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Exploring the Relationship between Adiponectin and Blood Pressure in Nigerian Children

Chisom Adaobi Nri-Ezedi, Henry Chima Okpara, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Ezinne Ifeyinwa Nwaneli, Emeka Stephen Edokwe, Sylvia Tochukwu Echendu, Thomas Obiajulu Ulasi

Abstract: Background: Adiponectin possesses essential physiological functions that protect against the onset of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although several studies have discussed the association between adiponectin and Blood Pressure (BP) in adults and older adolescents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the relationship between adiponectin and BP among children in Africa. Significance: This novel discovery is expected to serve as a benchmark for future local studies in examining the role of adiponectin in cardiovascular disorders among Africans. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 86 healthy children aged 4 to 11 years with normal BMI. BP values were measured and percentiles derived from the 2017 revised clinical practice guidelines of the American Academy of Paediatrics. Fasting blood adiponectin values were determined with ELISA, and the level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: 86 children were comprised of 42 (48.8%) males and 44 (51.2%) females. The mean age of all subjects was 7.5 ± 2.3 years, while that of fasting adiponectin was 4.8 ± 2.1 ng/dl. There were no significant differences in the age, Body Mass Index, BP and adiponectin concentrations across gender. 69 (80.2%) participants had normal BP while 5 (5.8%) and 12 (14.0%) had elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension. Mean adiponectin values for normal BP, elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension were 5.1 ± 2.1 ng/ml, 3.3 ± 1.2 ng/ml and 4.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml respectively (p-value = 0.039). A significant negative correlation was observed between adiponectin and systolic BP independent of age, sex, and BMI. Although a negative correlation was noted between adiponectin and diastolic blood pressure, this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Adiponectin correlates negatively with systolic BP in young Nigerian children independent of age, Body Mass Index and gender. More studies are indicated to investigate this relationship in association with vital metabolic factors across different age groups in Africa.
Keywords: Adiponectin / Blood Pressure / Cardiovascular Diseases / Nigeria / Atherosclerosis / Hypertension

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