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Singh Mahendra, Pandey Himanshu, Gupta Prateek, Ram Choudhary Gautam, Tyagi Vipin, Sarma Madduri Vijay Kumar, Shrivastava Nikita
Archives of Surgery and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 011-019; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ascr.1001059

Abstract:
Background: The rapid spread of “Coronavirus Disease 2019’ (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) significantly impacted health care facilities all across the globe. To assess impact on urology practice in our country, we developed a questionnaire based on relevant questions in current scenario for information regarding challenges and changes urologists were facing in their practices. Material and methods: We conducted an online survey to find out the impact of COVID-19 on urology practice in Indian scenario. The questionnaire comprised of total 18 questions, which were relevant to day to day practice. Results: Total 310 urologists across the India participated and consented to being part of the study. The majority admits change in their practice due to the recent COVID-19 outbreak. The majority admitted to attend fixed numbers of patients per day with prior appointment and to keep detailed records. The majority responded in positive that attendees will not be allowed, opted to wear N-95 mask in OPD, opted to take the relevant history, opted for thermal screening, opted for patients to wear a mask before entering OPD room, opted for using the new prescription at new visit and opted to avoid physical examination unless very necessary. The majority wanted to take consent from the patients that they may get infected by COVID-19 in the hospital and agreed on performing COVID-19 testing for every patient posted for surgery. The majority agreed to assign a separate operation theatre to operate patients with positive COVID-19 test and also preferred open surgery over minimal invasive surgery. Conclusion: Our survey revealed that the recent pandemic led to significant impacts on urology practice in our country. The urologists working in different setups are facing different challenges in this difficult condition. They have made certain changes in their practice to safely provide effective care to their patients.
Malika L. Siker,
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 312-314; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.12.040

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sean E. Shaheen
Published: 1 April 2021
by SPIE
Journal of Photonics for Energy, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.1117/1.jpe.11.020101

Abstract:
Editor in Chief Sean Shaheen presents a revised list of interest areas within the Scope of the Journal of Photonics for Energy. JPE is evolving to encompass new approaches and new ways of thinking about photonics for energy, which is reflected in the revised list of interest areas within our scope.1 It now includes energy conversion mechanisms that explicitly harness quantum phenomena. The desire to incorporate more quantum-focused content stems from the rapid advancement in quantum science and technology seen globally. Example topics include quantum coherence in vibronic or energy transfer mechanisms that may play a role in organic photovoltaic devices,2,3 photon up- and down-conversion,4 and quantum transduction.5 These and other topics are exciting for their ability to better approach fundamental limits of energy conversion based on quantum mechanical processes that can be extracted to macroscopic scale through clever engineering of materials, devices, and surrounding systems.The scope also now includes the topics of artificial intelligence (AI) and neuromorphic computing. Even more rapidly than quantum science and technology, machine learning is growing in importance across basic science, engineering, and societal implementation. Stunning progress on Grand Challenge problems like protein folding6 is making even seasoned veterans of neural network research rethink the underlying concepts and potential applications of deep learning. JPE is interested in several facets of these areas as applied to energy science and technology. First, how can deep learning and other AI approaches be applied to better designing materials and devices for photonic energy conversion?7,8 Second, how can photonic neuromorphic devices and optical systems be used for energy efficient computing?9,10,11We at JPE invite you to participate in the expansion of the journal’s scope and to submit research articles in these new areas, in order to advance their fundamental understanding as well as to forge new directions for their technological applications in renewable energy. Quantum science and technology and neuromorphic engineering are rapidly evolving fields, and as such they often require better descriptions and specific goals and metrics that are applicable to the problem at hand. We invite you to apply your ingenuity and creativity in formulating these in your submissions to the journal.References1. “Scope,” J. Photon. Energy, https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/journal-of-photonics-for-energy/scope-and-details Google Scholar 2. Q. Bian et al., “Vibronic coherence contributes to photocurrent generation in organic semiconductor heterojunction diodes,” Nat. Commun., 11 617 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14476-w NCAOBW 2041-1723 Google Scholar 3. G. D. Scholes, “Quantum-coherent electronic energy transfer: did nature think of it first?,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 1 (1), 2 –8 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/jz900062f JPCLCD 1948-7185 Google Scholar 4. D. H. Weingarten et al., “Experimental demonstration of photon upconversion via cooperative energy pooling,” Nat. Commun., 8 14808 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14808 NCAOBW 2041-1723 Google Scholar 5. , “Opportunities for basic research for next-generation quantum systems,” (2017) https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1616258 Google Scholar 6. E. Callaway, “‘It will change everything’: DeepMind’s AI makes gigantic leap in solving protein structures,” Nature, 588 203 –204 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-03348-4 Google Scholar 7. N. Meftahi et al., “Machine learning property prediction for organic photovoltaic devices,” npj Comput. Mater., 6 166 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41524-020-00429-w Google Scholar 8. , “Context-aware learning for inverse design in photovoltaics,” (5 April 2019) https://arpa-e.energy.gov/technologies/projects/context-aware-learning-inverse-design-photovoltaics Google Scholar 9. I. K. Schuller and R. Stevens, “Neuromorphic computing: from materials to systems architectures: report of a roundtable convened to consider neuromorphic computing basic research needs,” (2015) https://science.osti.gov/-/media/ascr/pdf/programdocuments/docs/Neuromorphic-Computing-Report_FNLBLP.pdf Google Scholar 10. S. Chen, “Photonic chips for neuromorphic computing,” (2020) https://spie.org/news/photonic-chips-for-neuromorphic-computing Google Scholar 11. D. Dabos et al., “End-to-end deep learning with neuromorphic photonics,” Proc. SPIE, 11689 1168901 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2587668 Google Scholar
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 33, pp 187-188; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709440

Abstract:
It is always a wonderful experience to have the opportunity to work with and introduce one of your mentors on any project. Dr. James W. Fleshman is the Helen Buchman and Stanley Joseph Seeger endowed professor of surgery at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, TX. He completed medical school and surgery residency at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO, and Colon and Rectal Surgery Fellowship at the University of Toronto. He served as the chief of colorectal surgery at Washington University in St. Louis for several years prior to his current position as the chief of surgery at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. Jim has dedicated his career to service to his trainees as well as national and international organizations. He has served as president of the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery, president of the Research Foundation of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), and president of the ASCRS. His professional focus is the treatment of patients with colorectal diseases, though he has developed an international reputation in the laparoscopic treatment of colorectal cancer, the training of surgeons in the laparoscopic resection of colorectal problems, and the development of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the use of laparoscopic techniques in the treatment of colorectal cancer. As a clinical surgeon, his interests focus on improving patient outcomes through new technology or quality assurance of surgical techniques. He has participated in, helped design, and led multicenter randomized clinical trials throughout his career, including some of the largest and most impactful multicenter international and national cooperative trials regarding minimally invasive surgery for colon and rectal cancer. In the process of participating in those trials, he has developed educational tools for surgical training and credentialing as part of those studies. His research interests led him to the leadership of the ASCRS Research Foundation and the development of the peer-review process for clinical and basic science project funding. This has resulted in editorial board membership in all of the major surgical journals, associate editorship for Annals of Surgery, and study chair for the recently completed American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z-6051 randomized trial comparing open and laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer. Jim is married to Linda, and they have three children: Brett, Cindy, and Angie, and five grandchildren: Maren, Livia, Whitney, Jamie, and Ginny. When not working, he enjoys playing golf. On a personal note, he continues to be a leader of several surgical societies, yet still takes the time for each individual, including me, to help advance their personal and professional careers. For that, I am forever grateful. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, I want to sincerely thank Dr. Fleshman for serving as a guest editor and for providing us with an incredible issue on an important topic of leadership.
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 19, pp 1097-1112; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-019-00744-w

Abstract:
To systematically examine the role of anticipatory skin conductance responses (aSCRs) in predicting Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance. Secondly, to assess the quality of aSCR evidence for the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) during the IGT. Finally, to evaluate the reliability of current psychophysiological measurements on the IGT. Electronic databases, journals and reference lists were examined for inclusion. Data were extracted by two reviewers and validated by another reviewer, using a standardised extraction sheet along with a quality assessment. Two meta-analyses of aSCR measures were conducted to test the relationship between overall aSCR and IGT performance, and differences in aSCR between advantageous and disadvantageous decks. Twenty studies were included in this review. Quality assessment revealed that five studies did not measure anticipatory responses, and few stated they followed standard IGT and/or psychophysiological procedures. The first meta-analysis of 15 studies revealed a significant, small-to-medium relationship between aSCR and IGT performance (r= .22). The second meta-analysis of eight studies revealed a significant, small difference in aSCR between the advantageous and disadvantageous decks (r= .10); however, publication bias is likely to be an issue. Meta-analyses revealed aSCR evidence supporting the SMH. However, inconsistencies in the IGT and psychophysiological methods, along with publication bias, cast doubt on these effects. It is recommended that future tests of the SMH use a range of psychophysiological measures, a standardised IGT protocol, and discriminate between advantageous and disadvantageous decks.
Hyeonjeong Hwang, Kyuhyung Kyuhyung
Published: 1 September 2019
Abstract:
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Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 32, pp 221-222; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1683851

