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Evaluation of Saccharin and Resveratrol as Extrinsic Markers of Small-quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement Consumption in Healthy Women

, Valerie Weinborn, Charles D Arnold, Arlie L Lehmkuhler, Fanny B Morel, Mamane Zeilani, Alyson E Mitchell, Marjorie J Haskell

Abstract: Dietary supplements, like small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS), are used in intervention programs to prevent undernutrition among women and young children in low-income countries. An objective marker is needed to track consumption of supplements to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate saccharin and resveratrol as potential adherence markers for tracking recent consumption of a single serving of SQ-LNS in women. Forty-seven healthy non-pregnant women 18–45 y of age were assigned to consume a single dose of SQ-LNS (20 g) containing either 10 mg sodium saccharin or 5 mg trans-resveratrol, under supervision. On the day before and for two days following SQ-LNS consumption, urine samples were collected each day for 24-h as three, consecutive 4-h collections, and one, 12-h overnight collection. Urinary concentrations of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, a resveratrol metabolite, were measured by UHPLC-(ESI-)MS/MS. Urinary concentrations (μmol/L urine) of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate were plotted against time, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the discriminative capacity of each compound, at each post-consumption timepoint compared to baseline, to detect recent consumption of SQ-LNS. Cut-off values to differentiate supplement consumption from non-consumption of each marker were developed using the closest-to-(0,1) corner cut-point approach. Forty-five participants were included in the analysis. Urinary concentrations of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate increased within four hours of SQ-LNS consumption. Urinary concentration cut-off values for saccharin (13.4 µmol/L) and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate (0.7 µmol/L) allowed for 78% and 89% sensitivity, respectively, and 100% specificity in detecting consumption of SQ-LNS within the first 12 h after consumption. Urinary concentrations of saccharin and trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate reflect consumption of SQ-LNS containing those compounds during the first 12 h post-consumption with high sensitivity and specificity in healthy women and may be useful objective adherence markers for tracking consumption of SQ-LNS.
Keywords: adherence marker / resveratrol / saccharin / small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement / trans-resveratrol

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