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Sciprofile linkSukaina Alzyoud, Farah Massoud
Published: 11 August 2020
Journal of Health Research; doi:10.1108/jhr-09-2019-0209

Abstract:
PurposeTobacco is the most widely used substance in the world that has been linked to several psychological problems. Few studies have assessed the relationship between dual (waterpipe and cigarette) tobacco smoking. This study aims to examine the relationship between dual tobacco use and symptoms of depression amongst its users.Design/methodology/approachA cross-sectional study using a random sample of school students was conducted to assess youth tobacco smoking in the central region of Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including biographical information, smoking status and experience of depression symptoms was used with a sample of 9th to 12th-grade students. χ2 and regression test were used to analyze the data.FindingsThe final sample comprised 576 school students, of whom 60% were males. The age range was between 16 and 18 years (mean = 15.84 years, SD ± 0.97). 30% of the participants were dual tobacco smokers. A significant difference was found between males and females, with males being more likely to be dual tobacco smokers compared to females. Two depressive symptoms (“feeling sad” and “having crying spells”) had a significant likelihood amongst the youth who were dual smokers.Originality/valueTo the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that aims to report the relationship between dual tobacco smoking and depressive symptoms. Prevention programs are crucial for raising awareness of the harmful effects of dual tobacco smoking and smoking cessation amongst the youth
Kasia Stepniewska, Georgina S Humphreys, Bronner P Gonçalves, Elaine Craig, Roly Gosling, Philippe J Guerin, Ric N Price, Karen I Barnes, Jaishree Raman, Menno R Smit, et al.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases; doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa498

Abstract:
Background Since the World Health Organization recommended single low-dose (0.25mg/kg) primaquine (PQ) in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in areas of low transmission or artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum, several single-site studies have been conducted to assess its efficacy. Methods An individual patient meta-analysis to assess the gametocytocidal and transmission-blocking efficacy of PQ used in combination with different ACTs was conducted. Random effects logistic regression was used to quantify PQ effect on (i) gametocyte carriage in the first two weeks post-treatment; (ii) the probability of infecting at least one mosquito or of a mosquito becoming infected. Results In 2,574 participants from fourteen studies, PQ reduced PCR-determined gametocyte carriage on days 7 and 14, most apparently in patients presenting with gametocytaemia on day 0 (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.22; 95%CI 0.17-0.28 and OR=0.12; 95%CI 0.08–0.16, respectively). The rate of decline in gametocyte carriage was faster when PQ was combined with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) (p=0.010 for day 7). Addition of 0.25mg/kg PQ was associated with near complete prevention of transmission to mosquitoes. Conclusion Primaquine’s transmission-blocking effects are achieved with 0.25 mg/kg PQ. Gametocyte persistence and infectivity are lower when PQ is combined with AL compared to DP.
Sciprofile linkElizabeth Mansfield, Jane Sandercock, Penny Dowedoff, Sara Martel, Michelle Marcinow, Richard Shulman, Sheryl Parks, Mary-Lynn Peters, Judith Versloot, Jason Kerr, et al.
Published: 11 August 2020
Journal of Integrated Care; doi:10.1108/jica-12-2019-0051

Abstract:
PurposeIn Canada, integrated care pilot projects are often implemented as a local reform strategy to improve the quality of patient care and system efficiencies. In the qualitative study reported here, the authors explored the experiences of healthcare professionals when first implementing integrated care pilot projects, bringing together physical and mental health services, in a community hospital setting.Design/methodology/approachEngaging a qualitative descriptive study design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 healthcare professionals who discussed their experiences with implementing three integrated care pilot projects one year following project launch. The thematic analysis captured early implementation issues and was informed by an institutional logics framework.FindingsThree themes highlight disruptions to established logics reported by healthcare professionals during the early implementation phase: (1) integrated care practices increased workload and impacted clinical workflows; (2) integrating mental and physical health services altered patient and healthcare provider relationships; and (3) the introduction of integrated care practices disrupted healthcare team relations.Originality/valueStudy findings highlight the importance of considering existing logics in healthcare settings when planning integrated care initiatives. While integrated care pilot projects can contribute to organizational, team and individual practice changes, the priorities of healthcare stakeholders, relational work required and limited project resources can create significant implementation barriers.
Kobus C.J. Roux
South African Journal of Childhood Education, Volume 10; doi:10.4102/sajce.v10i1.813

Abstract:
The South African Journal of Childhood Education (SAJCE) is a peer-reviewed journal that provides a forum for the dissemination of research in childhood learning and development and the care and education of children from birth to 12 years. The journal is interdisciplinary in scope and seeks to stimulate the exchange of ideas in a variety of subjects, contexts, and issues in childhood education and child care.
N. E. Kostina, А. В. Спасельникова, A. A. Egorova, E. V. Kolosovskaya, D. V. Domrachev, A. V. Romanova, S. R. Tumanyan, S. Chamas, J. Kumlehn, I. M. Dubovskiy, et al.
Plant Biotechnology and Breeding, Volume 3, pp 24-30; doi:10.30901/2658-6266-2020-1-o5