Abstract:
Dr. Michael A. Valente is a staff Colon and Rectal Surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic and Assistant Professor of Surgery at Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine in Cleveland, OH. A Cleveland “lifer,” Michael was born in Cleveland, received his undergraduate training in Gannon University in Erie, PA, majoring in biology, and performed his medical school training at the Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine in Athens, OH. Michael then completed his surgical residency at Summa Health System in Akron, OH, and subsequently completed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at Grant Medical Center and The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH, completing in 2011. We were lucky enough to lure Michael back to Cleveland here at the Cleveland Clinic, where he has served on our staff on both the West side at Fairview Medical Center and Main Campus since he completed his fellowship. After serving as the Associate Program Director for the Colon and Rectal Fellowship for a few years, Michael took the reins as Program Director in 2016, leading our training program ever since. Michael is a busy clinician and academic surgeon, as well as an active researcher. He has been very involved in medical student and resident education. As well as being the Program Director for the fellowship, on a regional level he served as the President of both the Cleveland Surgical Society and The Ohio Valley Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. In addition, he has been involved on many national and local-regional society committees to include the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee, Awards Committee, and CREST committee for ASCRS, and reviews for several peer-reviewed journals to include Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. Michael remains a productive researcher, with over 25 articles and book chapters to his credit, and has been all over the world as an invited lecturer, to include China, Japan, Philippines, Brazil, and Mexico. Michael and his wife, Stephanie, have three children (Rocco [7], Francesca [5], and Arianna [2]). They enjoy doing everything together as a family including spending time outdoors, hiking, camping, gardening, and traveling. On a personal note, Michael is one of my best staff, both clinically and as a leader and motivator of those around him. He cares for his patients tremendously, as well as the fellows who he mentors. He truly embodies a servant leader. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics of Colon and Rectal Surgery, I sincerely thank Dr. Valente for serving as a Guest Editor and for providing us with a superb issue on the care for patients with complex Crohn's disease.
Isabella Amaniera, David B. Stewart, Justin R. Wright, Christopher J. McLimans, Maria Fowler, Owen Baker, Hoi‐Tong Wong, Vasily Tokarev, Jeff Brabec, Rebecca Druker, et al.
Published: 1 April 2019
The FASEB Journal, Volume 33, pp 724.8-724.8; https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.724.8

Abstract:
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen of the gut that causes nearly 500,000 infections per year in the United States, with 20 to 30 percent of cases re-occurring. Little is known about how C. difficile modulates the gut's fungal community and how this dysbiosis may perpetuate its reocurrence. This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the disease's mechanism by identifying bacterial and fungal community structures and the bacterial-fungal interactions in C. difficile infected (CDI) patients. Forty-nine diarrheal stool samples, 18 CDI and 31 non-CDI, were collected from hospitalized patients. The taxonomic marker, or “thumbprint,” regions of DNA, 16S rRNA for bacteria and ITS for fungi, were isolated and sequenced to determine the microbial communities. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were also preformed to further characterize gut microbial structure and function. Bioinformatic analysis of the 16S rRNA and ITS data revealed a greater number of fungal taxa enriched in CDI samples than non-CDI samples. Further, co-occurrence network analysis using the program CoNet displayed negative correlations between the fungal taxon Candida and several bacterial taxa in CDI samples. These findings indicate that CDI infections may create an environment that allows fungal communities to bloom and possibly suppress commensal bacteria. Additionally, bioinformatic analysis of the metatrancriptomic and metagenomic data revealed that pathways involving biofilm formation, inflammation, flagellar assembly, and two-component systems involving osmotic regulation were enriched in CDI samples. These functionalities may allow C. difficile to persist in the gut, and therefore may lead to failed treatments and reoccurrences. Our data suggest that the differential bacterial and fungal communities in CDI and non-CDI patients may lead to high recurrence rates. The enriched fungal community in CDI patients, may be perpetuating the dysbiosis, thus leading to the development of new therapeutic approaches. Support or Funding Information This research was supported by a grant from the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons in 2017 (ASCRS Research Foundation Benign Colorectal Disease Grant RFP-002). This research was also supported by a grant to Juniata College from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (http://www.hhmi.org) through the Precollege and Undergraduate Science Education Program, as well as by the National Science Foundation (http://www.nsf.gov) through NSF award DBI-1248096. This abstract is from the Experimental Biology 2019 Meeting. There is no full text article associated with this abstract published in The FASEB Journal.
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 30, pp 291-292; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1606104

Abstract:
Dr. Rodrigo Oliva Perez is an Associate Physician in the Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery in the Department of Gastroenterology in the School of Medicine at the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dr. Perez was born in Sao Paulo and received his medical degree, residency and fellowship training, and doctorate/postdoctorate in medicine at the School of Medicine at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Rodrigo is an acclaimed researcher, who has won several international awards for his research regarding rectal cancer from the SSAT, ASCRS, and DC&R. He has written numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and has been awarded the Impact Paper of the Year from DC&R in 2013 for his work on the “Watch and Wait” protocol for distal rectal cancer. He has traveled the world lecturing on all topics of colorectal surgery, with special emphasis on rectal cancer. He, along with his mentors, are the world leaders in the nonoperative treatment of rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy—for which he has truly redefined the way we approach this deadly disease. He also serves as an editorial board member for many peer-reviewed medical journals which include Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, Colorectal Disease, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and Techniques in Coloproctology. Rodrigo is married to Cindy, and they have a son (Guilherme) and two daughters (Carolina and Mariana). When not working, he enjoys playing piano, classical music, traveling, and is an avid marathon runner—having completed races all over the world. On a personal note, Rodrigo is a true friend and an excellent collaborator. He is selfless, hard-working, and a leader in colorectal surgery—redefining the way we treat our patients. On behalf of the readers and the staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, I would like to thank Dr. Perez for serving as a Guest Editor, and for putting together an all-star volume on the evaluation and treatment of rectal cancer.
Published: 2 February 2017
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00095

