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Non-cancer-specific survival in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma: A multi-center cohort study

Kaiyi Chi, Ruoyun Zhou, Zehao Luo, Hongjun Zhao, Yanting Jiang, Baixin He, Yemin Li, Dongting Chen, Manting Feng, Yinglan Liang,
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Published: 8 February 2023

Abstract: Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the non-cancer-specific death risk and identify the risk factors affecting the non-cancer-specific survival (NCSS) in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).Methods: This multi-center cohort study included 2497 patients with PCNSL in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from 2007 to 2016, with a mean follow-up of 4.54 years. The non-cancer-specific death risk in patients with PCNSL and primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL) was evaluated using the proportion of deaths, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and absolute excess risk (AER). Univariate and multivariate competing risk regression models were utilized to identify the risk factors of NCSS.Results: PCNSL was the most frequent cause of death in PCNSL patients (75.03%). Non-cancer-specific causes constituted a non-negligible portion of death (20.61%). Compared with the general population, PCNSL patients had higher risks of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) (SMR, 2.55; AER, 77.29), Alzheimer’s disease (SMR, 2.71; AER, 8.79), respiratory disease (SMR, 2.12; AER, 15.63), and other non-cancer-specific diseases (SMR, 4.12; AER, 83.12). Male sex, Black race, earlier year of diagnosis (2007–2011), being unmarried, and a lack of chemotherapy were risk factors for NCSS in patients with PCNSL and PCNS-DLBCL (all P < 0.05).Conclusion: Non-cancer-specific causes were important competing causes of death in PCNSL patients. More attention is recommended to non-cancer-specific causes of death in the management of PCNSL patients.
Keywords: primary central nervous system lymphoma / Primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma / Non-cancer-specific survival / Risk factors / SEER

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