce the amount of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) at 21 days periods. To sum up, the addition of mannan-riched fraction and combination with probiotic enhanced liquid acidifier doesn’t impacted on growth performance, and serum blood biochemistry but give significant effect on intestinal properties of broiler.
Jhonly Woran, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Lusia Keworip, Stepanus Pakage, Desni Saragih, Meky Sagrim, Lily Orisu,
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.46460

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the type of work and division of labor in the household-scale pig farm business and how much income was earned and generated by each male, adult female and child labor as a case study in the Manokwari coastal agroecological area Papua Barat. The method used is descriptive research method with survey techniques through interviews and field observations. The sample of farmers chosen purposively was 35 households out of 50 pig breeder. Farmers selected as samples are those who have been running pigs for more than 1 year. The parameters measured are labor involvement and contribution of economic beneficiaries. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, namely analysis of variance with further testing Scheffe using SPSS v.16.0. The results showed that the types of work carried out by domestic workers included processing and providing [A4] food, medicine and sanitation, selling live cattle on the market and selling carcasses. Female breeders have almost the same level of participation as men. In terms of working hours, women give higher time (521 hours/month) in 6 pig raising activities. Female workers contribute higher incomes than male workers.
Abel Oguntunji, Opeyemi Adetola Oladejo, Mathew Oluseyi Ayoola, Lopemi Opeoluwa Oriye, Opeyemi Olufemi Ogundijo, Abiola Olufunke Ilufoye
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.46595

Abstract:
Inherent thermal adaptation in livestock is an important economic trait that cannot be overlooked, most especially in animals reared in sub-optimal thermally stressful environments. The present study explored the possibility of using multifactorial discriminant analysis (DA) to separate two duck genera {Muscovy and Common (Mallard) ducks) and their hybrid (Mule ducks) to distinct genetic groups using physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters. Data were collected after exposure of ducks to solar radiation for 90 minutes (12.00 – 13.30 hours). The result of analysis of variance indicated that genotype significantly (P
, Sunarto Sunarto
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.51142

Abstract:
This study was designed to determine the intestinal characteristics and nutrient retention of broiler chickens subjected to different protein regimes supplemented with betaine. Four experimental diets were formulated, consisting of two basal diets containing 20% and 23% crude protein (CP), both with and without betaine supplementation at the level of 0.14%. The diets were applied to 180 broiler chickens that were randomly allotted to 2×2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of nine chickens each. The diet with 20.0% CP generated better small intestine characteristics than the diet with 23.0% CP as indicated by the longer ileum and total small intestine length (P
Zuprizal Zuprizal, Niati Ningsih, Taufik Ahmad Zulfian
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.44958

Abstract:
The present study was to evaluate the effects of nano-encapsulated Phaleria macrocarpa fruit extract (NEPM) in drinking water on the digestive organs and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens. A total number of two hundred male broiler chicks were randomly divided into five treatments with four replicates, each replicate contained ten chickens. Broiler chickens have received a basal diet supplemented with or without experimental treatments. Five experimental treatments were: control diet (T0; negative control), diet with tetracycline (T1; positive control), diet with 2.5% of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extract (T2), diet with 2.5% NEPM (T3), and diet with 5.0% NEPM (T4). The diets were based on yellow corn and soybean meal and contained 20.44% crude protein, 2,917.47 kcal/kg metabolizable energy, 0.84% Calcium, and 0.51% available Phosphorus. On the 35th day, one bird from each replicate pen was slaughtered. Carcass characteristics and weights of digestive organs were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA in a completely randomized design. The orthogonal contrast test was used to separate the mean when the P-value was less than 5%. Results showed that the use of nano-encapsulated Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts up to 5.0% in the diet did not give any significant effect on the carcass, digestive organs, heart and liver weights of broiler chickens. It can be concluded that the supplementation of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts whether nano-encapsulated or not, did not affect carcass weight, weights of digestive organs and weights of the heart and liver of broiler chickens.
, Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto, Sulvia Dwi Astuti, Tridjoko Wisnu Murti, Adiarto Adiarto
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.44176