Abstract:
Актуальность. Модификация растений с целью повышения их устойчивости к вредителям – перспективное направление в современной биотехнологии. Создание искусственных защитных систем на основе РНК-интерференции или индукция метаболических изменений в растениях могут существенно снизить привлекательность для вредителя и, как следствие, степень повреждения растений. Однако, разработка стратегий подобных модификаций затруднена отсутствием биотехнологических методов, разработанных для каждой культуры, и адекватных моделей для проведения таких исследований. Табак Nicotiana tabacum L. как растение семейства пасленовых потенциально может быть моделью для исследования возможных стратегий повышения устойчивости к вредителям для таких родственных культур как картофель, томат, сладкий перец и т.д. Препятствием к проведению подобных работ на табаке является высокая токсичность листьев, которая защищает табак от большинства вредителей. Недавно опубликованы исследования, доказывающие, что мутагенез генов семейства Berberine Bridge-Like (BBL) в табаке приводит к существенным изменениям в количественном и качественном составе алкалоидов в листьях. В настоящей работе данный подход был применен с целью получения растений табака, пригодных для потребления в пищу колорадским жуком (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), который является наиболее распространенным и опасным вредителем картофеля. Результаты. С целью модификации генома табака, были подобраны две направляющие РНК (нРНК), нацеленные на шесть генов семейства BBL. Каждая из них была встроена в вектор, содержащий ген нуклеазы Cas9 и каркас нРНК. Полученные конструкции вместе с плазмидой pBI121, содержащей ген устойчивости к канамицину nptII и репортерный ген бета-глюкуронидазы Escherichia coli Migula, были использованы для трансформации листовых эксплантов табака методом биобаллистики. Из трансформированных клеток путем селекции на канамицине были получены каллусы и далее трансгенные растения-регенеранты поколения Т0. Неожиданным результатом стало появление широкого плейотропного эффекта модификации в виде многочисленных серьезных аномалий развития среди полученных популяций регенерантов. Самые тяжелые аномалии проявлялись в виде быстрой гибели растений, относительно жизнеспособные растения отличались угнетением роста и укоренения, увеличением числа междоузлий, изменением формы листьев, ускоренным цветением, аномалиями развития цветка и стерильностью. Только одна из семи полученных популяций клонов обладала достаточной жизнеспособностью для выращивания в гидропонном комплексе и существенно не отличалась от исходного сорта по жизнеспособности in vitro. Из этой популяции была выделена линия табака NtaBBL5-14, поддерживаемая in vitro. Данная линия была протестирована на кормовую пригодность для колорадского жука. Показано, что личинки колорадского жука эффективно потребляют листья табака полученной линии, и практически не потребляют листья контрольных растений (процент потребления 97±0.5% для модифицированных и 9±3% для контрольных растений). Заключение. Методом модификации генома получена линия табака, пригодная для питания личинок колорадского жука. В дальнейшем эта линия может быть использована как модель для исследования взаимодействия колорадского жука и растений. Результаты работы демонстрируют возможность...
Veronica Lockertsen, Liv Nilsen, Lill Ann Wellhaven Holm, Øyvind Rø, Linn May Burger, Jan Ivar Røssberg
Journal of Eating Disorders, Volume 8, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s40337-020-00313-4

Abstract:
The transition between the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and the Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) is identified as an especially critical time for the continuity of care for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, research on this topic is scarce. In the present study, we explore the patients’ experiences of the transition between CAMHS and AMHS. A qualitative explorative study was carried out based on recorded interviews from one multi-step focus group and six individual interviews with patients who experienced the transition from CAMHS to AHMS in Norway. This study is service user-initiated, meaning service users were involved in all steps of the research process. The adolescents’ experiences are characterized by four overall themes regarding the transition process between CAMHS and AMHS: (1) “Being unprepared and alone in the transition process” describes how a lack of preparation for the transition between CAMHS and AMHS makes them feel alone and increases stress. (2) “It takes time to create a trusting relationship” describes how time influences patients’ trust in therapists and motivation for treatment. (3) “We are not all the same” describes how adolescents develop differently but are not treated differently despite their diverse ability to be self-sufficient. (4) “How they see me and treat me affects my hope for the future” describes the interaction between adolescents and therapists. Acknowledging the patients’ needs during the transition period and considering their readiness for the transition is important. Taking into account the four dimensions described in the present study might improve the transition process and enhance the patients’ self-sufficiency and maturity.
Published: 11 August 2020
by MDPI
Remote Sensing, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/rs12162574

