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(searched for: doi:10.1126/sciadv.abh1547)
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Jingen Zhu, Swati Jain, Jian Sha, Himanshu Batra, Neeti Ananthaswamy, Paul B. Kilgore, Emily K. Hendrix, Yashoda M. Hosakote, Xiaorong Wu, Juan P. Olano, et al.
Published: 29 April 2022
Abstract:
SUMMARY: The authorized mRNA- and adenovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are intramuscularly injected and effective in preventing COVID-19, but do not induce efficient mucosal immunity, or prevent viral transmission. We developed a bacteriophage T4-based, multicomponent, needle and adjuvant-free, mucosal vaccine by engineering spike trimers on capsid exterior and nucleocapsid protein in the interior. Intranasal administration of T4-COVID vaccine induced higher virus neutralization antibody titers against multiple variants, balanced Th1/Th2 antibody and cytokine responses, stronger CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity, and higher secretory IgA titers in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage with no effect on the gut microbiota, compared to vaccination of mice intramuscularly. The vaccine is stable at ambient temperature, induces apparent sterilizing immunity, and provides complete protection against original SARS-CoV-2 strain and its Delta variant with minimal lung histopathology. This mucosal vaccine is an excellent candidate for boosting immunity of immunized and/or as a second-generation vaccine for the unimmunized population.
Alyssa E. Witeof, Wynton D. McClary, Laura T. Rea, Qin Yang, Madison M. Davis, Hans H. Funke, Carlos E. Catalano,
Published: 23 January 2022
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 111, pp 1354-1362; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2022.01.013

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Jingen Zhu, Neeti Ananthaswamy, Swati Jain, Himanshu Batra, Wei-Chun Tang,
Published: 17 December 2021
Computational Biology pp 209-228; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1884-4_10

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Published: 23 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The explosion of SARS-CoV-2 infections in 2020 prompted a flurry of activity in vaccine development and exploration of various vaccine platforms, some well-established and some new. Phage-based vaccines were described previously, and we explored the possibility of using mycobacteriophages as a platform for displaying antigens of SARS-CoV-2 or other infectious agents. The potential advantages of using mycobacteriophages are that a large and diverse variety of them have been described and genomically characterized, engineering tools are available, and there is the capacity to display up to 700 antigen copies on a single particle approximately 100 nm in size. The phage body may itself be a good adjuvant, and the phages can be propagated easily, cheaply, and to high purity. Furthermore, the recent use of these phages therapeutically, including by intravenous administration, suggests an excellent safety profile, although efficacy can be restricted by neutralizing antibodies. We describe here the potent immunogenicity of mycobacteriophage Bxb1, and Bxb1 recombinants displaying SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein antigens.
Mengling Li, Pengju Guo, Cen Chen, Helong Feng, Wanpo Zhang, Changqin Gu, Guoyuan Wen, ,
Published: 12 October 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.745625

Abstract:
Developing influenza vaccines that protect against a broad range of viruses is a global health priority. Several conserved viral proteins or domains have been identified as promising targets for such vaccine development. However, none of the targets is sufficiently immunogenic to elicit complete protection, and vaccine platforms that can enhance immunogenicity and deliver multiple antigens are desperately needed. Here, we report proof-of-concept studies for the development of next-generation influenza vaccines using the bacteriophage T4 virus-like particle (VLP) platform. Using the extracellular domain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) as a readout, we demonstrate that up to ~1,281 M2e molecules can be assembled on a 120 x 86 nanometer phage capsid to generate M2e-T4 VLPs. These M2e-decorated nanoparticles, without any adjuvant, are highly immunogenic, stimulate robust humoral as well as cellular immune responses, and conferred complete protection against lethal influenza virus challenge. Potentially, additional conserved antigens could be incorporated into the M2e-T4 VLPs and mass-produced in E. coli in a short amount of time to deal with an emerging influenza pandemic.
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