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Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry; doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2021-1805

Abstract:
In one of thousands of examples of how he cared for each of us, many years ago, a former student (currently a university professor) became pregnant in the middle of her PhD course and was afraid to approach Izquierdo to tell him the news that could jeopardize her work. Having overcome her initial reluctance and reached out to him, she was surprised by his attitude: as always, he was warm and kind, offered support, and adapted her tasks to the restrictions of pregnancy. Izquierdo left very deep impressions on many people. That was in part due to his scientific knowledge, but also due to his personable demeanor.
, Michele Higa Froes, Gizelda Katz,
Published: 12 April 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of pregnant with suspected Zika virus infection reported in the Public Health Emergency Surveillance System and the spectrum of abnormalities and/or pregnancy outcomes, Brazil. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological study of a cohort of symptomatic pregnant suspected of Zika virus infection and the outcome of their pregnancy, living in the state of São Paulo and notified in the period from 2015 to 2018. Results: Of the 2,329 studied pregnant women, 29.3% were confirmed. The most part were single (44.8%), race white (74.2%), with high school (53.6%) and were concentrated in the northeastern region of the state. The proportion of newborns with malformations in these pregnant was 4,0%. Conclusion: The results found characterize the transmission of the Zika virus in the state of São Paulo and may subsidize public health actions in places with a higher risk of disease transmission.
Neyla Cristiane Rodrigues de Oliveira, ,
Published: 12 April 2021
Abstract:
Environmental Education (EE) emerges as a tool to foster discussions on Climate Change (CC) in the school context. In this sense, the goal of this study was to investigate what is the teachers' perspective on the impacts of CC and how they have been working CC in the classroom as well as how they perceive the potential of environmental education in the face of this process. This study was qualitative research, carried out with 24 educators from 12 institutions of the Municipal Education System of Teresina (SEMEC) how participate in the National Program for Sustainable Schools (PNES). Semistructured questionnaires were applied to them and the data categorized according to the Content Analysis. As a result, it was found that educators relate CC to changes in weather, being the rise in temperature the most perceived impact by them (54.2%), followed by loss of biodiversity and migratory flows. In addition, they presented ecological concepts of EE, they connected the term "Climate Change" to the Biological Sciences and Geography. About 71% of teachers claimed to use environmental awareness activities in class to address CC with an interdisciplinary approach to promote changes in pedagogical practices. Regarding to the Fridays For Future, 62.5% of teachers were unaware of the movement but showed interest in knowing it and 83.3% of educators are willing to support events like this at school. Therefore, according to the results, it can be inferred that it is important to develop EE actions that stimulate students' critical thinking, thus contributing to changes in behavior and decision making in the face of environmental issues. This should occur not only in sustainable schools but in an integral and continuous process in all schools.
Jéssica Soares de Lima, Denilson Fernandes Peralta
Published: 12 April 2021
Abstract:
The Serra da Bocaina National Park is located between the States of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, being the only PARNA in the State of São Paulo. We found 485 species of bryophytes, with Lejeuneaceae as the richest family with 93 species. Bryaceae presented the largest number of moss species, with 23 species. Forty seven species are new records for the São Paulo State. Among all the collected species, 43% are restricted to the Atlantic Forest, 31% are Brazilian endemic and 155 are considered rare in Brazil. The species number represents the importance of this Park to the preservation of the bryophyte species in Brazil and for future work in Serra da Bocaina.
, Eduardo Habermann, Vani Maria Alves, Carlos Alberto Martinez
Published: 12 April 2021
Abstract:
In tropical and subtropical zones, lianas play important roles in the process of ecological succession. This study aims to evaluate the photosynthetic and morpho-physiological performance between two lianas species from Mikania genus in response to different levels of radiation: full sun (I0), 25% (I25), 50% (I50), and 75% (I75) retention of solar radiation flux. Plants grown under I75 showed a reduced net photosynthetic rate (A). We observed dynamic photoinhibition at I0 during hours of high irradiation and temperature. The highest and lowest leaf chlorophyll content occurred at I75 and I0, respectively, while carotenoids/total chlorophyll and leaf thickness increased under I0. Total dry mass was higher in plants grown at I0 and I25. However, A values and biomass production of Mikania laevigata were higher at I25, while for Mikania glomerata greater biomass accumulation was observed between I0-I50. Therefore, we concluded that M. laevigata and M. glomerata have different morpho-physiological performances under same the radiation conditions.
Maria Helena Palucci Marziale, Alex Cassenote, Fernanda Ludmilla Rocha, Maria Lucia Robazzi, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Jaqueline Garcia De Almeida Ballestero, Fábio De Souza Terra, , Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso dos Santos, Isabela Fracarolli, et al.
Published: 12 April 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To translate and adapt culturally the Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of COVID-19 questionnaire to the Brazilian context, to develop and evaluate a “Socio-demographic and occupational questionnaire: risk assessment and exposure management for health workers and students in the context of COVID-19 ”. Method: a methodological study, whose cultural adaptation process for the Brazilian context of the first questionnaire was carried out in f
, Talita Di Santi, Scott Beach, , Alessandra L. Lucchetti, Felicia A. Smith, Orestes V. Forlenza, Gregory L. Fricchione, Eurípedes C. Miguel,
Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry; doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1582

Abstract:
Objective: To review the most common mental health strategies aimed at alleviating and/or preventing mental health problems in individuals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other coronavirus pandemics. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing three databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO). A meta-analysis was performed with data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For non-RCT studies, a critical description of recommendations was performed. Results: From a total of 2,825 articles, 125 were included. Of those, three RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the interventions promoted better overall mental health outcomes as compared to control groups (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.87 [95%CI 0.33-1.41], p < 0.001, I2 = 69.2%), but did not specifically improve anxiety (SMD = 0.98 [95%CI -0.17 to 2.13], p > 0.05; I2 = 36.8%). Concerning the systematic review, we found a large body of scientific literature proposing recommendations involving psychological/psychiatric interventions, self-care, education, governmental programs, and the use of technology and media. Conclusions: We found a large body of expert recommendations that may help health practitioners, institutional and governmental leaders, and the general population cope with mental health issues during a pandemic or a crisis period. However, most articles had a low level of evidence, stressing the need for more studies with better design (especially RCTs) investigating potential mental health interventions during COVID-19. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020190212.
, , , Latha Kumaraswami, , Siu-Fai Lui, Ifeoma Ulasi, Sharon Andreoli, , Sophie Dupuis, et al.
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/2175-8239-jbn-2020-0241

