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Doppler Ultrasound Abnormalities of the Lower Limbs in Patients with Diabetic Foot at the Yopougon University Hospital in Ivory Coast

Kossi Kodjo, Mamadou Mansour Diallo, Alpha Mamadou Diallo, Koffi Pierre Dago, Adelaide Hue, Assita Yao, Abodo Jacko, Adrien Lokrou

Abstract: Background: Diabetic foot is a frequent complication of diabetes, of multifactorial origin, associating nervous and/or circulatory disorders to which infection is often added. Its care is multidisciplinary and requires coordination between different actors. In this context, arterial doppler ultrasound is essential in the diagnosis of diabetic arteriopathy and participates in therapeutic decision-making. The aim of this study was to describe the abnormalities found on Doppler ultrasonography of patients hospitalized for the diabetic foot in the Ivory Coast. Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study including 235 patients hospitalized for the diabetic foot in the Endocrinology department of the Yopougon University Hospital from February 2002 to December 2015. All records of patients who performed arterial Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs were selected and the various abnormalities were described. Results: The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.1 (124 men to 111 women). The predominant age group was 61.2 years. Type 2 diabetes was found in 97.4% of cases. The average evolution of diabetes was 8.9 years with extremes of 1 and 32 years. Wet gangrene was the most common type of lesion found in 75.8% of cases. On ultrasonography, 98.7% of the patients had an arterial abnormality of the lower limbs. It was bilateral in 62.2% of cases, dominated by atheromatous overloads and mediacalcosis in 46.4% and 43.8% of cases, respectively. Arterial stenosis was lesions hemodynamically found in 76.3% of cases and arterial occlusions in 32.7% of cases. The amputation rate was 72.7%. Conclusion: This study shows the high frequency of arterial abnormalities in patients with the diabetic foot with a predominantly distal involvement. Arterial Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs remains an essential tool in the care of diabetic foot. This easily accessible, non-invasive examination has a key role in therapeutic decision-making.
Keywords: Diabetes / Arterial Doppler Ultrasound / Arteriopathy / Ivory Coast

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