Abstract:
People are faced with numerous decisions every day. Whether we must choose our outfit for the day, which cell phone brand to buy, what college to attend, to buy a car or house insurance, or even when or to whom to get married, decisions are a permanent presence in our daily activities. Behavioral economics is a multi-disciplinary field of study investigating how people make judgments and decisions (Camerer and Loewenstein, 2004; Heilman, 2014). Even though, from a historic point of view, behavioral economics is considered to be a relatively young field of research, the large number of studies that were undertaken and their theoretical and practical implications have made the field of behavioral economics increasingly visible among scholars. More importantly, they have also facilitated contexts to transform behavioral results into social policy programs. Starting in 2010, the UK government launched the Behavioral Insights Team, also known as The Nudge Unit, which was then followed by the Social and Behavioral Sciences Team (SBST), established by the Obama administration in 2014. Both teams aim to apply behavioral sciences, including behavioral economics, in governmental programs in order to increase people's quality of life at lower costs. The efforts of the Nudge Unit and the SBST or other agencies and individual researchers who are trying to improve people's overall quality of life should be supported by the research community through relevant scientific projects and by constantly finding new ways to capitalize research derived knowledge for the general use of a community. A large proportion of behavioral economics studies rely on various economic games, which have the advantage to depict a decisional situation in a simplified form. The Ultimatum Game (UG, Güth et al., 1982) is a decision-making task that illustrates a negotiation scenario. The standard UG involves two players. The first player, also known as the proposer, has the task of dividing a certain amount of money with a second player, called the responder. The responder can choose to accept or reject the received offer. Should the responder accept the offer, the money is divided between the two players per the proposer's offer. However, if the responder decides to reject the offer, then neither player gets any money. Most frequently, when participating in an UG task, both players are informed regarding the rules of the game, the amount of money that is to be shared and the consequences of their possible actions (Güth and Kocher, 2014). Based on two economic assumptions, namely participants' rationality and their interest in maximizing their gain (Camerer and Fehr, 2006), the normative solution for the UG would be for the proposer to send the minimum possible amount to the responder. For the responder, it would be expected to accept any non-zero amount. Nevertheless, both players behave in a significantly different manner compared to the normative behavior. More specifically, it was found that most proposers offer a larger proportion of the pie to share, approximately 50% of the total amount. Also, responders' behavior deviates from normative expectations because lower offers, of 20% or less of the total amount, are rejected by most participants (Camerer, 2003). The UG triggers two conflicting reasons that could guide players' behavior. On one hand, normative decisional theories would argue that decision-makers are rational and self-interested, motivated to maximize their gain. Although some people, in certain specific situations, behave rational in the UG, most of the times proposers and responders seem to be guided by some other motive than self-maximization. Judgements of fairness and intentions behind the money allocation decisions are frequently invoked (Loewenstein et al., 1989). There is converging behavioral and neuroimaging data that indicates that people engage in fairness judgements (Brosnan, 2011), due to a concern for reciprocity (Rabin, 1993), or inequity aversion (Fehr and Schmidt, 1999; Tricomi et al., 2010). Therefore, studies suggest people might have an innate sense of fairness that guides their behavior in social interactions and division of a benefit. Based on the behavioral results obtained playing the UG, the task has established itself as one of the most powerful tools that highlight the limitations of the normative models of decision-making. Since it was first introduced, the UG has been played in hundreds of experimental studies, with numerous methodological variations (Güth and Kocher, 2014). Many scholars have advanced different theories in their efforts to explain the behavioral pattern in the UG and why the economic normative predictions are violated. Their endeavor opened the possibility to investigate many variables, including methodological modifications, individual differences or even cultural background. A thorough presentation of all these variables is beyond the scope of this paper (for further reading on this topic, see Güth and Kocher, 2014). However, of particular interest for the research community and directly related to this topic are studies that have associated gender differences (Eckel and Grossman, 2001; Solnick, 2001) with decisions related to how much money to send to the responder or when an offer is accepted or rejected. In spite of the fact that there are many experimental studies related to the UG and how people allocate resources among them, the game's applicability in more ecological environments is less well-investigated. Carpenter et al. (2005) show that there are no significant behavioral differences between UG allocation of college students compared to workers, providing empirical evidence for the external validity of the UG. However, scholars speculate that decision-makers' preferences in the UG might also reflect behavioral differences in real life situations, such as salary negotiations, but direct evidence is missing. There is an increasing number of studies that show the existence of a gender pay gap, providing systematic proof that, on average, men are paid more than women (Ge et al., 2015; Joshi et al., 2015; Webber and Canché, 2015). It has been estimated that women are paid 23% less compared to their male colleagues, and the pay gap might be even higher for Afro-Americans or Latino minorities (Joshi et al., 2015). Even looking at people pursuing doctoral studies in different domains (Webber and Canché, 2015) or people working in the fast-developing field of IT (Ge et al., 2015) there is a significant salary difference favoring men. Studies show that some of these differences might be due to the fact that women avoid salary negotiations (Eckel et al., 2008; Leibbrandt and List, 2014), or to gender related stereotypes (Reuben et al., 2014; Fabre et al., 2016). The decisional situation depicted by the UG could be used to test and investigate the factors that contribute to the fact that women are offered less and accept lower salaries than men, while keeping constant the education and professional training levels, total number of working hours during a week or similar job requirements. In a nutshell, the decision to accept a job for a certain salary is similar to the responder's decision in the UG to accept an offer. UG studies have looked at gender differences in offers that are made and accepted/rejected. Most studies indicate that women are offered less compared to men and also that women have higher acceptance rates, including for unfair offers (Solnick and Schweitzer, 1999; Eckel and Grossman, 2001; Solnick, 2001; Eckel et al., 2008). So far, we can only speculate that UG behavior could be related to real life salary decisions. Future studies should take upon the challenge to directly test if there is an association between the two decisional contexts and to what extent UG results could be informative outside the laboratory setting. If systematic research could prove an association between people's behavior in the UG and real life decisional behavior, such as salary negotiation, scholars could connect the two investigative topics with mutual scientific benefits. That is, individual differences that have been associated with decisions in the UG might be investigated if they could also account for the fact that women are offered lower salaries and they usually accept lower payments than men. Various social policies or organizational practices regarding salary allocations for men and women could profit from this scientific cross-fertilization in order to remedy a current discriminating situation. Until present date, the field of behavioral economics has produced an impressive number of studies regarding our decision-making. Moreover, behavioral economics is already trying to provide useful data that can create or help implement a large variety of social programs designed to increase quality of life. Building on past success, new studies should be designed to further bridge the gap between theory and practice. RMH initiated the opinion article and drafted the manuscript; PK provided feedback and suggestions. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. In writing this paper, RMH was supported by grant GTC-UBB 31794/2016 from Babeş-Bolyai University, Romania. Brosnan, S. F. (2011). An evolutionary perspective on morality. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 77, 23–30. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2010.04.008 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Camerer, C. F. (2003). Behavioral Game Theory - Experiments in Strategic Interaction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar Camerer, C. F., and Fehr, E. (2006). When does “economic man” dominate social behavior? 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Neural evidence for inequality-averse social preferences. Nature 463, 1089–1091. doi: 10.1038/nature08785 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Webber, K. L., and Canché, M. G. (2015). Not equal for all: gender and race differences in salary for doctoral degree recipients. Res. High. Educ. 56, 645–672. doi: 10.1007/s11162-015-9369-8 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: gender pay gap, behavioral economics, economic games, ultimatum game, gender differences Citation: Heilman RM and Kusev P (2017) The Gender Pay Gap: Can Behavioral Economics Provide Useful Insights? Front. Psychol. 8:95. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00095 Received: 19 December 2016; Accepted: 16 January 2017; Published: 02 February 2017. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2017 Heilman and Kusev. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Renata M. Heilman, [email protected]
, Klaus Rothermund,
Published: 17 February 2016
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00163

