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The association between vitamin D levels and metabolic syndrome components among metropolitan adolescent population

Yi-Xiong Gao, , Qingqing Man, Yuqian Li, Shanshan Jia

Abstract: Objectives: Vitamin D promotes both lipolysis and lipogenesis, and some pediatric studies showed inconsistent associations between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between vitamin D levels and MetS components among metropolitan adolescents. Methods: A total of 4,149 adolescents aged 10–18 years were recruited from 23 metropolises in China. The MetS conditions were assessed according to the International Diabetes Federation consensus definition, and the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were analyzed. The association between MetS components and serum 25(OH)D levels was analyzed by the logistic regression model. Restricted cubic spline was applied to the model nonlinear association. Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 74.9%, and 41.2% of study participants had at least one MetS component. After adjustment, the significant trend for a lower waist-to-height ratio was not observed in study participants with higher serum 25(OH)D quartile (p=0.57), but a significant nonlinear association between abdominal obesity and serum 25(OH)D levels was found (p=0.04): the highest risk of abdominal obesity occurred at 14.1 ng/mL of serum 25(OH)D. The association of serum 25(OH)D was significantly inverse with MetS (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92–0.98), but not with raised triglycerides (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.96–1.01), raised blood pressure (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97–1.01) and impaired fasting glycemia (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.04). Conclusions: The net effect of vitamin D on lipid metabolism may be concentration-dependent, and the actual effect of vitamin D on MetS process may be complex among metropolitan adolescents, though serum 25(OH)D is inversely associated with MetS.
Keywords: abdominal obesity / adolescent / metabolic syndrome / waist-to-height ratio

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