Abstract:
Living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hardships for patients and their care-partners. Empowering patients and their care-partners, including family members or friends involved in their care, may help minimize burden and consequences of CKD-related symptoms to enable life participation. There is a need to broaden the focus on living well with kidney disease and re-engagement in life, including emphasis on patients being in control. The World Kidney Day (WKD) Joint Steering Committee has declared 2021 the year of “Living Well with Kidney Disease” in an effort to increase education and awareness on the important goal of patient empowerment and life participation. This calls for the development and implementation of validated patient-reported outcome measures to assess and address areas of life participation in routine care. It could be supported by regulatory agencies as a metric for quality care or to support labelling claims for medicines and devices. Funding agencies could establish targeted calls for research that address the priorities of patients. Patients with kidney disease and their care-partners should feel supported to live well through concerted efforts by kidney care communities including during pandemics. In the overall wellness program for kidney disease patients, the need for prevention should be reiterated. Early detection with prolonged course of wellness despite kidney disease, after effective secondary and tertiary prevention programs, should be promoted. WKD 2021 continues to call for increased awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals, and policy makers, applicable to both developed and developing countries.
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/2175-8239-jbn-2020-0226

Abstract:
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and clinical studies show that this progression can be slowed. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs to Brazil’s public health system (SUS) throughout the course of CKD in the pre-dialysis stage compared to the costs to the SUS of dialysis treatment (DT). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze clinical and laboratory variables; the outcome analyzed was need for DT. To assess cost, a microcosting survey was conducted according to the Methodological Guidelines for Economic Evaluations in Healthcare and the National Program for Cost Management, both recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for economic studies. Results: A total of 5,689 patients were followed between 2011 and 2014, and 537 met the inclusion criteria. Average costs increased substantially as the disease progressed. The average cost incurred in stage G1 in Brazilian reals was R$ 7,110.78, (US$1,832.06) and in stage G5, it was R$ 26,814.08 (US$6,908.53), accumulated over the four years. Conclusion: A pre-dialysis care program may reduce by R$ 33,023.12 ± 1,676.80 (US$ 8,508.26 ± 432.02) the average cost for each year of DT avoided, which is sufficient to cover the program’s operation, minimizing cost. These results signal to public health policy makers the real possibility of achieving significant cost reduction in the medium term for CKD care (4 years), to a program that disbursed R$ 24 billion (US$ 6.8 billion) for DT in Brazil between 2009 and 2018.
Bruno Iorio Könsgen, , Luiz Augusto Facchini, Bruno Pereira Nunes
Published: 12 April 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the use of health services and their associated factors by university students. Methods: Cross-sectional study applied to a sample of 2.708 students at the Federal University of Pelotas between November 2017 and July 2018. Results: Of the 1,865 individuals included, 55.8% used health services in the last 12 months, 39.3% used specialized services, and 22.6% used health centers; 45.9% used services financed by the Unified Health System (UHS); 49.1% used it for prevention. There was greater use among females (prevalence ratio, PR=1.34 – IC95%1.23;1.46) and people with health needs (PR=1.51 – IC95%1.40;1.63). More UHS financing was showed with health center (83.0% [IC95%77.3;87.5]), urgent care (81.3% [IC95%73.2;87.5]) e pronto atendimento (83,6% [76,2;89,0]). Conclusion: The analysis indicated that women and people in need use health services more and that UHS is the main provider of services.
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental; doi:10.1590/s1413-415220190080

Abstract:
Population progress is one of the main factors affecting the environment, modifying the natural dynamics of ecosystems. The Camboriú River Basin is located on the southern coast of Brazil and is strongly affected by population growth. This paper aimed to verify the space-time variation in the land use of the Camboriú River Basin by identifying changes in occupation and land use between 1986 and 2017. The rapid environmental assessment protocol was applied using the following parameters: bottom substrate, habitat complexity, backwaters quality, stability of banks, vegetative protection, vegetative cover, vegetative quality, and riparian vegetation presence. The changes in occupation and land use show rapid urbanization with a rise of 9% in 1986 to 24% in 2017. In riparian forest, higher altitude regions of the watershed show better results when compared to lower course regions, which are, thus, reflected in the environmental integrity of the stretches of stream studied. As for the behavior of urban occupation in space, it was verified that it did not occur continuously in comparison with the population, data during the studied period.
, Ana Carla Nogueira Tobias Vieira
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia; doi:10.1590/0102-77863610004

Abstract:
Resumo O uso de índices de estresse hídrico nas fases de desenvolvimento da cultura pode atuar como uma ferramenta essencial no manejo da irrigação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o momento ideal de irrigar a cultura do amendoim, por meio de índices de estresse hídrico utilizando-se a termometria a infravermelho. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, situada a 22°15’22” S, 48°18’58” W, e altitude de 575 m, em uma “Bacia Hidrográfica Experimental”, utilizando superfícies com diferentes declividades (0%, 20% e 40%) e exposições solares (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste), sob déficit hídrico induzido. O solo da área experimental é o LE1, Vermelho-Escuro, eutrófico, A moderado, caulinítico, hipoférrico, textura argilosa, relevo suave ondulado (Eutrustox). O índice de estresse hídrico foi determinado por meio da medição da temperatura da cobertura vegetal e do ar ambiente. A rega foi realizada utilizando-se sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. Os resultados indicam que o momento de irrigar difere para cada fase de desenvolvimento do amendoim, em uma faixa entre 1,3 °C até 3,3 °C. A superfície mantida na capacidade de campo obteve menor índice de estresse hídrico (-1,4 °C).
, Frederico Prado Abreu, Luiz Eduardo De Freitas Xavier, Luana Pimentel Duarte, Vinícius de Jesus Rodrigues Neves, , Samuel Ribeiro Dias, Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Olivia Maria De Paula Alves Bezerra
Published: 9 April 2021
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva; doi:10.1590/1414-462x202129010120

Abstract:
Resumo Introdução A tuberculose, caracterizada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) como emergência sanitária mundial, é uma doença de impacto global. Objetivo Realizar série histórica de casos de tuberculose em um período de 17 anos em Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, considerando a histórica relação da doença com a mineração. Método Dados foram obtidos em sistema próprio de registros do município, por busca ativa em prontuários médicos e comparados à quantidade de casos notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). Para análises de tendência, foram utilizados modelos de regressão polinomial para séries históricas. Resultados Idade média dos casos foi 40,3 ± 16,4 anos. Homens apresentaram 2,23 vezes mais casos e chance 2,07 vezes maior para desfechos negativos. A forma mais observada foi pulmonar (84%), e sorologia para HIV foi realizada em apenas 16,3% dos registros. Principal desfecho observado foi cura (70%), e desfechos negativos totalizaram 20,2% dos registros. Taxa de incidência média foi 29,76 e 16,23 casos/100 mil habitantes na área municipal e distrital, respectivamente. Conclusão Apesar da relação histórica entre mineração e tuberculose no município, observa-se que este ainda apresenta preocupantes vulnerabilidades em relação à vigilância da doença. Análise de série temporal sugeriu declínio na proporção de casos curados entre 2009 e 2015.
Fellah Sahnoun, , Miloudi Kaddour, Khaldi Abdelkader, Benslimane Mohamed, Teixeira Antônio Heriberto de Castro
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia; doi:10.1590/0102-77863610020