Abstract:
A commentary onContrasting motivational orientation and evaluative coding accounts: on the need to differentiate the effectors of approach/avoidance responsesby Kozlik, J., Neumann, R., and Lozo, L. (2015). Front. Psychol. 6:563. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00563 In a recent review paper on theoretical explanations of affective stimulus-response compatibility (aSRC) effects between positive/negative stimuli and approach/avoidance-related movements, Kozlik et al. (2015; KNL) argue that an evaluative-coding approach cannot fully account for aSRC effects with facial actions and that motivational orientations provide a better explanation. Their arguments are based on three observations that they consider incompatible with an evaluative-coding approach (Eder and Rothermund, 2008, ER) and the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel et al., 2001) from which the approach is derived: (1) attempts to dissociate evaluative coding and motivational orientation showed separable contributions from these two factors (Krieglmeyer et al., 2010); (2) aSRC can be easily changed in manual actions (by instructions of action labels) but hardly in facial actions (Neumann et al., 2014); and (3) the hemispheric asymmetry in the control of positive/negative facial expressions matches the hemispheric asymmetry assumed for motivational orientations (Davidson et al., 1990). In the following, we will explain why none of these three observations is inconsistent with an evaluative-coding approach and (4) why the motivational-systems approach represents little more than a rephrasing of observations. Rather than contrasting both accounts, we propose a theoretical integration of cognitive and motivational aspects as a more promising approach for future research. 1. Krieglmeyer et al. (2010) report a “motivational” compatibility effect (on top of an evaluative-coding effect) “that was independent of evaluative compatibility between stimulus valence and response label valence.” However, we note that this effect (a) actually interacted with evaluative compatibility (Exp. 1); (b) was markedly reduced (Exp. 2A) or eliminated (Exp. 2B) in non-evaluative tasks; and (c) is open to an alternative interpretation with internal recoding mechanisms. As noted by ER (Eder and Rothermund, 2008, Footnote 7), “internal recodings of action representations are likely …if perceptual action frames (e.g., moving the stimulus toward or away from the viewer) are more salient for action control.” Manikin movements toward and away from words may hence have triggered action re-coding in “toward” and “away” in some conditions, which explains a small instruction-independent aSRC effect. 2. We agree that smiling and frowning are linked to positive and negative affects, respectively, more rigidly than non-facial actions commonly are. We also agree that aSRC effects for facial responses are less affected by instructions of arbitrary action goals (e.g., performing “rain” and “sun” actions; Neumann et al., 2014). However, we fail to see why that might imply different mechanisms and explanations. In fact, the affectively extended TEC can easily account for all of these observations. According to TEC, perceptions and actions are represented by networks of distributed feature codes that represent their perceivable features. An action plan would thus code, among other things, the anticipated kinesthetic feedback from a smile or visual feedback after a lever movement. Considering that affect is derived from bodily sensations (James, 1884), feature networks should also incorporate codes representing the positivity/negativity of action consequences (Beckers et al., 2002; Eder et al., 2015). Perceptual and action events of the same valence then share feature codes—which explains aSCR (Eder and Klauer, 2007, 2009; Eder et al., 2012). Associations between movements and codes of their sensory consequences emerge through experience and as a function of contingency and contiguity, which also holds for facial expressions (Ekman et al., 1980; Kunde et al., 2011). The current action goal moderates feature networks by weighting features on goal-related dimensions more strongly (Memelink and Hommel, 2013), and verbal instructions can help to disambiguate goal-relevant action consequences (Eder et al., 2013). This means that the size of aSCR effects should depend on the strength of the acquired association and on the current goal/feature weighting (for evidence see Phaf et al., 2014). It makes sense to assume that affective consequences of smiling are more systematically/strongly associated with the responsible motor pattern than affective consequences of pulling something toward one's body. This implies that the relative contribution of previously acquired associations with affective codes is stronger for facial than for manual actions, which explains why the former are more immune to goal manipulations. 3. KNL cite several findings suggesting that facial expressions of happiness and of disgust are associated with particularly strong activation of left and right frontal cortex, respectively. While these observations actually do not speak to the involvement of motivational factors, KNL follow Davidson et al.'s (1990) terminology in simply labeling happiness an “approach emotion” and disgust a “withdrawal emotion.” Furthermore, previous research showed that only smiles that include activation of the orbicularis pars lateralis (Duchenne's marker) result in greater left frontal activation, while other smiles do not (Ekman and Davidson, 1993). Thus, even if we would agree to a close link between voluntary smiles and motivational brain systems, it is unclear whether Neumann et al.'s (2014) facial task without Duchenne's marker was sufficient to engage these systems. 4. Is KNL's “motivational orientation account” a reasonable theoretical alternative that explicates aSRC effects in terms of a different mechanism? Unfortunately, no mechanism is presented, which renders the referred-to “motivational orientations” theoretically empty boxes without additional explanatory value. “Explaining” approach-avoidance tendencies through activations of corresponding approach-avoidance systems is but a re-description of the to-be-explained phenomenon in allegedly explanatory terms, which we consider about as meaningful as, say, explaining perception through a “perception system.” Truly useful scientific models require the specification of the contents of motivation systems and the processes operating on these contents. How are positive and negative stimuli translated into corresponding behaviors? How does a “motivation system” select and energize movement patterns producing approach or avoidance? Our expanded TEC approach has the potential to provide answers to these critical questions, including those that KNL interpret as too challenging. Instead of contrasting both approaches, we suggest to integrate perceptual, emotional, and motivational aspects of human action into a unitary theoretical model that makes concrete, testable assumptions about the structures and processes of actions effecting approach and avoidance (see Eder and Hommel, 2013; Eder and Rothermund, 2013). All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Preparation of this comment was supported by grant ED 201/2-2 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) to AE. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Beckers, T., De Houwer, J., and Eelen, P. (2002). 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Psychol. 5:378. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00378 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: evaluative coding account, motivational systems, approach-avoidance, stimulus-response compatibility, Theory of Event Coding (TEC) Citation: Eder AB, Rothermund K and Hommel B (2016) Commentary: Contrasting motivational orientation and evaluative coding accounts: on the need to differentiate the effectors of approach/avoidance responses. Front. Psychol. 7:163. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00163 Received: 20 January 2016; Accepted: 28 January 2016; Published: 17 February 2016. Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2016 Eder, Rothermund and Hommel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Andreas B. Eder, [email protected]
Nn Alam, D White, Sk Narang, Ir Daniels, Nj Smart
Published: 22 June 2015
by BMJ
Abstract:
Introduction Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is dysplasia in the squamous epithelium of the anus and is a precursor for anal squamous cell carcinoma. AIN is associated with many risk factors particularly infection with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which is found in 90% of cases. There is ambiguity with regards to the optimal management of AIN III and there are significant variations in the published guidelines produced by official bodies. Therefore the optimal treatment and long term management of AIN III is yet to be standardised. The aim of this review is to assess the evidence behind national society guidelines currently available in the literature available on AIN III management, surveillance and treatment. Method An electronic search of Pubmed was performed using the search terms ‘anal intraepithelial neoplasia’, ‘AIN’, ‘anal cancer’, ‘guidelines’, ‘surveillance’ and ‘management’.Literature reviews and guidelines or practice guidelines in peer reviewed journals from 1stJanuary 2000 to 31stDecember 2014, assessing the treatment, surveillance or management of patients with AIN related to HPV were included. The guidelines identified by the search were assessed for the quality of evidence behind them using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence. Results The database search identified 4473 articles and 2 guidelines were sourced from official body guidelines (ACPGBI and ASCRS). After inclusion criteria were applied, 22 abstracts were reviewed and 10 were excluded as they were not relevant to AIN III or anal cancer, and a further 6 were excluded as they were earlier versions of current guidelines. Three guidelines (American College of Radiology, NCCN and the European Society for Medical Oncology) were excluded as they were recommendations for anal cancer leaving three guidelines for review. Guidelines published by ACPGBI, ASCRS Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) were included for the systematic review. Conclusion All 3 guidelines agree that a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosing AIN III. A disease specific history focussing on signs, symptoms and predisposing risk factors as well as a perianal examination, digital rectal examination and anal cytology is essential for assessment. However, there is significant variation amongst the guidelines with regards to surveillance, medical treatment, surgical excision and follow-up of patients with AIN III. The quality of evidence used to form the guidelines is of a low level with the majority based on Level 3 or 4 evidence. This review highlights that the current guidelines available are based on out-dated evidence of low quality and standardised registry data is needed to standardise assessment, treatment and surveillance to improve overall outcome. Disclosure of interest None Declared.
David Campbell, Grégoire Côté, , , Anji Mehta, Molly Morgan Jones
The British Journal Of Social Work, Volume 46, pp 1282-1300; https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcv022

Abstract:
Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 28, pp 001-002; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1545062

Abstract:
Dr. James W. Fleshman is the Helen Buchanan and Stanley Joseph Seeger Endowed Professor and Chairman—Department of Surgery, Baylor University Medical Center, and Chief of Surgery at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. James was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and received an MD degree from Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. His general surgery training, which included a year of research, was conducted at The Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. He then performed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. In 1987, he joined the colorectal staff at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, and eventually became professor and section head of the division of colon and rectal surgery. In 2012, he moved to Dallas, TX, to assume his current position. Dr. Fleshman is a major force in colorectal research. In addition to being honored with the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeon's Young Researcher's Award in 1992, he served as the President of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Research Foundation. He has been involved in most of the major multicenter colorectal trials including the COST (Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy) trial and remains an active researcher. Dr. Fleshman is a member of and held leadership positions in multiple national surgical and colorectal societies. He has served as the president of the ASCRS (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons) and the American Board of Colorectal Surgery, and is a senior member of the American Board of Surgery. Dr. Fleshman has served on the Editorial Board of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum and Annals of Surgery as well as eight other journals. He has had a long interest in cancer and has published over 161 peer-reviewed articles, 34 non–peer-reviewed articles, and 60 book chapters on this and other colorectal subjects. He has edited four textbooks, including the first edition of the ASCRS Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Dr. Fleshman maintains a very busy clinical practice in which the management of rectal cancer plays a major role. He educates medical students and surgical and colorectal residents on a daily basis. James and his wife, Linda, live in Dallas, Texas. When not working, Jim enjoys golf, reading, and spending time with his family, especially his four grandchildren. In summary, Dr. Fleshman is one of the major leaders and academic surgeons in colorectal surgery. It is an honor to know him and consider him a friend. Dr. Warren E. Lichliter is the Chief of the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery and Colorectal Surgery Residency Director at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Warren was born in Murphysbort, Illinois and did his undergraduate training at the University of Tennessee. He attended medical school at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. His general surgery residency and colorectal surgery training was performed at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Following his colorectal surgery training, Dr. Lichliter joined the staff at the Baylor University and progressed to the positions listed above. Dr. Lichliter educates medical students and general surgery and colorectal residents on a daily basis and mentors trainees and junior faculty as well as conducting research. His publications include nine peer reviewed articles and he has made multiple presentations at regional and national forums. Dr. Lichliter is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS). He has served on several important committees and as President of the North Texas Chapter of the American College of Surgeons. He is also Board Certified in General Surgery and Colon and Rectal Surgery and is listed in Best Doctors in America Warren has four children and lives with his wife in Dallas, Texas. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics of Colon and Rectal Surgery, I thank Dr. Fleshman and Lichliter for serving as Guest Editors and for providing us with a comprehensive update and state-of-the-art review of rectal cancer management.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 27, pp 039-040; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1376166

Abstract:
Dr. James Yoo is a colon and rectal surgeon and Chief of Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Tuffs Medical Center, Boston, MA. Dr. James Yoo received bachelor of science in biology from Brown University, Providence, RI, and MD from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, NY. He did his General Surgery Residency training at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, which included 2 years of research at Harvard University in Boston and the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, OH. Following residency, he did a laparoscopic colon and rectal fellowship at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, followed by a clinical residency in colon and rectal surgery at New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York, NY. Following his training, Dr. Yoo joined the UCLA School of Medicine in California as an assistant professor and advanced to be Chief, Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery in the UCLA Department of Surgery. In 2014, he moved to Tufts Medical Center and assumed his current position. Dr. Yoo is an associate professor of surgery at Tufts University and is board certified in general and colon and rectal surgery. He teaches fellows, residents, and medical students on a daily basis and is an active participant in multiple surgical societies. He currently serves as chairman of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery (ASCRS) Awards committee. Dr. Yoo is an active researcher and has received NIH KO8 Mentored Clinical Scientist Research Career Development Award. He serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Surgical Research and the American Journal of Digestive Disease. His contributions to the medical literature include 19 peer-reviewed publications, 5 review articles, 3 book chapters, and multiple presentations at national meetings. Dr. Yoo and his wife, Shirley Y. Huang, MD, live in Boston. Academic activities and research play an increasing role in colon and rectal surgery. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics of Colon and Rectal Surgery, I sincerely thank Dr. Yoo for serving as a guest editor and for providing us with a superb issue on developing a career in colon and rectal surgery.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 25, pp 185-186; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1329387

