Polyphenolic-Protein-Polysaccharide Complexes from Hovenia dulcis: Insights into Extraction Methods on Their Physicochemical Properties and In Vitro Bioactivities
Foods , Volume 9; doi:10.3390/foods9040456
Abstract: Seven extraction methods, including hot water extraction (HWE), pressurized water extraction (PWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction, high-speed shearing homogenization extraction, and ultrasound-microwave-assisted extraction, were utilized to extract polyphenolic-protein-polysaccharide complexes (PPPs) from Hovenia dulcis. Next, their physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities, antiglycation effects, and inhibition activities on α-glucosidase and α-amylase were studied and compared. The findings from this study indicate that various extraction processes exhibit notable influences on the physicochemical properties and in vitro bioactivities of PPPs. Extraction yields, contents of polyphenolics and flavonoids, apparent viscosities, molecular weights, molar ratios of monosaccharide compositions, and ratios of amino acid compositions in PPPs varied in different extraction methods. Furthermore, 13 phenolic compounds in PPPs, including rutin, myricitrin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, protocatechuic acid, gallocatechin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ampelopsin, quercetin-7,4′-diglucoside, dihydroquercetin, 5-methylmyricetin, and naringenin, were identified. The relatively strong in vitro antioxidant activities, antiglycation effects, and inhibition activities on α-glucosidase and α-amylase were determined in both PPP-W and PPP-P obtained by HWE and PWE, respectively. The high content of total polyphenolics may be one of the main contributors to their in vitro bioactivities. The findings have shown that the PWE method can be an appropriate method to prepare PPPs with strong bioactivities for application in the functional food industry.
Keywords: extraction method / physicochemical properties / Hovenia Dulcis / in Vitro Bioactivity / Polyphenolic-protein-polysaccharide
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