Abstract:
Accurate spatio-temporal estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy fluxes is crucial for many agro-environmental applications, including the determination of water balance, irrigation scheduling, agro-ecological zoning, simulation of global changes in land use and forecasting crop yields. Remote sensing based energy balance models are presently most suitable for estimating ET at both temporal and spatial scales. This study presents an intercomparison of ET maps over the Habra plain in western Algeria obtained with two different models: Ts/VI trapezoid (Surface temperature/Vegetation Index Trapezoid Model) and SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land). Ts/VI trapezoid is the most used model, due to its simplicity, ease of use, few data input requirements and relatively high accuracy. It allows estimating ET directly by using the Priestley-Taylor equation. Whereas SEBAL allows estimating ET as the residual term of the energy balance equation, by using a rather complex hot and cold pixel based contextual approach to internally calibrate sensible heat flux through an iterative approach. The data set consists of four Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS images acquired on 2018-2019 and some ground measurements. In conclusion, the results show that SEBAL and Ts/VI trapezoid models provide comparable outputs and suggest that both the two models are suitable approaches for ET mapping over agricultural areas where ground measurements are scarce or difficult to collect.
Published: 9 April 2021
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva; doi:10.1590/1414-462x202129010364

Abstract:
Resumo Introdução Acidentes de trânsito geram mortes e sequelas que impactam a qualidade de vida das pessoas. Objetivo Caracterizar e distribuir espacialmente os acidentes de trânsito não fatais ocorridos em uma metrópole do noroeste paranaense. Método Trata-se de um estudo ecológico e transversal, com informações oriundas de uma amostragem probabilística de 423 vítimas procedentes dos Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito (BOAT) do 4º Batalhão da Polícia Militar de Maringá, Paraná. Verificaram-se distribuições percentuais com respectivos intervalos de confiança para as variáveis qualitativas e medidas de tendência central para as quantitativas. A produção cartográfica foi realizada pelos softwares Excel® e QGIS® 2.6.1. Resultados Predominaram vítimas do sexo masculino (85,0%), com idade inferior a 30 anos (58,4%), possuíam ocupação remunerada (92,3%), 55,0% eram motociclistas, 89,4% com tempo de habilitação superior a dois anos e 59,3% foram hospitalizadas devido às lesões. Quanto à distribuição espacial, os bairros Centro e seus arredores, como Alvorada, Zona 7 e Vila Morangueira, apresentaram maior número de ocorrências. Conclusão Características das vítimas: homens jovens menores de 30 anos, trabalhadores, motociclistas com ocorrências predominantes na região central e arredores. Há necessidade de intervenções para reduzir e identificar pontos críticos de localização e suas consequências mais graves.
, Siddiq Anwar, Francisco De Assis Da Rocha Neves, Claudio Ronco
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/21758239-jbn-2020-0273

Abstract:
In the past decade, a new class of hemodialysis (HD) membranes (high retention onset class) became available for clinical use. The high cutoff (HCO) and the medium cutoff (MCO) membranes have wider pores and more uniformity in pore size, allowing an increased clearance of uremic toxins. Owing to the mechanism of backfiltration/internal filtration, middle molecules are dragged by the convective forces, and no substitution solution is needed. The HCO dialyzer is applied in septic patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous kidney replacement therapy. The immune response is modulated thanks to the removal of inflammatory mediators. Another current application for the HCO dialyzer is in hematology, for patients on HD secondary to myeloma-kidney, since free light chains are more efficiently removed with the HCO membrane, reducing their deleterious effect on the renal tubules. In its turn, the MCO dialyzer is used for maintenance HD patients. A myriad of clinical trials published in the last three years consistently demonstrates the ability of this membrane to remove uremic toxins more efficiently than the high-flux membrane, an evolutionary disruption in the HD standard of care. Safety concerns regarding albumin loss as well as blood contamination from pyrogens in the dialysate have been overcome. In this update article, we explore the rise of new dialysis membranes in the light of the scientific evidence that supports their use in clinical practice.
Miguel Landa-Blanco, Elizabeth Andino Rodríguez, Gabriela Vásquez, Miguel Ángel Ruch-Ordóñez
Published: 9 April 2021
Abstract:
The present study aimed to understand the experiences and psychological reactions associated with the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the Honduran population. The methodology used was framed within a qualitative approach, with a narrative design. The information was collected through interviews with a total of 35 adult subjects who had been diagnosed with COVID-19. Additionally, as a triangulation point, 5 interviews with medical personnel working on the front line against COVID-19 were included. Among the prevailing matters in the informants' discourse, it is evident that the positive diagnosis of COVID-19 had effects on the daily development of the individual, specifically in relation to labor, economic and academic aspects. In addition, the informants comment on a series of psychological reactions, including feelings of guilt, anxiety, depression, concern for their own health and that of loved ones, deterioration in the quality of sleep, uncertainty, fear, and different attitudes towards seeking psychological help. The importance of support networks is also mentioned, specifically in relation to family, friends, and co-workers. Sometimes the interviewees reported feelings of loneliness and being victims of stigmatization. These results are discussed in light of previous research and their practical implications.
Hilda Maria Gonçalves Silva
Published: 9 April 2021
Abstract:
This research sought to understand which political characteristic has prevailed in the choice of paulistas, to govern the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, since the Social Democracy Party - PSDB, has governed the state of São Paulo since 1995. More specifically, the objective was to understand the permanences and advances in the planning of educational policy between 2007 and 2018. To establish such an understanding, the work developed here, used documentary research, studied, more specifically, the party's statute and program. and government programs of the past ten years. This is an excerpt from the original work, which is part of a Free Teaching research on educational policy, defended in 2019. The documentary analysis showed, in the profile of the leaders of the last decade, the option for a liberal and technocratic policy, as well as the maintenance of a nostalgic and little combative political style. In education, centralization of planning, decentralization of execution and local accountability for results prevails.
Published: 9 April 2021
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva; doi:10.1590/1414-462x202129010106

Abstract:
Resumo Introdução A avaliação do SINASC é essencial para verificar sua utilidade relacionada à pesquisa científica e às políticas de saúde. Objetivo Revisar a literatura publicada entre 2010 e 2018 sobre a qualidade dos dados do SINASC. Método Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre estudos que avaliaram o SINASC utilizando indicadores de qualidade (completitude, confiabilidade, cobertura). Resultados Nos estudos revisados, o número de filhos mortos, a ocupação materna, a idade gestacional e a raça/cor foram as variáveis com maiores frequências de incompletude. Com baixa concordância, destacaram-se a escolaridade materna, a idade gestacional, o número de consultas de pré-natal e o número de filhos mortos. Na cobertura, foi possível sistematizar o sub-registro dos nascimentos nos estudos de âmbito municipal/estadual. Conclusão Destaca-se que: i. a cobertura do SINASC não está distribuída de forma homogênea nas microrregiões e municípios brasileiros, ii. as informações sobre o número de filhos mortos e a idade gestacional apresentam baixa qualidade de preenchimento no SINASC.
Cristina Martins, Simone L. Saeki, Marcelo Mazza Do Nascimento, Fernando M. Lucas Júnior, , Christiane L. Meireles, Sandra Justino, , Estela Iraci Rabito, Maria Eliana Madalozzo Schieferdecker, et al.
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/2175-8239-jbn-2020-0210