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Dr. Steven D. Mills is an Associate Clinical Professor and Chief of the Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery and Colorectal Surgery Residency Director at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, and was recently appointed as the Director of the General Surgery Medical Student Clerkship. He also serves as a staff colorectal surgeon at the Long Beach VA Medical Center. Born in Ridgecrest, California, Steven did his undergraduate training at the University of California, San Diego, but then traveled to New York to attend medical school at the New York Medical College in Valhalla. He did his general surgery residency at Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland; he completed his colorectal surgery training at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. Following his colorectal surgery training, Dr. Mills joined the staff at the University of California, Irvine, where he has developed a busy clinical colorectal practice that focuses on improving outcomes with minimally invasive techniques. He has also worked tirelessly to improve surgical education at UCI Irvine and to advance the field of colorectal surgery through research. Dr. Mills is recognized as a national leader in surgical education. He educates medical students and general surgery and colorectal residents daily and mentors trainees and junior faculty—all while actively pursuing his research interests. He has received several awards recognizing his contributions including the University of California, Irvine Golden Apple Award for the “Best Clinical Teaching Professor” at the medical school. His publications include four book chapters and more than 35 peer-reviewed articles. He also has served as a reviewer for numerous prestigious journals. He is a frequent presenter at regional, national, and international forums. Dr. Mills is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS)and has served on the ASCRS Standard's Committee. He is Board Certified in General Surgery and Colon and Rectal Surgery and is listed in Best Doctors in America. Steven and his wife, Kelly Young, PhD, live in Long Beach, California. They have two daughters (Alexa and Elyse). When not working, he enjoys camping, hiking (he recently completed the Grand Canyon Rim-to-Rim-to-Rim [R2R2R] in one day!), standup paddle-boarding, and cooking with things grown in his garden. However, his favorite pastime is exploring the world with his family. On behalf of the readers of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, the Editorial Board thanks Dr. Mills for serving as Guest Editor and for providing an important issue on trauma, bowel obstruction, and colorectal emergencies.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 25, pp 123-124; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1322523

Abstract:
Dr. Judith L. Trudel is a clinical professor in the Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, where she is the program director for the colon and rectal surgery residency program. She practices colon and rectal surgery in St. Paul, Minnesota. Judith was born in Montréal, Canada and received her undergraduate and medical school training at Laval University in Québec, Canada. Her general surgery residency was completed at McGill University in Montréal; her colorectal surgery training at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio. In addition, her academic formation includes several years of basic and clinical research, a Master of Science degree in experimental surgery from McGill University and a Masters degree in health professions education from the University of Illinois in Chicago. Following her colorectal surgery training, Dr. Trudel joined the faculty at McGill University and had a busy educational and clinical colorectal practice. She moved to Minnesota in 2002 and maintains citizenship in both Canada and the United States. Dr. Trudel is recognized as a national leader in surgical education. She has been involved in educating medical students and general surgery or colorectal residents for her entire professional career. As program director, she mentors trainees and junior faculty on a daily basis, and is involved in curriculum development and educational research. Her publications include eight book chapters and 42 peer-reviewed articles, and she is a reviewer for numerous prestigious journals. She actively participates in forums and committees on a national level to improve our knowledge and ability to educate trainees. In addition to these activities, Dr. Trudel maintains a busy colorectal surgery practice. Dr. Trudel is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, of the American College of Surgeons, of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), and the Society of Surgical Oncology. She is board certified in general surgery and colon and rectal surgery and is also listed in Best Doctors in America. She is the immediate past vice-president of the ASCRS, serves actively on national society committees, and is a member of several Canadian and American specialty societies. She is a board member of the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Judith and her husband, François Bédard, Ph.D., live in Woodbury, Minnesota. She has two children: Vincent, a freshman studying hospitality management at the University of Central Florida, Orlando; and Nicolas, a junior in high school. When not working, she enjoys keeping fit, spending time with friends and family, dragon boat racing, and cooking; she and François climbed Mount Kilimanjaro in July 2011. On behalf of the readers of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, the Editorial Board thanks Dr. Trudel for serving as Guest Editor and for providing an important issue on surgical education.
David E Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 24, pp 081-082; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1278400

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Dr. David E. Beck is Chairman of the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans, Louisiana. Dave was born in Geneva, Illinois. He received a BS degree as a distinguished graduate from the United States Air Force Academy and his MD from the University of Miami in Florida. He completed his general surgery residency at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center at Lackland AFB, Texas. After spending a year as an Air Force general surgeon at a small base in Florida, he completed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Beck then returned to Wilford Hall to serve as the Chief of Colon and Rectal Surgery and eventually as Chairman of the Department of General Surgery. During his Air Force career, he served at the Air Force Surgeon General's Consultant in Colon and Rectal Surgery and during the Gulf War served as Chief of Surgery at the 81st Contingency Hospital located at Little Rissington, United Kingdom. In 1993, he joined the colorectal staff at the Ochsner Clinic and in 1995 became chair of the department in 1997. In 2005, he was elected to the Board of Governors of the Ochsner Clinic. Dr. Beck maintains a busy clinic practice in New Orleans with emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease, anal cancer, stomas, adhesions, bowel preparation, sphincter saving surgery for cancer, and laparoscopic surgery. Dr. Beck educates medical students, residents and colorectal surgery trainees on a daily basis and mentors trainees and junior faculty. He is a Professor of Surgery at the University of Queensland, Australia, and is on the clinical faculty at the Louisiana State University and Uniformed Services University Schools of Medicine. Dr. Beck assumed the duties of Editor in Chief of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery in January 2000. He has previously served on the Editorial Board of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, and is also currently the Editor in Chief of The Ochsner Journal. Dr. Beck has been a guest editor of several previous issues of Clinics and is the author and editor of seven textbooks, including the second edition of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery (ASCRS) Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery, the ASCRS Manual of Colon and Rectal Surgery, and the third edition of the Handbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery. He has published more than 100 book chapters and monographs and more than 150 peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Beck is the president of the ASCRS, a member of the Board of Trustees of the ASCRS Research Foundation, serves on multiple committees of the ASCRS, and is a member of multiple medical associations. An active researcher, Dr. Beck received the ASCRS Outstanding Young Investigator's Award in 1992, and is a member of the board of trustees of the ASCRS Research Foundation. He is also listed in Best Doctors in America, Who's Who in America, and was selected as one of Good Housekeeping's Top 318 Cancer Doctors for Women. David Beck and his wife, Sharon, live in Madisonville, Louisiana. When not working, he enjoys fishing, gardening, and woodworking. On behalf of the readers of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, the editorial board thanks Dr. Beck for serving as Guest Editor and for providing an important issue on career development.
David E Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 23, pp 059-059; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1254346

Abstract:
Dr. David E. Beck is Chairman of the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Ochsner Clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dave was born in Geneva, Illinois. He received a B.S. degree as a distinguished graduate from the United States Air Force Academy and his M.D. from the University of Miami in Florida. He completed his general surgery residency at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center at Lackland AFB, Texas. After spending a year as an Air Force general surgeon at a small base in Florida, he completed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Beck then returned to Wilford Hall to serve as the Chief of Colon and Rectal Surgery and eventually as Chairman of the Department of General Surgery. During his Air Force career, he served as the Air Force Surgeon General's consultant in Colon and Rectal Surgery; and during the Gulf War served as Chief of Surgery at the 81st Contingency Hospital located at Little Rissington, United Kingdom. In 1993, he joined the colorectal staff at the Ochsner Clinic and in 1995 became chairman of the department. In 2005, he was elected to the Board of Governors of the Ochsner Clinic. Dr. Beck maintains a busy clinic practice in New Orleans with major emphasis on endoscopy and laparoscopy. Members of the department perform ~8,000 colonoscopies per year. In addition, Dr. Beck has been a course director and instructor in the annual Association of Program Directors in Colon and Rectal Surgery Laparoscopic Fellows Course since 1991. Dr. Beck assumed the duties of Editor in Chief of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery in January 2000. He has previously served on the Editorial Board of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum and is also currently the Editor in Chief of The Ochsner Journal. Dr. Beck has been a guest editor of several previous issues of Clinics and is the author and editor of seven textbooks. Those currently in press include Fundamentals of Anorectal Surgery, Improved Outcomes of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Handbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery(ASCRS)Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery, and the ASCRS Manual of Colon and Rectal Surgery. He has published more than 100 book chapters and monographs and more than 150 peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Beck is the president elect of the ASCRS and serves on multiple committees of this society. An active researcher, Dr. Beck received the ASCRS Outstanding Young Investigator's Award in 1992, and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the ASCRS Research Foundation. He is also listed in Best Doctors in America, Who's Who in America, and was selected as one of Good Housekeeping's Top 318 Cancer Doctors for Women. David Beck and his wife, Sharon, live in Madisonville, Louisiana. When not working, he enjoys fishing, gardening and woodworking. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, the editorial board thanks Dr. Beck for serving as Guest Editor and for providing us with a useful issue on urology and gynecology.
ANZIAM Journal, Volume 51, pp 83-96; https://doi.org/10.21914/anziamj.v51i0.2176

