Maternal Liver Metabolic Response to Chronic Vitamin D Deficiency Is Determined by Mouse Strain Genetic Background
Current Developments in Nutrition , Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa106
Abstract: Background Liver metabolite concentrations have the potential to be key biomarkers of systemic metabolic dysfunction and overall health. However, for most conditions we do not know the extent to which genetic differences regulate susceptibility to metabolic responses. This limits our ability to detect and diagnose effects in heterogeneous populations. Objectives Here, we investigated the extent to which naturally occurring genetic differences regulate maternal liver metabolic response to vitamin D deficiency (VDD), particularly during perinatal periods when such changes can adversely affect maternal and fetal health. Methods We used a panel of 8 inbred Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse strains, each with a different genetic background (72 dams, 3–6/treatment group, per strain). We identified robust maternal liver metabolic responses to vitamin D depletion before and during gestation and lactation using a vitamin-D-deficient (VDD; 0 IU vitamin D3/kg) or -sufficient diet (1000 IU vitamin D3/kg). We then identified VDD-induced metabolite changes influenced by strain genetic background. Results We detected a significant VDD effect by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (Q2 = 0.266, pQ2 = 0.002): primarily, altered concentrations of 78 metabolites involved in lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism (variable importance to projection score ≥1.5). Metabolites in unsaturated fatty acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched [False Discovery Rate (FDR) <0.05]. VDD also significantly altered concentrations of putative markers of uremic toxemia, acylglycerols, and dipeptides. The extent of the metabolic response to VDD was strongly dependent on genetic strain, ranging from robustly responsive to nonresponsive. Two strains (CC017/Unc and CC032/GeniUnc) were particularly sensitive to VDD; however, each strain altered different pathways. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate that maternal VDD induces different liver metabolic effects in different genetic backgrounds. Strains with differing susceptibility and metabolic response to VDD represent unique tools to identify causal susceptibility factors and further elucidate the role of VDD-induced metabolic changes in maternal and/or fetal health for ultimately translating findings to human populations.
Keywords: metabolomics / Vitamin D / mouse / lipid metabolism / amino acid metabolism / Collaborative cross / Gene-diet Interaction / uremic toxemia
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