Abstract:
This nutrition consensus document is the first to coordinate the efforts of three professional organizations - the Brazilian Association of Nutrition (Asbran), the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (SBN), and the Brazilian Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Braspen/SBNPE) - to select terminology and international standardized tools used in nutrition care. Its purpose is to improve the training delivered to nutritionists working with adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Eleven questions were developed concerning patient screening, care, and nutrition outcome management. The recommendations set out in this document were developed based on international guidelines and papers published in electronic databases such as PubMed, EMBASE(tm), CINHAL, Web of Science, and Cochrane. From a list of internationally standardized terms, twenty nutritionists selected the ones they deemed relevant in clinical practice involving outpatients with CKD. The content validity index (CVI) was calculated with 80% agreement in the answers. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was used to assess the strength of evidence and recommendations. A total of 107 terms related to Nutrition Assessment and Reassessment, 28 to Diagnosis, nine to Intervention, and 94 to Monitoring and Evaluation were selected. The list of selected terms and identified tools will be used in the development of training programs and the implementation of standardized nutrition terminology for nutritionists working with patients with chronic kidney disease in Brazil.
Published: 9 April 2021
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva; doi:10.1590/1414-462x202129010032

Abstract:
Resumo Introdução A intoxicação exógena é um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Objetivo Analisar os casos de intoxicação por metais na população do estado do Paraná e estimar a taxa de prevalência, bem como os fatores associados. Método Foi realizado um estudo descritivo com base nas intoxicações notificadas no período de 2007 a 2015. Resultados foram identificados 117 casos de intoxicação por metais e estimada uma prevalência de 1,2 caso por milhão de habitantes, com predomínio de casos no macrorregional norte da saúde. Com relação aos agentes tóxicos, mercúrio (41%) e chumbo (40,2%) foram confirmados como os mais frequentes. Dentre esses casos, houve predomínio do sexo masculino (57,3%), na faixa etária de 20 a 59 anos (55,6%), seguido da faixa etária de 1 a 4 anos (28,2%). Além disso, a residência e o local de trabalho foram destacados como locais de maior exposição, sendo relatados como acidentais em 70,1% dos casos, dos quais 41,9% necessitaram de cuidados hospitalares, 91% evoluíram para cura e houve um óbito. Conclusão A intoxicação por metais tem afetado principalmente crianças e trabalhadores, sugerindo medidas educativas e preventivas.
, Aldenyeslle Rodrigues de Albuquerque, Euclides José Oliveira da Cunha, Luiz Carlos Francelino Silva Junior, José Victor De Mendonça Silva, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo Santos, Maria Deysiane Porto Araújo, , , , et al.
Published: 9 April 2021
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva; doi:10.1590/1414-462x202129010340

Abstract:
Resumo Introdução A mortalidade infantil ainda representa um desafio para os países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo Analisar a tendência da mortalidade infantil e seus componentes nos estados do Nordeste brasileiro entre 2001 e 2015. Método Estudo ecológico envolvendo quatro indicadores de mortalidade infantil: geral, neonatal precoce, neonatal tardia e pós-neonatal. Foi aplicado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão (joinpoint regression). A tendência foi classificada em crescente, decrescente ou estacionária. Calculou-se o Percentual de Variação Anual (APC, Annual Percent Change), considerando Intervalo de Confiança de 95%. Resultados Foi observada tendência decrescente da mortalidade infantil geral no Nordeste (-3,9%) e em todos os estados, sendo Pernambuco com maior redução (-5,2%). Na mortalidade neonatal precoce, somente o Maranhão apresentou tendência estacionária (-0,2%). Na mortalidade neonatal tardia, Maranhão, Piauí, Paraíba e Sergipe apresentaram padrão estacionário. A mortalidade pós-neonatal foi a que apresentou maior redução, tendo destaque Alagoas (-8,6%) e Pernambuco (-7,6%). No Nordeste, esse componente apresentou variação anual de -6,1%. A partir do final da primeira década, a mortalidade pós-neonatal apresentou padrão estacionário no Nordeste, destacando-se Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte e Sergipe. Conclusão Embora tenha sido verificada redução da mortalidade infantil no Nordeste do Brasil, o comportamento estacionário em alguns estados configura motivo de preocupação, tendo em vista que os valores ainda são muito elevados quando comparados aos de locais desenvolvidos.
Published: 9 April 2021
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva; doi:10.1590/1414-462x202129010346

Abstract:
Resumo Introdução No Brasil, os acordos de empréstimo e a Política de Incentivo foram fundamentais para a gestão descentralizada da política de aids, entretanto poucos estudos avaliaram os seus efeitos no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Objetivo Analisar a implementação das ações programáticas em DST/Aids no país e no estado de São Paulo quanto aos avanços e lacunas dos acordos de empréstimo com o Banco Mundial e a implantação da Política de Incentivo vigente no SUS. Método Estudo de caso, retrospectivo-descritivo, baseado em análise documental e entrevistas em profundidade com seis coordenadores das três esferas governamentais e dois presidentes do Fórum Estadual de ONG/AIDS de São Paulo. Resultados Identificaram-se diferentes graus e distintas formas de operacionalização da política de aids, demarcadas por períodos de centralização das decisões e do financiamento no “Projeto AIDS I”, seguida pela desconcentração administrativa no final do “Projeto AIDS II” e, finalmente a descentralização com a Política de Incentivo, transferindo responsabilidades e recursos em consonância aos princípios do SUS. Conclusão Não obstante os avanços da gestão descentralizada, fragilidades constatadas no processo de monitoramento e avaliação das ações podem comprometer a sustentabilidade técnico-financeira da Política de Incentivo no SUS.
Inah Maria D. Pecly, Rafael B. Azevedo, , Bruna G. Botelho, Gabriela G. Albuquerque, Pedro Henrique P. Diniz, Rodrigo Silva,
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/2175-8239-jbn-2020-0203

Abstract:
Kidney impairment in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and worse clinical evolution, raising concerns towards patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). From a pathophysiological perspective, COVID-19 is characterized by an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha), causing systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Emerging data postulate that CKD under conservative treatment or renal replacement therapy (RRT) is an important risk factor for disease severity and higher in-hospital mortality amongst patients with COVID-19. Regarding RAAS blockers therapy during the pandemic, the initial assumption of a potential increase and deleterious impact in infectivity, disease severity, and mortality was not evidenced in medical literature. Moreover, the challenge of implementing social distancing in patients requiring dialysis during the pandemic prompted national and international societies to publish recommendations regarding the adoption of safety measures to reduce transmission risk and optimize dialysis treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Current data convey that kidney transplant recipients are more vulnerable to more severe infection. Thus, we provide a comprehensive review of the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with CKD under conservative treatment and dialysis, and kidney transplant recipients and COVID-19 infection.
Luiz Roberto De Sousa Ulisses, Helen Souto Siqueira Cardoso, Inara Creão Costa Alves, Isabela Novais Medeiros, Camilla Garcia de Oliveira, Tiago Martins de Almeida, Fabíola Fernandes Dos Santos Castro, Claudia Neto Gonçalves Neves da Silva, Laura Viana de Lima, Renata Pereira Fontoura, et al.
Brazilian Journal of Nephrology; doi:10.1590/2175-8239-jbn-2020-0117

