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(searched for: doi:(10.15690/*))
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Andrey N. Rozhkov, Dmitriy Yu. Shchekochikhin, Natalia М. Baulina, Natalia A. Matveeva, Olga O. Favorova, Anna S. Akselrod, Ekaterina S. Tebenkova, Daria G. Gognieva, Philipp Yu. Kopylov
Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences, Volume 75, pp 283-291; doi:10.15690/vramn1325

Abstract:
Rationale. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of human death in the world. Studying the role of regulatory non-coding RNAs, which include short single-stranded miRNA molecules, allows a more detailed understanding of the pathological processes underlying the progression of atherosclerosis. Objective to compare the levels of circulating miRNAs in patients with coronary heart disease, confirmed by multislice computed tomography-coronarography (MSCT-CA), with risks of cardiovascular complications and clinical and demographic characteristics. To compare the profiles of circulating miRNAs in groups of patients with stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Methods. MicroRNA levels in the plasma of peripheral blood of patients with coronary heart disease were determined using the miScript miRNA PCR Array MIHS-105Z kit (Qiagen). The significance of differences in miRNA levels between the compared groups was determined using the MannWhitney U-test. The correlations of the levels of circulating miRNAs with clinical and demographic parameters were evaluated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Risk assessment of cardiovascular complications in these patients was carried out using validated scales (ACC/AHA, Framinghm, SCORE, MESA). Atherosclerotic plaque stability was evaluated using MSCT-CA. Results. The study showed a significant (p 0.05) decrease in miR-16, miR-211, miR-195 miRNA levels in the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease, which correlated with an increase in cardiac vascular risk (CVR) according to ACC/AHA, Framingham and MESA. When comparing groups of patients with stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques, the latter revealed an increase in the level of let-7b-5p circulating microRNA (p 0.05). Conclusion. Significant associations of the three studied microRNAs with the estimated risk of CVR were identified. It is important to find circulating let-7b-5p in a group of patients with unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Correlations were established between the levels of circulating microRNAs and clinical and demographic characteristics of patients. The study shows the involvement of some microRNAs in the regulation of atherosclerosis.
Alexander D. Makatsariya, Ekaterina V. Slukhanchuk, Victoria O. Bitsadze, Jamilya Kh. Khizroeva, Maria V. Tretyakova, Valentina I. Tsibizova, Andrei S. Shkoda, Elvira Grandone, Ismail Elalamy, Giuseppe Rizzo, et al.
Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences, Volume 75, pp 306-317; doi:10.15690/vramn1368

Abstract:
The spread of a new coronavirus infection worldwide since the end of 2019 has becomes a pandemic. Thrombotic complications are the leading cause of death in this disease. After entering the human body, the virus starts a cascade of reactions leading to the development of a cytokine storm, activation of all parts of the hemostasis and complement systems and other changes that result in disturbances in the circulation system with the development of multiple organ failures. Numerous studies have shown that a predictor of a severe course of COVID-19 is a sharp increase of D-dimer concentration in the blood and rise of some other markers of hemostasis activation. Based on the pathogenesis, the developed schemes for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 severe complications include low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) which are also recommended for an outpatient COVID-19 patient. The prescription of low molecular weight heparin, the duration of their use and doses should be decided on the basis of a risk assessment of factors for each individual patient in combination with laboratory monitoring.
Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences, Volume 75, pp 292-299; doi:10.15690/vramn1359

Abstract:
Recently published data on the pathogenesis and cutaneous manifestations of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) are presented. The most described lesions are urticarial, papulo-vesicular, erythematous rash, purpura, livedo-angiitis, as well as chilblains. Eruptions mainly appear together with main COVID-19 symptoms or a few days later. The treatment of new coronavirus infection may lead to a quick regression of skin lesions along with improvement of the general state of the patient. The review also provides data on the fact that COVID-19 patients with severe psoriasis and atopic dermatitis receiving biologic therapy (guselkumab, ustekinumab, adalimumab, secukinumab, ixekizumab, etanercept, dupilumab) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors experience mild or asymptomatic COVID-19. Moreover, such patients do not develop cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19. The specific COVID-19 treatment has not been developed yet. We think that these findings might provide better understanding of mechanisms of action of biologic drugs in COVID-19.
Article Editorial
Published: 23 September 2020
Pediatric pharmacology, Volume 17, pp 360-415; doi:10.15690/pf.v17i4.2169

