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Faryal Khattak, Hina Arif Paracha, Usman Nazir
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i2.31

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitude of parents about oral health care needs of their children in Abbottabad, District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Materials & Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out among parents of young children that included teachers, doctors and general population in Abbottabad, district of KPK province, Pakistan. Non-probability, convenience sampling technique was used. The data was obtained via self-administered and structured questionnaire for knowledge and attitude of parents related to oral health care needs of their children; which was distributed among the parents through online resources. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 24. Descriptive statistics and Chi Square test were performed. P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: This study showed that the selected sample had relatively good knowledge regarding the importance of primary teeth. 74.2% of parents were of opinion that children’s teeth should be brushed properly to prevent dental caries. Among parents, mothers had adequate knowledge about dietary (91.4%) and feeding (73.6%) practices. Also, parents (79.4%) had an idea about effects of deleterious oral habits on permanent teeth and two-third (62.9%) of the total number knew that early removal/ decay of primary teeth will have an effect on permanent teeth. Conclusion: Parental awareness and attitude towards their children’s oral health was found to be relatively good. However, parents of young children need to be more educated in terms of first and regular dental visits in order to be able to maintain a sound primary and permanent dentition.
Tahir Khan, Nafid Ullah Khan, Qaiser Iqbal Khan, Raza Muhammad Khan, Atif Masood, Wali Khan
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i2.17

Abstract:
Background: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common disease with frequent exacerbations especially in winter season. Frequency of COPD exacerbation is more among smokers as compared to general public. Current study was done to evaluate the frequency of acute exacerbation of COPD among non-smokers. Methods: this cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at Department of medicine, DHQ hospital Bannu over a period of one year from 22-2-2021 to 22-2-2022. About 193 COPD patients aged 35 to 80 years were included in this study. Patients with other lung diseases like TB, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, pleural effusion, interstitial lung diseases, bronchiectasis and history of pneumonectomy were excluded from the study. Complete history including history of smoking, socio economic status and co morbidities was taken. Complete general physical and systemic examination including chest and cardiovascular examination was performed. Spirometry was done and findings were recorded. Results: Among 193 patients, 55.4% and 44.6% were male and female respectively. Mean age was 58.89 years ± 10.82 SD. Among these 193 patients, 88.1% were uneducated, 6.2%, 29.6%, 32.6% and 31.6% were presented with mild, moderate, severe and very severe COPD respectively. Among them, 22.3% patients were hypertensive, 14% were diabetic and 1.6% were having thyroid disease. Frequency of non-smoker (50.3%) was stratified on the basis of gender (p=0.01), age (p= 0.16), duration of COPD (p=0.001), educational status (p=0.03), spirometry findings (p=0.73), hypertension (p=0.41), diabetes mellitus (p=0.85) and thyroid diseases (p=0.55). Conclusion: Approximately half of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were non-smokers. Of these, females were more likely to be non-smokers than males.
Tahir Khan, Nafid Ullah Khan, Hasnain Khan, Raza Muhammad Khan, Wali Khan Khan, Nasir Khan
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i2.20

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by either insulinopenia or insulin resistance. This study is focused on the ever-growing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its poor glycemic control in southern KPK This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the outdoor unit, Department of medicine DHQ hospital Bannu, over six months, extending from 30th December 2021 to 30th June 2022. The sample size was 91 and was calculated using the standard WHO formula. The confidence interval used was 95%, with a 5% margin of error. P value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Consecutive non-probability sampling technique was applied. Diabetic patients under treatment below 70 years were included in the study. HbA1c was used as an assessment tool for glycemic control and divided into three categories: good glycemic control with HbA1c9%, and very poor glycemic control with HbA1c>10%. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 19.0.About 18.6% diabetic patients had HbA1c>6%, 25.6% patients had HbA1c between6-8%, 26.7 % patients had HbA1c between 8-10% and 29.6 % had HbA1c>10%.This study revealed that the majority (55%) of diabetic patients belonging to southern KPK had poor glycemic control, as revealed by HbA1c, more than 8%.
Muneeb Ullah
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i1.6