Abstract:
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a possible serious complication of solid organ transplantation, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Post-transplant TB has varied pathogenesis with many approaches to its prevention, which is the most important way to reduce its incidence. Treatment of TB in organ recipients is challenging because of drug toxicity and interaction with immunosuppressants. Case report: an 18-year-old woman that underwent kidney transplantation from a deceased donor and was discharged with fair renal function was readmitted at 37th postoperative day with fever. CT showed signs of miliary TB and fluid collection besides graft fistulization through the skin. The patient presented positive BAAR in the drained fluid and Koch's bacillus in the urine. She was treated with a four-drug regimen (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and etambutol), with great response and preserved graft function. We were informed that the recipient of the contralateral kidney also presented post-transplant TB, implying in a donor-derived origin. Conclusion: TB is an important differential diagnosis for infectious complications in patients after solid-organ transplantation, especially in endemic regions. Its initial clinical presentation can be unspecific and it should be suspected in the presence of fever or formation of fluid collections. The suspicion of TB is the key to early diagnosis and satisfactory outcomes in post-transplant TB.
Diocleciano Nhatuve
Published: 8 April 2021
Abstract:
This article aims to analyze the constitution of the refusal speech in Shona, English and Portuguese. For this purpose, data from 30 University students who speak the three languages as mother tongue, second and foreign language is analyzed. Based on the theories of speech acts and discourse analysis, the study adopts qualitative and quantitative approaches. The study reveals that, in order to lessen the negative impact of the refusal act, irrespective of the language and its social status, the constitution of the refusal speech, whether direct or indirect, consists of a combination of illocutionary refusal acts (main illocutionary act) with assertive and expressive illocutionary acts. These acts serve to minimizing the impact of the refusal act. Apologies, expressions of feelings and justificative phrases are some of the expressions mostly used to soften the refusal.
Adriana Sotero-Martins, Elvira Carvajal, , , Natasha Berendonk Handam, Nelson Peixoto Kotowski-Filho,
Published: 8 April 2021
Abstract:
Tastes and odors in tap water are problems faced by water companies all over the world, with complaints from consumers especially during the summer when cyanobacterial blooms occur that produce compounds such as geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). We analyzed data on the intensity of taste and odor, and total concentration of the substances geosmin and 2-MIB, present in drinking water and raw water collected by the sanitation company that supplies the metropolitan region of the state of RJ/Brazil, during water crises in the year 2020, and in the new event of 2021, despite the previous warnings made by experts. Statistical and correlation analysis of the public data, and metagenomic analysis of the raw water captured from the Guandu basin in the year 2020 were performed. Organoleptic data allowed us to signal the presence of these compounds in drinking water, the values of the intensity of taste were more times above the MPV of the Brazilian legislation, with the average of the data for 2020 being 37.5 and in the following year this average was 5 times lower, indicating that the measures to remove the compounds were more effective, but did not eliminate the problem. For the year 2020 there was a linear correlation of 0.97 between the taste organoleptic standard and the total concentration of the compounds. The metagenomic data of the raw water of the year 2020, related to the genes mtf, mic and glys indicated that the substance responsible for the taste and odor was 2-MIB, since the read rate for it was higher, both in the first visit and only in the second visit, when there was still perception of intensity of taste and odor. Modifications in the surveillance system of the quality of the water taken and consumed need to be adopted to circumvent the problems of cyanobacterial proliferation in the Guandu basin, since conditions favorable to blooms will occur as long as the sanitation problems in this watershed are not solved.
, Enéas Gonçalves de Carvalho
Published: 7 April 2021
Abstract:
One of the tools to monitor the dynamics of the Covid-19 pandemic has been, from its earliest days, the international comparison of mortality rates. The indisputable evidence that lethality is exponentially related to the age of the affected people implies that, for many purposes, a more appropriate indicator should compensate for differences in the age profile between populations. This article sets out a method for calculating such standardized mortality rates, which take into account both the discrepancies in the age pyramids and the mortality rates by age groups. Advancing relatively to the few other similar initiatives found in the literature, the method is applied to a group of 28 countries that on 1/28/2021 accounted for 82% of deaths caused by the pandemic. The age-adjusted mortality rates describe a picture quite different from that portrayed by the crude rates, with three different patterns of mortality. Six Latin American countries and South Africa assume leading positions in the ranking calculated based on these rates. Moreover, a partial but sufficiently accurate update of the calculation based on the number of deaths until 3/26/2021 indicates that in this ranking Brazil only stands behind Mexico and Peru.
, Marijn Lijffijt, Nithya Ramakrishnan, Bylinda Vo-Le, Brittany Vo-Le, Sidra Iqbal, Tabish Iqbal, , Mark A. Smith, , et al.
Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry; doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1685

Abstract:
Rapid antidepressant effects associated with ketamine have shifted the landscape for the development of therapeutics to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) from a monoaminergic to glutamatergic model. Treatment with ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, may be effective, but has many non-glutamatergic targets, and clinical and logistical problems are potential challenges. These factors underscore the importance of manipulations of binding mechanics to produce antidepressant effects without concomitant clinical side effects. This will require identification of efficient biomarkers to monitor target engagement. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a widely used electrophysiological signature linked to the activity of NMDA receptors (NMDAR) in humans and animals and validated in pre-clinical and clinical studies of ketamine. In this review, we explore the flexibility of the MMN and its capabilities for reliable use in drug development for NMDAR antagonists in MDD. We supplement this with findings from our own research with three distinct NMDAR antagonists. The research described illustrates that there are important distinctions between the mechanisms of NMDAR antagonism, which are further crystallized when considering the paradigm used to study the MMN. We conclude that the lack of standardized methodology currently prevents MMN from being ready for common use in drug discovery. This manuscript describes data collected from the following National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Veterans Affairs (VA) studies: AV-101, NCT03583554; lanicemine, NCT03166501; ketamine, NCT02556606.
, Aysegul Kirkas
Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry; doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1629

Abstract:
To examine whether olanzapine and quetiapine are useful in the prevention of a new mood episode during the postpartum period. Data on 23 patients (n=14 for olanzapine and n=9 for quetiapine) with bipolar disorder who met the criteria for this study were retrospectively gathered. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder was determined by means of the DSM-IV. The mean follow-up period was 33.95±12.07 weeks. Six (26.1%) of 23 patients experienced recurrent mood episodes during the postpartum period. Four of these six patients were taking olanzapine and two were taking quetiapine. Patients with recurrent mood episodes had a significantly stronger family history of bipolar disorder, higher number of past episodes, and earlier onset and longer duration of illness compared to patients without recurrent mood episodes. Monotherapy with olanzapine or quetiapine can be considered as an alternative to mood stabilizers in preventing the development of new mood episodes after childbirth.
, Luciana Tornquist, Débora Tornquist,
Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry; doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1515