Abstract:
Организационный комитет форума представляет работы студентов и молодых ученых, принятые научной комиссией, включающей профессорско-преподавательский состав кафедр Клинического института детского здоровья им Н.Ф. Филатова ФГАОУ ВО Первый МГМУ им И.М. Сеченова Минздрава России (Сеченовский Университет).
Alexander A. Baranov, Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova, Andrey N. Surkov, Olga S. Gundobina, Elena A. Vishneva, Tea V. Margieva, Nato D. Vashakmadze, Liliya R. Selimzyanova
Published: 23 September 2020
Pediatric pharmacology, Volume 17, pp 303-317; doi:10.15690/pf.v17i4.2159

Abstract:
Glycogen storage disease is the hereditary carbohydrate metabolism pathology which is caused by mutations in various genes encoding enzymes responsible for glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. Excessive glycogen deposition in various tissues cells (mostly in liver and muscles) occurs due to enzyme defects. The authors present recent epidemiological data and features of glycogen storage disease etiology and pathogenesis. Clinical characteristics of different types of this disease are also presented. The data on laboratory-instrumental and morphological signs of glycogen storage disease in children, as well as data on its treatment methods is provided in accordance with the developed clinical guidelines. The article provides relevant information on disease types with predominant liver involvement, besides the variety of clinical forms of glycogenosis.
Marietta V. Manucharyan, Tatiana V. Turti, Irina A. Belyaeva, Tatiana E. Privalova, Ludmila M. Makarova, Marina A. Ovsyannikova
Published: 23 September 2020
Pediatric pharmacology, Volume 17, pp 345-351; doi:10.15690/pf.v17i4.2167

Abstract:
Background. The incidence of sepsis among newborns ranges from 1–12 to 38 per 1,000 live births in the world according to scientific literature [1, 2]. The clinical case demonstrates the features of the newborn organism sensitivity and the therapeutic and diagnostic process difficulties.Clinical case description. The boy was born on the 37th week of gestation, 1st of twins, with body weight 3330 g, height 51 cm, APGAR score 8/9 points. He was on breastfeeding. His condition has deteriorated rapidly on the 9th day of life. The condition was severe due to intoxication syndrome, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) manifestation, further development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Severe pain syndrome and movement restraint in limbs have appeared on the 20th day of life. X-ray imaging: NEC signs, multiple osteomyelitis foci in the limbs.Conclusion. Modern adequate diagnosis and justified treatment tactics have led to positive outcome: child’s condition has improved, body weight has increased, pain syndrome has been managed, the volume of movements in the limbs has increased, inflammatory markers have stabilised. The child was discharged from hospital in satisfactory condition at the age of 2 months.
Anvar A. Dzhumagaziev, Dina A. Bezrukova
Published: 23 September 2020
Pediatric pharmacology, Volume 17, pp 328-333; doi:10.15690/pf.v17i4.2165

Abstract:
The review of the literature is mostly based on its own research and is devoted to the influence of natural (bottomland, 28 m below sea level, climate conditions with severe changes in temperature during the year, biogeochemical province with moderate iodine deficiency) and anthropogenic (increased air, water and soil pollution) environmental factors on children’s health in the Astrakhan region. The impact of the Astrakhan gas condensate field on the health condition is shown: growing number of children with physical and psychomotor disorders, imbalance in cellular and humoral immunity factors, growing number of frequently ill children with problems in adaptation to kindergartens and schools. The influence of vehicles on environmental pollution, frequency of allergic diseases among children (asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis), and degraded quality of life was noted. There is the negative situation with water sources: samples from main Volga riverbed show both non-organic and organic contamination. Contamination of drinking water is considered as serious factor increasing the incidence of atopic pathology. The correlation between the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and soil contamination with benzapyrene on the territory of these children residence was revealed. Complex influence of iodine deficiency and adverse anthropogenic factors leads to abnormal children’s blood composition: development of erythrocytosis, leukocytosis, inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis function, lymphopenia. The incidence of diffusenodular endemic goiter, subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroiditis can increase as well. It is necessary to develop prevention and rehabilitation measures for children diseases associated with combined adverse effect of natural and anthropogenic factors in the Astrakhan region.
Nikolay N. Murashkin, Roman A. Ivanov, Dmitri V. Fedorov, Eduard T. Ambarchyan, Roman V. Epishev, Alexander I. Materikin, Leonid A. Opryatin, Alena A. Savelova
Published: 23 September 2020
Pediatric pharmacology, Volume 17, pp 334-339; doi:10.15690/pf.v17i4.2160