Abstract:
Poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated and heterogenous endocrine disorder in the women and it can cause different metabolic, reproductive, and psychological abnormalities and is known for effecting about one among fifteen women globally. PCOS has been frequently diagnosed in women across pakistan and is previously reported to cause different physical and psychological abnormalities like obesity, infertility, hirsutism, depression, and anxiety on a large scale. Irrespective of the higher prevalence still there is inadequacy in the knowledge about PCOS. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of different physical and psychological symptoms of PCOS and their co relation with the impact on the quality of life of the affected individual and common methods of treatment used for PCOS. A questionnaire-based study would be designed to collect the data randomly from women of about 17-50 years of age who are affected with PCOS. This questionnaire would be containing all the necessary questions related to the physical and psychological impacts and the treatment methods. This questionnaire-based survey would be analysed by using different statistical analysis tools to provide the complete analytical results. This study will help the medical practioners in the determination of the most prevalent symptoms and can also aid for the improvision in the treatment methods to enhance effectiveness of treatment. It can be used in different educational seminars to spread awareness regarding the symptoms and treatment. It can also aid in further research.
Hina Ashraf Khan, Rabia Anwar, Usman Nazir, Amna Sadat, Farhana Anwar, Malik Yaseer Ali
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i3.38

Abstract:
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and clinical experience of dentists towards root canal repair materials and to know the preferred material for endodontic treatments. Study design: It was a cross-sectional study based on a survey consisting of 200 questionnaires. Setting: Dental hospitals of Abbottabad. Period: March, 2022 till August, 2022. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 200 dentists belonging to different dental colleges of Abbottabad. A structured questionnaire consisting of 10 questions was designed and distributed among the participants through hard and soft copies. SPSS version 22 was used for analysis of results. Results: Out of 200 questionnaires, 107 were recovered and responses received. More than 60% participants selected MTA as the material of choice for endodontic treatments, whereas, 20-30% preferred calcium hydroxide and few used Bio dentine, Modified Metal GIC, Super EBA and Decalcified Freeze Dry Bone. Conclusion: The preferred treatment for maximum participants was MTA and most of the dentists showed good awareness about root canal repair materials. Key words: Knowledge, Awareness, MTA, Root canal perforation, Repair
Hira Ejaz
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i2.22

Abstract:
Psychosocial problems influence the mental health as well as daily living of individuals. Vitiligo is one of those diseases which are strongly associated with psychosocial problems among its victim. Individuals with this disease are found to experience marriage delay, workplace discomfort, anxiety, depression, and remained to fail to cope with their skin condition. To determine psychosocial problems among vitiligo cases and to evaluate the role of psychotherapy in case management of vitiligo patients, this study employed a quantitative correlational study design. Data was collected from skin clinics in Islamabad from 15th December 2017 to 15th April 20018. A sample of 100 respondents including 60 cases and 40 controls was selected through convenient sampling technique. Questionnaires on self-esteem, depression, and Dermatology life quality index (DLQI) were used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed for data analysis. Pearson correlation between vitiligo and psychosocial problems was significant at the p-value 0.01 level (2-tailed). Study results showed that vitiligo has a significant relationship with depression, self-esteem, and impaired quality of life among cases. Regression analysis among Vitiligo and psychosocial problems was significant with a p-value < .001. Moderation regression analysis between vitiligo effects and psychotherapy was not found significant. Vitiligo has been found associated with depression, low self-esteem, and impaired quality of life. However, the proposed effect of psychotherapy has not been confirmed. Therefore, the study suggests further research to evaluate the role of psychotherapy to manage psychosocial problems of vitiligo cases. Keywords: Psychosocial, problems, associated, correlational study, vitiligo patients.
Muhammad Akram, Abdullah Khattak, Tarasud Zahoor
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i1.11