Abstract:
To evaluate the association of leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behavior with body image concern and satisfaction in Brazilian adolescents. Data were extracted from the 2015 Brazilian National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar [PeNSE]). Information regarding body image concern and satisfaction, as well as exposures (physical activity and sedentary behavior) and covariates (maternal education, age, smoking, and alcohol intake), were assessed through a questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis revealed that engagement in recommended levels of physical activity (≥ 300 min/week) was associated with a decreased concern with body image and a high satisfaction in boys. Four or more hours spent in sedentary activities were associated with increased concern with body image and dissatisfaction among boys and girls. These findings support the relevance of programs aiming to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in the adolescent population. Such programs play a protective role against body dissatisfaction and are important for the development of a healthy body image in adolescence.
Nereida Lima, Jaciara Viana, , Julio Moriguti, Eduardo Ferriolli,
Published: 5 April 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To map the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Long-Term Care Institutions for the Elderly (LTCI) in the city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, including the elderly and employees, identifying associated factors, aiming at the timely adoption of preventive measures. Methodology: Epidemiological survey carried out in a medium-sized city to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents and employees, identifying associated factors. There was stratified sampling, with demographic and health data, current or recent symptoms common to the infection being collected, in addition to assessing basic activities of daily living (BADL) and the cognition with application of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). A serological test was carried out on all those selected. Results: The elderly in the sample were 80.2 ± 9.7 years old and employees 37.4 ± 12.2 years old. The serological test positivity was 13.3% among the elderly and 25.9% among employees. Elderly people presented 2.9 ± 1.5 chronic diseases, with the use of 5.7 ± 2.8 medications, only 11.1% with negative dementia screening and 20% independent. Staff had SARS-CoV-2 detected previously in only 6.9%, with 30% without influenza vaccination and without systematic symptom checking. Conclusions: Strict rules of behavior should be instituted, as every employee is potentially a transmitter of the disease and, therefore, must be screened for symptoms before each workday. There was a high prevalence of cognitive changes that can make it difficult to comply with individual protection measures within the LTCIs.
Marcelo Pacheco Soares
Published: 5 April 2021
Abstract:
Many addresses where Machado de Assis lived are known to his biographers, but it seems likely that others are still unknown. From the discovery of a record in a newspaper at the time, this research seeks to ascertain whether the writer would have inhabited Rua da Alfândega 123 in 1867. In the absence of other direct evidence, parallel information is sought that could disprove the data, without result that disappointed him. In addition, an investigation is carried out on the property, in order to understand its plan and check if it still exists in Rio de Janeiro today. Finally, this space is related to a passage from Machado's narrative work.
Gulnar Azevedo e Silva, Beatriz Jardim,
Published: 5 April 2021
Abstract:
The marked increase in cases and deaths by Covid-19 has led to a significant overload on the health system in Brazil, especially in the cities of Manaus and Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The description of the pandemic's impact has been based on absolute numbers or crude mortality rates without considering the pattern of distribution of age groups in different regions of the country. This study aims to compare the crude mortality rates for Covid-19 with standardized rates for age in the Brazilian states' capitals and in the Federal District. Information on death was accessed in the Influenza Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe), and the population denominators were based on the estimates available by the Ministry of Health. The age structure of Brazil's estimated population for 2020 was used as standard to calculate the age-standardized rates. The results show that the highest crude rates were observed in Manaus (253.6/100,000) and Rio de Janeiro (253.2/100,000). After age-standardization, there was a significant increase in rates in the North region. The highest adjusted rate was seen in Manaus (412.5/100,000), where 33% of deaths by Covid-19 occurred among individuals under 60. The mortality over 70 years old doubled if compared to Rio de Janeiro and tripled if compared to Sao Paulo. The use of age-standardized mortality rates eliminates interpretive biases, exposing the even greater weight of Covid-19 in the northern region of country.
Valéria M A Passos, Luisa C C Brant, Pedro C Pinheiro, Paulo R L Correa, Isis E Machado, Mayara R Santos, Antonio L P Ribeiro, Lucia M Mm Paixão, Fabiano G Pimenta Junior, Maria de Fatima M de Souza, et al.
Published: 5 April 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To assess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic according to social vulnerability by areas of Belo Horizonte (BH), aiming at strategies for vaccination. Methods: Ecological study with mortality analysis, according to census tracts classified by the Health Vulnerability Index, a composite indicator that includes socioeconomic and sanitation variables. Deaths due to natural causes and COVID-19 were obtained from the “Mortality Information System”, between the 10th and 43rd epidemiological weeks (EW) of 2020. Excess mortality was calculated by a time series model, considering observed deaths by EW, between 2015 and 2019, for census tracts. Mortality rates (MR) were calculated and age-standardized =using population estimates from 2010 census. Results: Excess mortality in BH was 16.1% (n =1524): 11.0%, 18.8% and 17.3% in the low, intermediate and high vulnerability areas, respectively. The differences between observed and expected age-standardized MR by natural causes were equal to 59/100,000 inhabitants in BH, increasing from 31 to 77 and 95/100,000 inhabitants, in the areas of low, intermediate and high vulnerability, respectively. There was an aging gradient in COVID-19 MR, ranging from 4 to 611/100,000 inhabitants among individuals of 20-39 years and 75+ years. The COVID-19 MR per 100,000 elderly (60+ years) was 292 in BH, increasing from 179 to 354 and 476, in the low, intermediate and high vulnerability areas, respectively. Conclusion: Inequalities in mortality, particularly among the elderly, combined with the limited supply of doses, demonstrate the importance of prioritizing socially vulnerable areas during vaccination against COVID-19.
João P.A. Lessa, Letícia M. Hofstatter, Lucas De F. Carvalho
Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry; doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2021-1775

Abstract:
Cognitive abilities can also be predicted by an individual’s educational level, in congruence with the WM of an individual. Educational attainment is typically employed as a surrogate measure cognitive ability, and earlier studies have shown its association with a higher level of intelligence.1 Other research2 has shown that a range of demographic factors, such as income, age, educational level, and personality traits from the Five-Factor Model, could be linked to coping strategies regarding COVID-19 protective measures, and that the higher one’s level of Conscientiousness, the more one is likely to adhere to protective measures.3
, Tripena Las Dame Sinaga, Gatot Priyanto, Hermanto
Food Science and Technology; doi:10.1590/fst.51020

Abstract:
This research objective was to determine the additional effect of biopolymer materials of red palm oil and miserly leave extract on mechanical and functional characteristics of canna starch based edible film. The method used in this research was factorial randomized block design with two treatment factors consisting of red palm oil (0.5; 1.0; and 1.5%v/v) and miserly leave extract (1.0; 2.0; and 3.0%v/v). Research results showed that edible film had thickness of 0.18 to 0.24 mm, elongation percentage of 16.7 to 19.00%, compressive strength of 33.87 to 48.40 gf, water vapour transmission rate of 11.97 to 44.32 g.m-2.d-1, total phenol of 389.31 to 488.45ppm, antioxidant activity of 389.31 to 488.45 ppm and inhibition zone diameters of 0.1 to 0.73 mm, respectively. The concentration increase of red palm oil had increased the thickness, compressive strength, total phenol, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the edible film, but the percent elongation and the rate of water vapor transmission had decreased. Water vapor transmission rate, compressive strength, total phenol, antioxidant and antibacterial activity had increased with the increase in miserly leave extract concentration. The best edible film formula was red palm oil with a concentration of 1.5%(v/v) and 1%(v/v) miserly leave extract (A3B1).
, Lei Zhu, Yingjun Wang, Sen Zhang, Pei Liu, Tina T. X. Dong, Qinan Wu,
Food Science and Technology; doi:10.1590/fst.65120