Abstract:
Most methods for modelling dynamics posit just two time scales: a fast and a slow scale. But many applications, such as the diffusion in a random media considered here, possess a wide variety of space-time scales. Consider the microscale diffusion on a one dimensional lattice with arbitrary diffusion coefficients between adjacent lattice points. I develop a slow manifold approach to model the diffusion, with some rigorous support, on a lattice that is coarser by a factor of four: the coarser scale effective diffusion coefficients are the harmonic mean of fine scale coefficients. Then iterating the analytic mapping of random diffusion from the finer grid to the coarser grid generates a hierarchy of models on a spatial multigrid across a wide range of space-time scales, all with rigorous support. The one step harmonic mean renormalises to harmonic means for the effective diffusion coefficients across the entire hierarchy. References Todd Arbogast and Kirsten J. Boyd. Subgrid upscaling and mixed multiscale finite elements. SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 44:1150--1171, 2006. doi:10.1137/050631811. Achi Brandt. General highly accurate algebraic coarsening. Elect. Trans. Num. Anal., 10:1--20, 2000. http://www.emis.ams.org/journals/ETNA/vol.10.2000/pp1-20.dir/pp1-20.html. Achi Brandt. Multiscale scientific computation: review 2001. In T. F. Chan T. J. Barth and R. Haimes, editors, Multiscale and Multiresolution Methods: Theory and Applications, pages 1--96. Springer--Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001. Achi Brandt. Methods of systematic upscaling. Technical report, Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, March 2006. http://wisdomarchive.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il:81/archive/00000398/. William L. Briggs, Van Emden Henson, and Steve F. McCormick. A multigrid tutorial, second edition. SIAM, 2nd edition, 2001. J. Carr. Applications of centre manifold theory, volume 35 of Applied Math. Sci. Springer--Verlag, 1981. J. Dolbow, M. A. Khaleel, and J. Mitchell. Multiscale mathematics initiative: A roadmap. Report from the 3rd DoE workshop on multiscale mathematics. Technical report, Department of Energy, USA, http://www.sc.doe.gov/ascr/mics/amr, December 2004. Weinan E, Bjorn Engquist, Xiantao Li, Weiqing Ren, and Eric Vanden-Eijnden. The heterogeneous multiscale method: A review. Technical report, http://www.math.princeton.edu/multiscale/review.pdf, 2004. B. Engquist and P. E. Souganidis. Asymptotic and numerical homogenization. Acta Numerica, 17:147--190, 2008. Martin J. Gander and Andrew M. Stuart. Space-time continuous analysis of waveform relaxation for the heat equation. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 19(6):2014--2031, 1998. Y. A. Kuznetsov. Elements of applied bifurcation theory, volume 112 of Applied Mathematical Sciences. Springer--Verlag, 1995. Tony MacKenzie and A. J. Roberts. Holistic discretisation ensures fidelity to dynamics in two spatial dimensions. Technical report, http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.0855v1, 2009. G. A. Pavliotis and A. M. Stuart. Multiscale methods: averaging and homogenization, volume 53 of Texts in Applied Mathematics. Springer, 2008. A. J. Roberts. Simple and fast multigrid solution of Poisson's equation using diagonally oriented grids. ANZIAM J., 43(E):E1--E36, July 2001. http://anziamj.austms.org.au/ojs/index.php/ANZIAMJ/article/view/465. A. J. Roberts. Low-dimensional modelling of dynamical systems applied to some dissipative fluid mechanics. In Rowena Ball and Nail Akhmediev, editors, Nonlinear dynamics from lasers to butterflies, volume 1 of Lecture Notes in Complex Systems, chapter 7, pages 257--313. World Scientific, 2003. A. J. Roberts. Choose interelement coupling to preserve self-adjoint dynamics in multiscale modelling and computation. Technical report, http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.0688, 2008. A. J. Roberts. Normal form transforms separate slow and fast modes in stochastic dynamical systems. Physica A, 387:12--38, 2008. A. J. Roberts. Model dynamics across multiple length and time scales on a spatial multigrid. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, 7(4):1525--1548, 2009. G. Samaey, I. G. Kevrekidis, and D. Roose. The gap-tooth scheme for homogenization problems. SIAM Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, 4:278--306, 2005. doi:10.1137/030602046. G. Samaey, A. J. Roberts, and I. G. Kevrekidis. Equation-free computation: an overview of patch dynamics, chapter 8, pages 216--246. Oxford University Press, 2010.
David E Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 23, pp 001-001; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1247858

Abstract:
Dr. David E. Beck is Chairman of the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Ochsner Clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dave was born in Geneva, Illinois. He received a B.S. degree as a distinguished graduate from the United States Air Force Academy and his M.D. from the University of Miami in Florida. He completed his general surgery residency at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center at Lackland AFB, Texas. After spending a year as an Air Force general surgeon at a small base in Florida, he completed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Beck then returned to Wilford Hall to serve as the Chief of Colon and Rectal Surgery and eventually as Chairman of the Department of General Surgery. During his Air Force career, he served as the Air Force Surgeon General's consultant in Colon and Rectal Surgery; and during the Gulf War served as Chief of Surgery at the 81 Contingency Hospital located at Little Rissington, United Kingdom. In 1993, he joined the colorectal staff at the Ochsner Clinic and in 1995 became chairman of the department. In 2005, he was elected to the Board of Governors of the Ochsner Clinic. Dr. Beck maintains a busy clinic practice in New Orleans with major emphasis on endoscopy and laparoscopy. Members of the department perform ∼8,000 colonoscopies per year. In addition, Dr. Beck has been a course director and instructor in the annual Association of Program Directors in Colon and Rectal Surgery Laparoscopic Fellows Course since 1991. Dr. Beck assumed the duties of Editor in Chief of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery in January 2000. He has previously served on the Editorial Board of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum and is also currently the Editor in Chief of The Ochsner Journal. Dr. Beck has been a guest editor of several previous issues of Clinics and is the author and editor of seven textbooks. Those currently in press include Fundamentals of Anorectal Surgery, Improved Outcomes of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Handbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery(ASCRS)Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery, and the ASCRS Manual of Colon and Rectal Surgery. He has published over 100 book chapters and monographs and over 150 peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Beck is the president elect of the ASCRS and serves on multiple committees of this society. An active researcher, Dr. Beck received the ASCRS Outstanding Young Investigator's Award in 1992, and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the ASCRS Research Foundation. He is also listed in Best Doctors in America, Who's Who in America, and was selected as one of Good Housekeeping's Top 318 Cancer Doctors for Women. David Beck and his wife, Sharon, live in Madisonville, Louisiana. When not working, he enjoys fishing, gardening and woodworking. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, the editorial board thanks Dr. Beck for serving as Guest Editor and for providing us with a useful issue on the management of ostomies.
T. Kohnen
Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, Volume 226, pp 594-595; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1109674