Abstract:
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common multifactorial inflammatory diseases manifesting predominantly in childhood. There is significant number of cases of self-regression of the disease with aging. On the other hand, there is also another scenario ending with AD persistent course and/or development of comorbid allergic pathologies that can significantly worsen patient’s quality of life and finally lead to social maladjustment. The pathogenesis of such way includes epidermal barrier disturbance, transcutaneous sensibilisation and aberrant allergic (Th2) immune systemic response development. Main role in preventing of this pathological pathway is lying on the new class of moisturizers containing active components "emollients plus". They are considered as foundation for the therapy and prevention of the development of AD and other allergic diseases. This literature review provides relevant data on AD pathogenesis and development of comorbid allergic pathologies. This paper also covers data on the effect of emollients in restoration of the epidermal barrier and their use as preventive measures.
Liubov N. Afanaskina, Svetlana N. Derevtsova, Lyudmila V. Sindeeva, Elena A. Hapilina, Nadezhda N. Medvedeva
Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences; doi:10.15690/vramn1316

Abstract:
Obesity is one of the most common diseases, the proportion of which is increasing annually today in Russia. Not only adults but also adolescents and children are at risk. Excessive body weight leads to the development of metabolic syndrome and related complications - diseases of the circulatory, musculoskeletal, immune and other systems, to premature aging of the human body. Until this disease has become an epidemic, researchers around the world are trying to find methods to combat it. For these purposes, various types of adipose tissue in the human body, their importance, morphology and biology, the possibility of further use of the results to solve this problem are comprehensively studied. The article provides an overview of current data on the morphological features of white, brown and beige adipose tissue at the tissue and cellular levels.The importance of specific proteins for the detection of different types of human adipose tissue is described. The biology and physiology of brown adipose tissue, which is of great importance in the implementation of various metabolic processes in the organism, is characterized. The need for further study of the role of brown adipose tissue for its possible promising use in the treatment of obesity is shown.
Irina I. Krukier, Valeriya V. Avrutskaya, Marina A. Levkovich, Armen A. Grigoriants, Yuri Petrov, Anastasiya A. Nikashina, Alexei L. Chikin
Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences; doi:10.15690/vramn1296

Abstract:
Background: pregnancy and diabetes mellitus (GDM) developed during this period are extremely unfavorable combinations for both the mother and the fetus, leading to severe consequences in the gestational period. GDM significantly increases the frequency of undesirable outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth, and also poses a serious medical and social problem for both the mother and the fetus. Aims: Тo study the level of cytokines (TGFb and IL-1b), oxytocin and relaxin in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the blood serum and placenta and to show their role in the choice of delivery tactics. Materials and methods: We examined 230 women who made up 2 groups the control (with the physiological course of pregnancy, n = 95) and the main (with gestational diabetes, n = 135). All studies were performed in the blood serum and placenta of women of these groups. The content of TGFb and IL-1b was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the RD system (USA) and Cytimmune systems (USA) kits, and the level of relaxin and oxytocin was measured using BIOSOURCE (USA) kits. Results: We studied the production of cytokines and relaxants in the blood serum and placenta of women with GDM is in close relationship, which is confirmed by the revealed correlation dependencies: between relaxin before birth and after they have ended (among themselves, r = 0, 79, p 0, 05), as well as oxytocin (among themselves, r = 0, 78, p 0, 05) in the same period. After the end of labor, a negative relationship was found in the placenta between relaxin and IL-1b (r = -0, 61, p 0, 01). Conclusions: The ratios of relaxin to oxytocin in blood serum revealed by us can be considered as possible prognostic indicators for choosing the tactics of labor management. The use of identified biochemical markers will allow timely selection of the method of delivery in women with GDM in order to reduce the risk of complications in childbirth and thereby favorably influence perinatal outcomes and reduce the incidence of newborns.
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