Abstract:
We studied the correlation between the soil microbial status and the crop yield or medicinal properties of Angelica s.. Soil from different counties of China were collected and used in this study. Readfq, SOAP denovo, MetaGeneMark, and DIAMOND Resistance Gene Identifier (RGI) software were used in the analysis. A total of 131,345 genes of high quality were obtained, with the number of genes in all samples ranging from 483-42,545 and the average length ranging from 354.88-523.47. The acidobacteria in the non-sterilized group were significantly increased by comparing with the sterilized group, while actinobacteria in the non-sterilized group were significantly reduced by comparing with the sterilized group. There was a strong correlation between the two groups of the planting group and the two groups of the non-planting group, while the correlation between the planting and non-planting group was very weak. There were significant differences in the soil microbial community structure between Min county and Yunnan, as well as significant differences between the dominant genera of Min county and Yunnan. In summary, our study showed that the soil microbial flora in different areas affected the characteristics of Angelica s. roots, while sterilized soil was not conducive to the growth of Angelica s.
Revista Contabilidade & Finanças; doi:10.1590/1808-057x202112150

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to verify the effects of the lock-up expiration on the behavior of prices and volumes in IPOs and follow-ons in the Brazilian market and to identify factors that may explain the existence and magnitude of abnormal returns. Few studies were found to investigate this phenomenon in Brazil, which were limited to the analysis of IPOs without examining the effect on follow-ons and the construction of abnormal accumulated returns compared to the Ibovespa, instead of benchmarks appropriate to each stock's risk. Lock-up clauses exist to mitigate the problem of information asymmetry in public offers but expose investors to the risk of a price drop after its expiration. Understanding the magnitude of this impact is essential for investors in the stock market. Through this article's analysis, investors will be able to estimate the magnitude of the price variation around the lock-up expiration, what factors explain the returns, and whether there are indications of short selling limitations. The event study method was applied, comparing returns to the Ibovespa and an individual reference portfolio composed of similar companies. Database: 313 offers that occurred on the Brazilian stock market between 2004 and 2019. Evidence of volume increase was found around the expiry of lock-up in IPOs, but the price drop was verified only in companies with private equity funds as shareholders. In follow-ons, in which the asymmetry of information about the issuer is less pronounced, the opposite situation was verified. There are several extensions and lock-up formats worldwide, which provide different impacts on volume and price. This article contributes to the literature when analyzing this event in Brazil and extending the analysis to follow-ons. A possible interpretation for the phenomenon is the restrictions on short-selling in the Brazilian market.
Published: 1 April 2021
Contexto Internacional, Volume 43, pp 147-171; doi:10.1590/s0102-8529.2019430100007

Abstract:
In the 21st century, China’s rise has been shifting global and regional geopolitical scenarios. Faced with its growth and fears of being perceived as a threat, China sought to associate its economic and political emergence with the preservation of the current international system, emphasizing speeches about a peaceful development and harmonious world in which it would be an actor who wants to grow and accommodate the world order. However, changes in the balance of power and its continued rise have caused China’s behaviour to change in its own region, especially regarding maritime disputes and affecting other countries’ perceptions. By applying Neoclassical Realism, this paper analyses the Chinese foreign policy in the 21st century, elucidating its behaviour in terms of the country’s action and reactions regarding the dispute over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands and shows the perceptions of other countries to that behaviour. The article concludes that perceptions concerning the balance of power, Chinese capabilities, nationalism, regime legitimacy, and on leadership images affect the intensity of Beijing’s responses and foreign policy about maritime territorial disputes. Also, the article shows that China’s growing assertiveness in both the East China Sea and the South China Sea is pushing countries that have territorial disputes with China to grow closer.
Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, Volume 41, pp 271-291; doi:10.1590/0101-31572021-3066

Abstract:
This article compares parliamentary preferences on welfare expenditure in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, and the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2013. The analysis is focused on the relationship between the type of welfare regime and the programmatic offer on the volume of social spending. Two indexes were calculated: social spending and social retrenchment. Upon emergence from the recession, an increasingly homogeneous conception is detected of social policies as being subordinated to economic policies; convergence has occurred within each of the worlds of welfare, maintaining the variation among them found prior to the Crisis.
Revista Contabilidade & Finanças, Volume 32, pp 46-64; doi:10.1590/1808-057x202009230

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to verify whether the discretionary actions of managers to manage earnings can be captured by abnormal book-tax differences (ABTD). In Brazil, there are no studies with the disaggregated use of earnings management (EM) through operational choices as a proxy for discretionary decisions to be captured by ABTD. Moreover, the previous studies focus on the period before the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) were required in Brazil or when they were still being implemented, which may change the context of earnings management in the country and, consequently, the relationship with ABTD. This study is relevant for accounting information users, such as investors, creditors, the tax authorities, and regulatory bodies, as the findings may help them to identify manager opportunism through earnings management. The identification that tax management can be affected by EM through accounting and operational decisions reveals that investors, creditors, the tax authorities, regulators, and auditors should remain vigilant against deteriorations in accounting information quality and, consequently, in the utility of that information. An analysis of 201 non-financial companies was carried out, covering 2012 to 2016, thus totaling 1,005 observations. Five panel data regression models were used: three to capture EM, one to identify ABTD, and one to relate these variables. A significant and positive relationship was revealed between accounting and operational EM and ABTD, indicating that companies that manage earnings upward have positive ABTD, and companies that manage earnings downward have negative ABTD. This research therefore contributes to identifying that ABTD captures the discretionary actions of managers related to EM through accounting and operational decisions.
Revista Contabilidade & Finanças, Volume 32, pp 143-157; doi:10.1590/1808-057x202010610

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the flows and the future returns of stock funds are related to investors’ unobservable information. This article extends the knowledge about investment decisions regarding stock funds and considers a representation of unobservable information that until now has not been contemplated by the Brazilian literature. Understanding decisions to invest in stocks has become more important since the fall in interest rates and migration toward equity investments. The use of unobservable information for making investment decisions is important when choosing stock funds and the return gap could be added to the list of information offered to investors. The return gap measures the value added by managers in relation to the most recently disclosed complete lagged portfolio and was calculated every month for every asset in the portfolios of every fund in the sample disclosed with a three-month lag. A parsimonious sample was used of 22 actively managed funds in the period from January of 2010 to December of 2018, containing one from every one of the 22 biggest independent Brazilian managers, because it is laborious to calculate this metric. The return gap represents unobservable information about a fund. Investors that direct their capital toward stock funds with a higher historical return gap tend to obtain higher returns in out-of-sample tests, suggesting persistence of the returns of these funds and supporting the importance of unobservable information. Investors that directed their capital toward funds with lower historical return gaps could also obtain positive alphas in some cases, indicating that some managers were neglected. The fund flow results were inconclusive.
Published: 1 April 2021
Contexto Internacional, Volume 43, pp 173-197; doi:10.1590/s0102-8529.2019430100008