Abstract:
Diese August- und September-Ausgaben der Klinischen Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde mit Übersichts-, Originalarbeiten und Kasuistiken ist von Weggefährten, Doktoranden, Habilitanden, Mitarbeitern und Freunden verfasst. Sie sind Herrn Prof. Dr. Christian Ohrloff zu seinem 65. Geburtstag gewidmet. Christian Ohrloff wurde am 14.1.1944 in Krakau/Polen geboren. Nach dem Abitur am Gymnasium in Leer/Ostfriesland studierte er Humanmedizin in Frankfurt, Freiburg und Wien. Das Staatsexamen legte er 1968 in Freiburg ab und arbeitete für zwei Jahre als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter im Physiologisch-Chemischen Institut der Universität Freiburg (Leiter: Prof. Dr. H. Holzer und Prof. Dr. K. Decker). Aus diesem Institut stammt auch seine Promotionsarbeit unter K. Decker zum Thema „Regulation der NADH-Ferrodoxin-Reduktase aus Clostridium Kluyvery”. 1970 – 1971 war er als Medizinalassistent in der chirurgischen Abteilung des Auguste-Viktoria-Krankenhauses in Berlin sowie der inneren Abteilung der II. Medizinischen Klinik der Universität München tätig und vertrat als Landarzt einen erkrankten Kollegen in dessen Allgemeinarztpraxis in Heitersheim. Es folgten Studienreisen durch Asien und Südamerika, bevor er 1972 als wissenschaftlicher Assistent im Klinischen Institut für experimentelle Ophthalmologie der Universität Bonn (Direktor: Prof. Dr. E. Weigelin) begann. In der biochemischen Abteilung unter der Leitung von O. Hockwin befasste er sich besonders mit klinischer Grundlagenforschung. Seine weitere umfassende Ausbildung in Diagnostik, konservativer und operativer Behandlung von Augenerkrankungen erhielt er an der Augenklinik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (Direktor: Prof. Dr. W. Best, später Prof. Dr. M. Spitznas) vor allem durch U. Dardenne, u. a. aber auch durch I. Kreissig und H. Kaufmann. Es folgte 1979 die Habilitation für das Lehrgebiet „Augenheilkunde und experimentelle Ophthalmologie” mit der Arbeit „Altern der Augenlinse – Untersuchungen über molekulare und funktionelle Veränderungen von Enzymen des Kohlenhydratstoffwechsels während des Alterungsprozesses, die Anlass zur Entwicklung seniler Linsentrübungen sein könnten” – eine Thematik, die sein weiteres Berufsleben prägte. Seine wissenschaftlichen Hauptarbeitsgebiete waren damals die Biochemie und Toxikologie der Katarakt sowie Mikrochirurgie und die Arzneimittel(neben)wirkungen am Auge. Im gleichen Jahr erhielt er in Paris den A. E. R.-Award (Association for Eye Research) für die beste Veröffentlichung in der ophthalmologischen Grundlagenforschung mit der Arbeit „Untersuchungen des Verteilungsmusters der Aldolase-Isoenzyme A, B und C und Bestimmung inaktiver Enzymmoleküle in Linsen verschiedenen Alters durch quantitative immunologische Präzipitation”. Ebenfalls im Jahr 1979 wurde Christian Ohrloff zum Oberarzt (H2-Stelle) ernannt. Den Ruf auf eine C 3-Professur auf Lebenszeit für „Klinische Ophthalmologie mit dem Schwerpunkt Ophthalmochirurgie” am Klinikum Charlottenburg der Freien Universität Berlin lehnte er 1981 ab und erhielt ein Jahr später in Bonn die Ernennung zum C 3-Professor auf Zeit. 1983 zog es Christian Ohrloff erneut ins Ausland. Er folgte einer Einladung der Professoren D. Apple und R. Olson nach Utah, Salt Lake City und nahm im Rahmen dieses Aufenthalts auch Studienaufenthalte und Gastvorträge in Rochester, New Orleans, New York und Maryland wahr. 1988 übernahm Christian Ohrloff als Nachfolger von W. Doden die Leitung der Augenklinik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main. Die klinischen Schwerpunkte seiner Arbeit bildeten anfänglich Kataraktoperationen, die Implantation künstlicher Linsen, Hornhauttransplantationen und die Operationen des Glaskörpers, später erweitert um Glaukom- und Hornhautchirurgie sowie plastisch-rekonstruktive Chirurgie der Lider. Einen Ruf an die Universität Graz hatte er zuvor abgelehnt. Mit seinem Sachverstand, seiner Umsicht und vor allem seiner aufgeschlossenen Persönlichkeit wurden ihm viele verantwortungs- aber auch ehrenvolle Ämter übertragen, so war er u. a. Mitglied des Vorstandes der Universitätsklinik Frankfurt am Main und Prodekan der medizinischen Fakultät, Vorsitzender des Forschungsausschusses (1996 – 2001) und seit 2004 auch Mitglied im Aufsichtsrat der Universitätsklinik Bonn. 10 Kollegen/innen haben sich unter seiner Führung habilitiert und leitende Klinikstellen besetzt. Parallel zu seiner Hochschultätigkeit engagiert sich Christian Ohrloff in vielen Fachgesellschaften, so z. B. als Präsident der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Intraokularlinsen-Implantation und refraktive Chirurgie (DGII) 1996 – 2000, deren Tagungen er in den Jahren 1997 und 1999 in Frankfurt ausrichtete. Als Präsident der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft (DOG) fungierte er 1999 – 2000, im Gesamtpräsidium der DOG ist er bis heute als Pressesprecher tätig. Sehr gerne erinnern wir uns an „seine” DOG in Berlin im Jahre 2000, wo er als Festredner keinen geringeren als den früheren Außenminister und Vizekanzler der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, gewinnen konnte. Die Festrede gehört wohl zu den Höhepunkten der letzten Dekaden und zeigt auch die ständigen guten Beziehungen Ohrloffs zur politischen Szene seit seiner Tätigkeit in der ehemaligen Bundeshauptstadt Bonn. Des Weiteren ist oder war er über viele Jahre engagiert u. a. bei der American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS), Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS), der Vereinigung Rhein-Mainischer Augenärzte und er ist eines der wenigen deutschen Mitglieder des auf 250 Mitglieder limitierten International Intraocular Implant Club (IIIC). Für wissenschaftliche Zeitschriften engagiert sich Ohrloff im Redaktionskomitee (editorial board) für Der Ophthalmologe, European Journal of Implant and Refractive Surgery, Ophthalmic Research, Ophthalmochirurgie und ist seit 1993 Herausgeber von Ophthalmologica. Neben seinem Beruf in der Augenheilkunde hat Christian Ohrloff weitere Interessensgebiete wie Politik, Kunst, Literatur und Sport. So ist er nicht einseitig festgelegt, sondern aufgeschlossen, lebenserfahren und – das wissen seine Mitarbeiter und Freunde sehr zu würdigen – dem Einzelnen mit seinen Problemen immer zugewandt. Bei der Widerspiegelung all seiner Tätigkeitsbereiche und persönlichen Einsätze ist die tragende Grundlage seines Schaffens, die nicht unerwähnt bleiben darf, seine Familie. 1974 heiratete er seine Frau Barbara und feierte nun seinen 65. Geburtstag im Kreise seiner Familie mit seinen Kindern Franziska, Maximilian und Chiara. Christian Ohrloff, selbst so warmherzig und menschlich, weiß am besten um die Wärme und Geborgenheit, die er seiner Familie gibt und zugleich von ihr so reichlich empfängt. Christian Ohrloff ist bereits mit seiner hünenhaften Gestalt eine eindrucksvolle Erscheinung auf dem ophthalmologischen Parkett. Sein verbindliches Wesen und ausgleichendes taktisches Geschick haben ihn zum vertrauten Vermittler im Streit zwischen den ambulanten Ophthalmochirurgen und den Kliniken werden lassen. Er wird von beiden Gruppierungen gleichermaßen geachtet und akzeptiert. Wenn ich Christian Ohrloff mit einem Wort beschreiben müsste, fiele mir für ihn der Begriff „LIBERAL” ein; dabei stehen die Anfangsbuchstaben dieses Wortes für die Eigenschaften: L für Leitwolf I für integer B für Baum E für ehrenwert R für robust A für aufrichtig und L für lebensfroh. In diesen Ausgaben der Klinischen Monatsblätter wird die Augenheilkunde mit 19 Arbeiten in ihrer Vielfalt dargestellt und spiegelt damit zugleich das Interesse und breite Wissen Christian Ohrloffs in der Augenheilkunde wieder. Unter seiner Führung bietet die Klinik für Augenheilkunde der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main ein breites Spektrum an Behandlungen, Forschung und Lehre. So befassen sich die Autoren dieser Ausgaben auch dementsprechend mit den Schwerpunktthemen der Klinik: die Vorderabschnittschirurgie – dabei besonders die Kataraktoperation und refraktive Chirurgie –, die physiologische Optik und Hornhauttherapie/-chirurgie, Orthoptik und Strabologie, Glaskörper- und Netzhauttherapie/-chirurgie und nicht zuletzt mit den heute immer wichtigeren Themen wie Gutachterwesen, Gesundheitsökonomie und Qualitätsmanagement. Die Bereitwilligkeit der Autoren, an diesem Heft mitzuwirken, zeigt ihre Wertschätzung. Im Namen der Autoren möchte ich den Herausgebern der klinischen Monatsblättern, Gabriele E. und Gerhard K. Lang, für die Möglichkeit danken, dieses Heft zu gestalten und mit dieser Veröffentlichung Christian Ohrloff nochmals herzlich gratulieren. Thomas Kohnen Abb. 1 Prof. Dr. Christian Ohrloff bei seiner Feier in der Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstags.
David E Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 22, pp 073-073; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1223836

