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Effect of Ammonium on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Kaolin and Bentonite as Clay Liners

Adebola Adebayo Adekunle, Igba Uvieoghene Tobit, Ogunrinola Oluwaseyi Gbemiga
ANNUAL JOURNAL OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF VARNA, BULGARIA , Volume 4, pp 100-111; doi:10.29114/ajtuv.vol4.iss2.177

Abstract: : Landfill liners are underlying materials with low permeability whose main function is to mitigate the infiltration of toxic contents into ground water lying beneath. Landfill liners are primarily made of bentonite clay. Bentonite has a very low hydraulic conductivity, that might not be readily accessible, unlike kaolin which is found to have a lower hydraulic conductivity compared to that of bentonite and can be extensively obtained from numerous different sources. Explored, for the purposes of the present research paper, were various ratios of bentonite and kaolin and their hydraulic conductivity, in particular ratios of 90:10 kaolin to bentonite, 80:20 kaolin to bentonite, 70:30 kaolin to bentonite, 60:40 kaolin to bentonite and 50:50 kaolin to bentonite in an effort to achieve an acceptable barrier suitable as a liner / where tap water and ammonium solution were used as permeants. It was concluded that the ratios not lower than 20% bentonite (80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) all had their hydraulic conductivity value reduced compared to the 100% kaolin.
Keywords: clay / Function / ammonium / Landfill / hydraulic conductivity / liners / kaolin to bentonite

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