Abstract:
The present study was conducted at Khushal Garh area, District Kohat to find out diversity of Caeliferans fauna. Sampling of Caeliferans fauna was done during the period of July 2020 to July 2021. After collection, identification of all the specimens was done up to the species level. During this study, a total of 2 families of the Caeliferans were recorded which collectively comprised of 10 species. The identified Caeliferans species were Chrotogonus trachypterus Sphingonotus caerulans, Acrida exaltata, Schistocerca nitens, Trimertropis palllidipennis, Acorypha glaucopsiss, Anacridium aegyptium, Coryphistes ruricola, Heteracris littoraliss and Poekelocerus pictus. The species comprised of 6 sub families which were Pyrgomorphinae, Oedipodinae Acridinae Cyrtacanthacridiae Oedipodinae Calliptaminae Cyrtacanthacridiae Catantopinae Eyprepocnemidinae and Pyrgomorphinae, respectively. Since Caeliferans are a valuable group for bio indication, it is significant to get information on their multiplicity in such ecological circumstances.
Shumaita Bint-E-Khurshid
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i1.19

Abstract:
The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic originated in Wuhan, China, and it rapidly spread across the globe halting all activities and confining everyone indoors. Almost all matters were limited to computer screens and the internet, including education. All the schools, colleges and universities resorted to online learning and teaching. This transition from traditional to online learning has occurred in almost all the educational institutions in Pakistan. E-learning brought many opportunities like safety from contracting COVID-19, time conservation and comfort of home. Challenges such as poor internet connection, inadequate experience with online study platforms and lack of motivation for students and teachers also came forward. The study concluded that 88.5% of students and 60% of faculty members preferred physical classes because of lack of focus and internet connectivity issues. 40% of the faculty faced internet connectivity issues, and 28% faced lack of participation as the main challenge. 74% of faculty members were familiar with MS Teams, while 26% were not. 65% of students did not find their level of assessment to be the same as it was in physical classes. Secondly, the opportunity for faculty was that 60% of the teachers found online teaching helpful in their financial stability during COVID-19. For students, the ability to continue their education despite the pandemic was the biggest advantage.
Muhammad Abdullah Qazi, Susie Schofield, Catherine Kennedy
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i3.48

Abstract:
In Pakistan, the term ‘Doctor Brides’ is in constant parlance in media and refers to those females who leave the profession after graduation to take the roles of wives and mothers (1-4). Whilst they are commonly blamed for the shortage of physicians in the country, there is a lack of official data which explores the attrition of female doctors in the country. According to a 2019 news report, 85,000 female doctors have already left work in the country (5). It has also been estimated that 70% of all medical students in Pakistan are female, half of whom do not continue in the medical profession after graduation (6). In 2014, the Pakistan Medical & Dental Council (PMDC) attempted to restrict female admissions to 50%. This was, however, challenged in the Punjab High Court and this decision was put on hold (7, 8).
Uzair Ayub, Flavio Pisani, Zahoor Qayyum, Sidra Azeem Malik, Shahid Khan
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i2.37

Abstract:
A narrative review explains non-surgical periodontal treatment options. Treatment for periodontitis should restore the patient's healthy gums and healthy, pain-free teeth. Scaling and root surface debridement are two of the main components of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT), which aims to eradicate bacterial plaque on the root surface and set the stage for the root surface to heal without resorting to surgery. NSPT improves Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), and reduces inflammation and periodontal infections. The results of the NSPT are subject to change based on the severity of the patient's condition as well as any other health concerns. This narrative review aim is to reacquaint the reader with all possible options for dealing with periodontal Disease without resorting to invasive surgery. Every person with periodontal disease does not accept surgery. Patients prefer non-invasive treatments because it is less invasive and less risky. NSPT options include different effective options. Scaling with either manual or powered devices can successfully reduce subgingival bacteria to gain healthy tissue. Systemic antibiotics reduce probing depth by 0.2 to 0.8 mm and increase attachment level by 0.2 to 0.6 mm. When utilized properly, lasers can treat both hard and soft tissue walls. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improved severe periodontitis for almost a year. Single-event photodynamic therapy with scaling and root planning doesn't improve clinical attachment or reduce pocket depth, but it does reduce bleeding. Non-surgical periodontal therapy is the "gold standard" for enhancing patient-based results, lowering co-morbidities, and increasing safety and quality of care.
Khalil Ur Rehman, Shahid Ullah Khan, Umber Zaman, Sumbul Saeed, Masooma Rafique, Muneeb Ullah
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i2.21