Abstract:
The study aimed to describe lactation characteristic of Etawah Crossed Breed goats raised under intensive management. The study located in BBPTU HPT Baturraden, Purwokerto, used 27 female pregnant goats, at 24 to 27 months old. The goats were managed followed standard operating procedure of the research institute. The data consisted of body size and body weight, colostrum and milk yield, lactation period and reproductive performance. The results showed the average of daily milk yield, lactation period, total milk and colostrum production in first lactation were 960±340 mL/day, 157±41 days, 114,720±68,900 mL and 415±240 mL/day. The proportion of monthly milk production from initial lactation to dry off were 21.27, 22.17, 20.18, 17.29, 12.52, 9.13, and 5.65% of total lactation yield, respectively. Peak production ranged from first to second months of lactation, the highest was in the week 4th, averaged of 1080 mL/day. Production persistency was 66.39%. The rate of increase toward peak was 5.60%/week and rate of decline from peak was -3.92% of milk yield in the previous week. Trend equation of lactation curve was Y = 8412.7 –233.65 x. Means period of postpartum mating, service per conception and body condition score were 88.7±39.2 days, 1.2 and 3.45, respectively. There was no correlation between postpartum mating, body condition score and milk production. The study concluded that Etawah Crossed Breed goat under intensive management had short lactation period, early peak production, low persistency. The dry period was estimated 3 months and pregnancy occurred after peak production.
, Jaya Putra Jahidin, Noraimah Binti Sulaiman, Muhammad Yusuf, Muhamad Arifin, Irma Isnafia Arief
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.42311

Abstract:
Yoghurt is a well-known fermented dairy product which produced using a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophillus as fermentation starters. Cow milk is usually used as a raw ingredient. The LAB-based local yoghurt starter (S. thermophilus RRAM-01 (ST), L. bulgaricus RRAM-01 (LB) and L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 (LA)) were previously isolated from milk and meat, nevertheless had not been extensively attempted to be used in yoghurt production. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of cow and goat milk based yoghurt produced by using a single local strater of S. thermophilus RRAM-01 (ST) or L. bulgaricus RRAM-01 (LB) or L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 (LA). The yoghurts were produced through addition of the starter (3% v/v each) with 1010 CFU mL-1 of initial population, and then fermented at room temperature for 24 hr. The result revealed that initial population of LAB in goat’s milk yoghurt fermented by ST or LB were significantly higher than that of by LA. Yet, after 24-hour of storage at room temperature, the total population of LA increased and reached final population which was higher than LB or ST. Meanwhile, cow’s milk yoghurt fermented by LB had the highest population of at the initial day (D0), while after fermentation the highest population were observed on LB or LA cow’s milk yoghurt. Overall goat’s milk yoghurt had significantly lower pH values than the cow’s milk yoghurt. These were accompanied by higher the total titrated acid (TTA) of goat’s milk yoghurt than that of cow’s milk yoghurt. Based on pH and TAT values, it was found that ST bacteria produced significantly higher total acidity goat’s milk yoghurt, followed by LB and LA. However, the type of culture had no effect on total acidity of cow's milk yoghurt.
Aji Gunawan, Akhmad Sodiq, Krismiwati Muatip, Novie Andri Setianto
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.46127

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to assess the reproductive performance of beef cattle based on different production systems. Survey research was carried out in Margasari Subdistrict, Tegal Regency, Central Java Province, in 13 farmer groups (a total of 188 breeders and 557 beef cattle) who took shelter in the SPR Program The qualitative and quantitative design framework is used to obtain comprehensive data. The questionnaire was used to get data and respondents determined by census method. SPSS software is used to analyze data. The results showed that 38.46% of farmer groups implemented a crop-livestock-system (CLS), 30.77% of farmer groups implemented a livestock-forestry system (LFS), and 30.77% of farmer groups implemented a crop-livestock-forestry-system (CLFS) in producing beef cattle. The results of the present study were significantly (P
Monica Canadianti, Lies Mira Yusiati, Chusnul Hanim, Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto, Andriyani Astuti
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.47976

Abstract:
This experiment was aimed to study the effect of nutmeg leaf tannin addition on in vitro nutrient digestibility. Treatments in this experiment consisted of: P0 (control without tannin), P1 (feed + 2% tannin) and P2 (feed + 4% tannin). Feed for fermentation substrate consisted of Pennisetum purpureum and soybean meal with ratio 60:40. Fermentation was carried out using Tilley and Terry two stages in vitro technique for 48 hours. Variables measured were the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein in the rumen as well as the total digestive tract digestibility based on in vitro technique. The data obtained were analyzed by One Way ANOVA, and followed by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that rumen dry matter digestibility was lower (P0.05) in the total dry matter digestibility of P0, P1, and P2 (74.88±5.28, 67.70±3.21, and 64.83±4.96). Organic matter digestibility in the rumen was also lower (P0.05) in total organic matter digestibility from P0, P1, and P2 (64.69±6.44, 64.33±6.34, and 61.20±5.11). The digestibility of crude protein in the rumen at P1 and P2 (45.48±5.12 and 38.47±3.44) was also significantly lower (P0.05). Addition of tannin leaf nutmeg 2% optimally reduced rumen dry matter and crude protein digestibility without causing excessive negative impact on results of in vitro digestibility, so it can be used as a protective agent protein feed.
, Lies Mira Yusiati, I Gede Suparta Budisatria, Fandi Widya Rachman
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.36229