Abstract:
The 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC) eroded the consensus around the benefits of capital mobility within mainstream economics. Against this background, this paper discusses to what extent the new mainstream position on capital flow management measures, based on the New Welfare Economics, expands the policy space of developing and emerging economies (DEEs). This paper argues that the new position can be classified as an embedded neoliberal one, given that it keeps liberalization as its ultimate goal, while nonetheless accepting to mitigate some of its harmful consequences. After comparing the capital account policies of China and Brazil, this paper concludes that the policy prescriptions of the New Welfare Economics do not lead to higher levels of national autonomy for DEEs and are likewise unable to curb financial instability in these countries.
Estudos Históricos (Rio de Janeiro), Volume 34, pp 54-80; doi:10.1590/s2178-149420210104

Abstract:
Resumo As revistas em quadrinhos estabeleceram-se como um novo formato de publicação de quadrinhos nos Estados Unidos durante a década de 1930. Seu consumo introduziu novas práticas e desestabilizou concepções bem consolidadas sobre o lugar social da leitura. Seu impacto nas décadas de 1930 e 1950 se nota em uma série de imagens fotográficas dedicadas a leitores de revistas em quadrinhos. O artigo discutirá tais imagens, buscando analisar suas representações enquanto agentes que contribuíram para configurar os sentidos públicos dos quadrinhos naquele contexto. A conclusão aponta para o lugar dos quadrinhos e da visualidade numa história mais ampla da leitura.
José Francisco Puello-Socarrás
REAd. Revista Eletrônica de Administração (Porto Alegre), Volume 27, pp 35-65; doi:10.1590/1413-2311.309.111147

Abstract:
RESUMO Este artigo apresenta as novidades chave e relativamente inéditas da nova fase do capitalismo neoliberal no século XXI. Sob a designação: Novo neoliberalismo, enfatiza-se os atributos cruciais deste processo econômico político. Ao redor do Estado Punitivo e Empreendedor de Trabalho (EPET) sintetiza sua Arquitetônica, ou seja, as reconfigurações do neoliberalismo tardio, as quais se encontram em relação com o desenvolvimento do Capitalismo contemporâneo e o tipo de Estado neoliberal em geral, os modos de estruturação dos aparatos estatais (atualmente: redes) em torno da nova gestão pós-burocrática e a modalidade típica de governo: a governança. A crise e a recomposição do neoliberalismo como um Projeto político da classe capitalista transnacional na virada dos séculos sugerem a transição para uma versão complexa e emergente (heterodoxa). Aqui as rupturas, no nível dos princípios e referências dos Programas de políticas públicas, reforçam a continuidade histórica do processo econômico político no novo milênio.
REAd. Revista Eletrônica de Administração (Porto Alegre), Volume 27, pp 128-152; doi:10.1590/1413-2311.310.102806

Abstract:
In 2015, the Fundão dam of the company Samarco (controlled by Vale) collapsed, causing a huge wave of mud, causing 19 deaths and becoming the biggest environmental disaster in Brazil. As early as 2019, a new dam rupture took place, with Vale as the responsible company, with around 270 fatalities. Both disasters brought numerous social, environmental and financial problems. This study aims to analyze the impact of environmental disaster of Brumadinho and Mariana on Vale and Samarco Financial Statements, specifically the problems related to provisions, contingencies and environmental processes. The method employed with the case study was a content analysis, and data collection was carried out from Financial Statements, Reference Form and the company’s press channel over a 10-year period from 2010 to 2019. Among the main results, we observed that in 2015, the Mariana dam collapse may explain the significant increase in the coming years regarding deposits and provisions for environmental actions filed against Samarco and Vale. In 2019, it is observed that the amount moved to judicial deposits increased 45 times compared to the previous year. Considering this fact, there is a need for studies that contribute to the transparency of actions for the victims, communities affected by the tragedy, disregard of those involved and the environment, since this is not the first disaster caused by this company.
Estudos Históricos (Rio de Janeiro), Volume 34, pp 129-147; doi:10.1590/s2178-149420210107

Abstract:
Resumo Este artigo explora as mudanças epistemológicas da arquitetura ocorridas nas últimas cinco décadas. Com base na leitura de artigos científicos, textos críticos, políticas e práticas contemporâneas, identifica-se que houve expansão no entendimento do que vem a ser arquitetura e reconhece-se que a disciplina foi influenciada pelas mudanças ocorridas nas ciências humanas, com sensível atenção à cultura visual. Nesse sentido, destacam-se três domínios como expressões articuladas e estruturantes da prática contemporânea dos arquitetos, historiadores e críticos: os arquivos, as exposições e as publicações. Desse modo, busca-se destacar a centralidade da cultura visual nessa nova cultura arquitetônica.
Published: 1 April 2021
Contexto Internacional, Volume 43, pp 77-98; doi:10.1590/s0102-8529.2019430100004

Abstract:
How do Brazil’s defence documents incorporate natural resources and critical infrastructure as political and strategic components of the national energy security framework? After presenting the contemporary international landscape on the subject, which is marked by rising powers and geopolitics, the paper explains the theory and the conceptual foundations that support the claim of a securitization movement on natural resources and critical infrastructure that relates to energy security in response to the absence of existential threats to Brazil. Following this effort, the text reflects upon and analyses how the matter has developed from 2005 to 2016 in Brazilian defence policies and in national defence strategies. By applying securitization theory to the case study, the final remarks imply the need for a reflection on the importance of incorporating the geopolitics of natural resources and critical infrastructure related to energy security in defence thinking.
Revista Brasileira de Literatura Comparada, Volume 23, pp 91-107; doi:10.1590/2596-304x20212342pmrn

Abstract:
RESUMO O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir o nascimento da moderna teoria literária, considerando a Escola Formal como ponto de partida da constituição dos estudos literários como disciplina autônoma. Os primeiros movimentos dos teóricos do Formalismo buscaram compor um corpo conceitual próprio e entender o fenômeno literário como algo emancipado de categorias da sociologia, da filosofia ou da psicologia. Tal esforço produziu resultados originais, mas também gerou impasses que estão na base da crise da teoria literária nos anos 1970 e 1980, momento em que emergem as chamadas pós-teorias, que trouxeram para o centro das atenções elementos extra-literários (gênero, política, perspectiva decolonial). Este artigo argumenta que tais impasses se tornaram evidentes já nos primeiros momentos da Escola Formal, quando ela precisou confrontar sua construção teórica com a prática da crítica literária. Ambas as esferas, ao mesmo tempo em que se retroalimentam, explicitavam as deficiências e limites de cada uma.
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