Abstract:
Dr. Jan Rakinic is Chief of Colorectal Surgery and an Associate Professor of Surgery at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois. She earned her M.D. degree from Tulane University Medical School, New Orleans, LA and completed a General Surgery Residency at the University of Illinois-Chicago/Cook County Hospital Combined Program in General Surgery. One year during residency was spent performing research in the Trauma Surgery laboratory, and her work won the Harry M. Vars Research Award from the American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition for outstanding research by a young investigator in specialized nutrition research. Her colon and rectal surgery training was completed at the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. After completing her fellowship, Jan remained on staff at Jefferson Medical College. In 2001, she moved to Illinois and assumed her current position as the Chief, Section of Colorectal Surgery. Dr. Rakinic also serves as the Program Director for a newly accredited Colorectal Surgery Residency at Southern Illinois University. Jan is board certified in both general surgery and colon and rectal surgery and is an active participant in multiple surgical societies. She is an ad hoc reviewer of several journals and her contribution to the medical literature includes 22 peer-reviewed manuscripts and seven book chapters. She has made multiple presentations at national meetings and is an active researcher. She has served on and chaired multiple committees of the ASCRS and was the program co-chairman for the ASCRS national meeting as well as the Tripartite meeting in 2002. Jan lives in Springfield with her daughter Alina, aged 12, who plays volleyball and her son Milan, aged 9, is into basketball and video games. When Jan is not raising her children and working, she enjoys gardening, sport scuba diving in locations with warm water, and is currently learning to speak Italian. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, I sincerely thank Dr. Rakinic for serving as a Guest Editor and for providing us with a superb issue on Anal Cancer and Retrorectal Tumors.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 21, pp 001-001; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1055314

Abstract:
Dr. David E. Beck is Chairman of the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans, Louisiana. Dave was born in Geneva, Illinois. He received a BS degree as a distinguished graduate from the United States Air Force Academy and his MD from the University of Miami in Florida. He completed his general surgery residency at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center at Lackland AFB, Texas. After spending a year as an Air Force general surgeon at a small base in Florida, he completed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Beck then returned to Wilford Hall to serve as the Chief of Colon and Rectal Surgery and eventually as Chairman of the Department of General Surgery. He has also served at the Air Force Surgeon General's consultant in Colon and Rectal Surgery and during the Gulf War was Chief of Surgery at the 81 Contingency Hospital located at Little Rissington, United Kingdom. After leaving active military service in 1993, he joined the colorectal staff at the Ochsner Clinic and in 1995 became chairman of the department in 1997. In 2005, he was elected to the Board of Governors of the Ochsner Clinic. Dr. Beck assumed the duties of Editor in Chief of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery in January 2000. He previously served on the Editorial Board of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum and is also currently the Editor in Chief of The Ochsner Journal. Dr. Beck has been a guest editor of several issues of Clinics and is the author and editor of six textbooks. Those currently in press include Fundamentals of Anorectal Surgery, Complications of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Handbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery, and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery (ASCRS) Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery. He has published over 90 book chapters and monographs and over 140 peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Beck directs several national courses including the Annual Patrick Hanley Colorectal Surgery Course. He has been a member of the executive council of the ASCRS and serves on multiple committees of this society. An active researcher, Dr. Beck received the ASCRS Outstanding Young Investigator's award in 1992. He is also listed in Best Doctors in America and was selected as one of Good Housekeeping's Top 318 Cancer Doctors for Women. David Beck and his wife, Sharon, live in Madisonville, Louisiana. When not working, he enjoys fishing, gardening, and woodworking. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, the editorial board thanks Dr. Beck for serving as Guest Editor and for providing us with a useful issue on the management of ostomies.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 19, pp 001-002; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-939523

Abstract:
Dr. Peter Marcello is an Assistant Professor of Surgery, Tufts University School of Medicine and a Staff Surgeon at the Lahey Clinic, Burlington, Massachusetts. Peter was born in Boston, Massachusetts and received an M.D. degree from the Boston University School of Medicine. His general surgery training was conducted at the Deaconess-Harvard Surgical Service in Boston. This included a 1-year research fellowship at Lahey Clinic. His clinical fellowship in colon and rectal surgery was also performed at the Lahey Hitchcock Clinic, and this was followed by a 1-year Pelvic Floor Research Fellowship at Lahey. He then joined the colon and rectal surgery staff at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Cleveland, Ohio. After 2 years at Cleveland, Peter returned to the Colon and Rectal Surgery Department at Lahey. He is board certified in General Surgery and Colon and Rectal Surgery. At Lahey, Peter maintains a busy clinical practice in which laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery plays a significant role. In fact, Peter has been one of the major figures in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. In addition to performing over 800 laparoscopic colectomies resections, he has been a major force in expanding the colorectal experience. He directs multiple animal and fresh tissue training programs, helped formulate the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) position on laparoscopic surgery, and lectures regularly at national forums. Peter has conducted multiple clinical trials and performed significant basic science research into the pathophysiology of tumor port site recurrences. Peter is an active member of multiple professional societies and serves on several important committees of the ASCRS. In addition to his clinical and teaching activities, Peter remains an active researcher. He has published over nine book chapters and 38 peer-reviewed manuscripts, produced several educational videos, and serves as a reviewer for several major surgical journals. Peter lives in Bedford, Massachusetts with his wife, Maureen, and daughter, Bianca. When not working, he enjoys spending time with his family and fishing. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, I thank Dr. Marcello for serving as Guest Editor and for providing us with a superb issue on “Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: Where Are We Now?”
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 18, pp 129-129; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-916272

Abstract:
Dr. Kirk Ludwig is an Assistant Professor of Surgery, Chief, Section of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Director of the Anorectal Physiology Laboratory at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. Kirk was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and received an M.D. degree from the University of Cincinnati, in Cincinnati, OH. His general surgery training was conducted at the Medical College of Wisconsin and included a year of surgical research at the Medical College of Wisconsin and 6 months as a surgical registrar at South Warwickshire Hospital, Warwick, England. He then spent a year as a Laparoscopic Colorectal and Research Fellow at the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH and then completed a colon and rectal residency at the Cleveland Clinic. After completing his colorectal training in 1998, Kirk joined the surgical faculty at the Duke University. He is board certified in General Surgery and Colon and Rectal Surgery. At Duke, Kirk maintains a busy clinical practice in which the management of colon cancer is a significant component. He is an active member of multiple professional societies and serves on several important committees of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS). He was awarded the Young Clinicians Award of the ASCRS in 1998. In addition to his clinical and teaching activities, Kirk remains an active researcher. He serves as an associate editor of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, has published over 24 book chapters and 36 peer-reviewed articles, and serves as a reviewer for several major surgical journals. Kirk lives in Durham with his wife, Elizabeth, and children (Allison, Meridith, and Jillian). When not working, he enjoys spending time outdoors, preferably whitewater canoeing. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, I thank Dr. Ludwig for serving as Guest Editor and for providing us with a superb issue on colon cancer.
Thomas Kohnen
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Volume 29, pp 1647-1648; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2003.08.001

Abstract:
Reporting the practice styles and preferences of ASCRS members has been a long tradition in the journal.1 These surveys were started by David Leaming in 1984 and have been repeated annually. Questions about cataract surgery, intraocular lens (IOL) preferences, refractive surgery, and miscellaneous contemporary issues are asked each year. A survey of IOL use in children was first performed in 1993,2 repeated in 2001, and reported again in this issue of the journal. For refractive surgery specifically, Solomon et al.3 performed the first survey in 2001; this has been repeated annually. A remarkable series of surveys on all aspects of glaucoma practice has also been published in the journal.4–6 The journal recognizes and appreciates the effort of Drs. Leaming, Wilson, Solomon, Shingleton, Brown, Johnstone, and their coauthors.
David E. Beck
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, Volume 15, pp 245-246; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-36504

Abstract:
Dr. Alan E. Timmcke is a staff surgeon in the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA. Alan received his undergraduate degree from Dickinson College in Carlisle, PA, and his M.D. degree from Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia, PA. His general surgery training was accomplished at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, MD. He served 3 years as a U.S. Navy surgeon followed by 2 years in private practice. After several months as a staff surgeon in the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Lahey Clinic in Burlington, MA, Alan completed a 2-year research and clinical colorectal fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the Jewish Hospital and Washington University Medical Center in St. Louis, MO. Dr. Timmcke then joined the staff at the Ochsner Clinic in 1987. His varied experience and abilities have made a substantial contribution to the Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery at Ochsner. Dr. Timmcke serves on the Continuing Education Committee of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons and the Research Committee of the ASCRS Research Foundation. Dr. Timmcke is a member of multiple other national surgical and colorectal societies. In addition to his clinical duties, Dr. Timmcke remains an active researcher. Dr. Timmcke serves as a reviewer for the journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. He has had a long interest in pelvic tumors and has published 34 peer-reviewed articles and multiple book chapters on this and other colorectal subjects and edited the text for Complications of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Dr. Timmcke maintains a very busy clinical practice in which the management of rectal cancer plays a major role. He educates medical students as well as general and colorectal surgical residents on a daily basis. Alan and his wife, Terry, live in a suburb of New Orleans. His two children currently attend college. When not working Alan enjoys golfing and playing Solitaire on his computer. On behalf of the readers and staff of Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, I thank Dr. Timmcke for serving as Guest Editor and for providing us with a comprehensive update and review of uncommon pelvic tumors.
Comment
Douglas D Koch
Published: 1 September 2001
Ophthalmology, Volume 108, pp 1519-20; https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(01)00708-4

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