Abstract:
Nanobiotechnology is a proficient technology that concers with nano scale materials in several scientific fields such as nanotechnology, chemistry, medicines and biotechnology. A swift and sustainable synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles by exhausting natural sources is the present-day trend being used instead of lethal biochemical methods. This study prsent the first report for the use of medicinal plant of Conocarpus erectus as an ecofriendly regent in the synthesis of CuO NPs using copper sulphate as a starting material. Conocarpus erectus leaf extract was used as a bioreductor as wll as a capping agent in the manufacturing of MgO NPs. The structure and morphology of prepared MgO NPs were characterized byXRD, UV, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM and EDX analysis. The UV-Vis measurment confimrd the formation of MgO NPs by giving SPR peak at 261 nm. The attendance of various functional groups in Conocarpus erectus leaf extract liable for the development and stabilization of MgO NPs were confirmed by FTIR analysis. XRD measurement confirmed the crystaline f.c.c structure of MgO NPs. HRTEM and SEM studies exhibited the small size, spherical shape and uniformly dispersed magnesium oxide nanoparticles. EDX profile further authorized the elemental composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. The biosynthesized MgO NPs were assessed for the embarrassment of bacteria. Furthermore, plant capped MgO NPs have high inhibition efficiency against S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zones of 17 mm and 16 mm respectively.
Hira Ejaz
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i1.15

Abstract:
Nurses experience stress and face adversities during their professional career, which is a leading cause of professional dropouts and nursing shortages around the globe. Resilience among nurses has an important role in overcoming adversities and facing professional challenges. Nurses learn to cope with adversities and develop resilience through professional experience. To explore the resilience-building process among high professional profile nurses working as clinical and educational experts in a semi-government institute. This study employed a descriptive qualitative design. It was conducted from January 2019 to July 2019 after the IRB approval. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews until the data saturation point was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was done to analyze the data. The process through which nurses develop resilience during their professional career took place in three main phases: challenges and stresses faced during their nursing career, coping process utilization, and capacity building. These phases are supported by motivation and professional commitment. The core theme was the resilience-building among nurses during their nursing careers. Pakistani nurses are managing those stresses that have been resolved in developed countries. There is less external motivation to work in nursing; rather, Pakistani nurses are motivating themselves through self-realization and self-motivation strategies. The important pillars of resilience-building are family support, toughening up, spirituality, self-motivation, and commitment. Resilience among novice nurses should be strengthened and developed through resilience-building interventions. Keywords: resilience-building, inquiry, high professional profile, nurses, exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study.
Tanveer Abbas
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i1.18

Abstract:
To review current information and technology for tooth remineralisation. Searches in the "Scopus" and "Web ofKnowledge" databases, which date back to 1970s. English was the only language allowed. The study incorporatedboth original research and previously published reviews. Tooth remineralisation agents, products, and treatmentshave progressively increased in recent years due to the growing awareness of the significance of good dentalhealth among patients and general community. Both in vitro and in vivo tooth remineralisation anddemineralization research have been published regularly. Theobromine has been proposed as an effectiveremineralising agent and a viable alternative to fluorides in recent years. According to research, fluoride treatmentscan prevent dental enamel demineralization and remineralisation. An increasing number of products containingcalcium salts or calcium-based compounds have been added to oral care products to boost the delivery andretentiveness of fluoride into teeth. Calcium salts or materials, which provide an additional source of calcium,may aid in accelerating enamel remineralisation or hinder demineralization processes. These effects are possiblebecause calcium is a mineral. A new area of research inspired by bioactive materials for bone repair andregeneration, bioglass, in particular calcium silicates, shows promise for improving enamel health and is one typeof bioglass that contains calcium silicate.
Iqbal Ahmad Khan, Hira Ejaz
Journal of Women Medical and Dental College, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.56600/jwmdc.v1i1.14

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