Abstract:
This experiment aimed to determine the nutrient digestibility of Bligon and Kejobong goats fed by king grass and peanut straw. The sample used was 6 to 8 months of five male Bligon goats, and five male Kejobong goats with the initial body weight of 15 to 20 kg and placed in separated metabolism cages. The diet and water were supplied ad libitum. This experiment was done in 14 days of adaptation period and seven days of the collection period. In the collection period, samples of feed, refusal feed, and feces were collected to get the chemical content includes dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), crude protein (CP), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), and total digestible nutrient (TDN). The data obtained were subjected to a T-test analysis. Results showed that nutrients intake, digested nutrient as well as nutrient digestibility of Bligon and Kejobong goats were not significantly different. However, Kejobong goats had EE and CP intake of 15.42% and 14.02%, digested DM, OM, and NFE of 16.29%, 15.71%, and 13.93% respectively, as well as NFE digestibility 4.37% higher than those Bligon goats (P< 0.05). Therefore, there was no difference in nutrient intake, digested, and digestibility of nutrients in Bligon and Kejobong goats fed by king grass and peanut straw. However, Kejobong goats appeared to have higher EE and CP intake, as well as digested and digestibility of DM, OM, and NFE than Bligon goats.
, Juni Sumarmono, Kusuma Widayaka
Published: 29 February 2020
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 44; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v44i1.49130

Abstract:
This research set out to compare the physical and microstructural characteristics of kefir made of milk, colostrum, and milk-colostrum mixes at various proportions. Kefir was made by adding kefir grains to 100% milk (P0), 80% milk + 20% colostrum (P1), 60% milk + 40% colostrum (P3), 40% milk + 60% colostrum (P4), 80% milk + 20% colostrum (P5), and 100% colostrum (P6). Fermentation was allowed under room temperature for 24 hours. The characteristics observed were color values, viscosity, pH, water holding capacity (WHC), syneresis, and microstructure. The result showed that the color of kefir (L* value, lightness); (b* value, yellow-blue), (a*, red-green), and whiteness index (WI) was significantly affected by raw materials. The viscosity of kefir was also affected by the raw materials (p
, Agussalim Agussalim, Nafiatul Umami, I Gede Suparta Budisatria
Published: 30 November 2019
Buletin Peternakan, Volume 43; doi:10.21059/buletinpeternak.v43i4.47865

Abstract:
Bee activities and colony may affect the production of bee products. Bee-pollen is one of the important products of honeybees, besides of honey. Tetragonula laeviceps is a group member of stingless bees found in tropical region. In Indonesia, Tetragonula laeviceps mostly create a nest in bamboos that make unfortunately difficult for harvesting of its products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different beehives size and the daily activity (morning vs. afternoon) of stingless bee Tetragonula laeviceps on bee-pollen production. This study was conducted in Ngrandu, Katongan Village, Sub-district of Nglipar, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Forty colonies of Tetragonula laeviceps were obtained from bamboos (similar in diameter and length) were transferred into four different group of beehives size (BS) made from dried wood, respectively: 35x17.5x13.5 (BS1); 35x20x17.5 (BS2); 37.5x20x20 (BS3) and 40x20x20 cm (BS4). Each group of beehives size had ten colonies/beehives as replicates. The colonies consisted of a queen bee, eggs, worker bees, and drones were transferred into wood beehives, and they were kept for two months for the study. The bee-pollen was harvested from beehives, separated from the propolis then weighed. The production of bee-pollen in the four different beehives size (BS1: 2.34±2.48 g/colony; BS2: 4.56±3.94 g/colony; BS3: 1.30±1.22 g/colony, BS4: 1.02±0.63 g/colony) was not different (ns) among the groups. The daily activity of bee bring the pollen to the nest in the morning (07.00 to 11.00) was significantly different (P
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