Abstract:
The leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) is a critical index to characterize crop growth conditions, photosynthetic capacity, and physiological status. Its dynamic change characteristics are of great significance for monitoring crop growth conditions and understanding the process of material and energy exchange between crops and the environment. Extensive research has focused on LCC retrieval with hyperspectral data onboard various sensor platforms. Nevertheless, limited attention has been paid to LCC inversion from multispectral data, such as the data from Landsat-8, and the potentials and capabilities of the data for crop LCC estimation have not been fully explored. The present study made use of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery and the corresponding field experimental data to evaluate their capabilities and potentials for LCC modeling using four different retrieval methods: vegetation indices (VIs), machine learning regression algorithms (MLRAs), lookup-table (LUT)-based inversion, and hybrid regression approaches. The results showed that the modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI2) exhibited the best estimate accuracy for LCC retrieval with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 5.99 μg/cm2 and a relative RMSE (RRMSE) of 10.49%. Several other vegetation indices that were established from red and near-infrared (NIR) bands also exhibited good accuracy. Models established from Gaussian process regression (GPR) achieved the highest accuracy for LCC retrieval (RMSE = 5.50 μg/cm2, RRMSE = 9.62%) compared with other MLRAs. Moreover, red and NIR bands outweighed other bands in terms of GPR modelling. LUT-based inversion methods with the “K(x) = −log (x) + x” cost function that belongs to the “minimum contrast estimates” family showed the best estimation results (RMSE = 8.08 μg/cm2, RRMSE = 14.14%), and the addition of multiple solution regularization strategies effectively improved the inversion accuracy. For hybrid regression methods, the use of active learning (AL) techniques together with GPR for LCC modelling significantly increased the estimation accuracy, and the combination of entropy query by bagging (EQB) AL and GPR had the best accuracy for LCC estimation (RMSE = 12.43 μg/cm2, RRMSE = 21.77%). Overall, our study suggest that Landsat-8 OLI data are suitable for crop LCC retrieval and could provide a basis for LCC estimation with similar multispectral datasets.
Eldrede Kahiya, Djavlonbek Kadirov
Published: 11 August 2020
Abstract:
© The Author(s) 2020. We provide a literature review and a conceptual framework on informal cross border trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. Informal cross border trade (ICBT) refers to commercial exchanges conducted across borders by individuals operating as unregistered sole traders. ICBT is a burgeoning part of the informal markets in Sub-Saharan Africa and its existence and persistence carry substantial socio-economic implications. We use “summarizing” and “delineating” techniques to discuss seven themes of ICBT, and cast them as the manifestations of a substratum marketing system - a foundational structure instead of an auxiliary system. We underline implications for scholarship and for policymakers and non-governmental organizations charged with formulating initiatives to manage both ICBT and formal markets.
Zl Wisker, Djavlonbek Kadirov, C Bone
Published: 11 August 2020
Abstract:
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors that influence peer-to-peer online host advertising effectiveness (POHAE). The study posits that POHAE is a multidimensional construct supported by emotional appeal, information completeness, advertising creativity and social responsibility practices influencing purchase intention and positive word of mouth. Perceived value is hypothesised as the moderating variable for the relationship between POHAE and purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from New Zealand through a quasi-experimental survey. A total of 95 people participated in the experiment. The study uses one-way repeated measures design ANOVA to test Hypothesis 1 and MEMORE model to test the effects of mediation and moderation for repeated measures. Findings: Results are significant to the study model. ANOVA results show that the assumption of sphericity is not violated: Mauchly’s W, Greenhouse–Geisser, Huynh–Feldt estimates are equal to one, suggesting that the data are perfectly spherical. The mediation and moderation effects for repeated measure designs are also significant. The tests are based on 95 per cent Monte Carlo confidence interval and 20,000 bootstrapping samples. Research limitations/implications: This study enhances the hierarchy of effects theory (HOE) (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961), which posits that consumers respond to a specific marketing communication through three components: the cognitive component, which is measured by an individual’s intellectual, mental or rational states; the affective component that refers to an individual’s emotional and feeling states; and finally the conative or motivational state, that is, the striving state relating to the tendency to treat objects as positive or negative. This study observes significant paths from POHAE to purchase intention and word of mouth. Limitations include a small sample size (95) and not regressing the POHAE variables individually on purchase intention and word of mouth. Practical implications: Given the absence of a brand, as in the Airbnb host advertisement, attention should be given to writing the adverts effectively. Advertising creativity does not only hold for graphics and personal pictures but also for the hosts who need to be creative in crafting their advertisement text. Elements such as social responsibility practice and creativity should also not be overlooked. Social implications: This study provides insights on how to effectively communicate with potential customers in a peer-to-peer marketplace. Originality/value: This study provides an insight into peer-to-peer marketplaces on the importance of marketing communication strategies by providing more attention to writing advertisement texts. It is important to understand the variables that influence consumers’ motivation in responding to Airbnb online advertisements.
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