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A review on unprecedented influence of COVID-19 on stock market: what communities should know?

Jonika Lamba, Esha Jain

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to show the pragmatic studies that examine whether novel COVID-19 affects the national and international stock markets and reinforces the existing literature by highlighting the factors that are resultant from COVID 19. Design/methodology/approach: The systematic literature review and bibliometric approach have been used in the study covering 585 selected articles published in journals of high repute from January 2020 to January 2022. The process of bibliometric analysis has been divided into three stages, namely, assembling, arranging and assessing. From the Scopus database, one of the most reliable and authentic database total of 585 records were collected, out of which 12 were specifically focused on communities, and information gathered in the comma-separated value documents design was compared and interpreted based on year, document types, subject area, country and research fields with the help of graphs and pie charts. The study has analyzed fact-based and reliable studies to draw inferences from existing literature regarding the pandemic impacting the financial markets. In the extant study, an attempt has been made to explore the factors that are resultant from the COVID-19 pandemic and affects the stock market performance, which can be further classified into a few common factors by using factor analysis. Findings: It originated from the majority of the studies that the stock market retorted destructively to the upsurge in the figure of COVID-19 cases and fatalities. It also emphasized that the market has reacted differently in comparison to earlier catastrophes such as the great depression of 2008 and the Spanish flu. Various factors such as fear of losing capital, standstill economy, lower valuation, increased mortality rate, halt in business operations, retrenchment, trade war, liquidity issues, panic buying and selling, digitalization, negative media coverage, government interference, financial behavior of investors, hoarding of COVID supplies, promotion of start-up in health-care and education sector, news bulletins, prevention campaigns, use of medical devices and COVID-19 vaccination, etc. have been conferred from the studies that have an immediate consequence on the actions of investors in the stock market. It was further highlighted in the study that the Indian stock market has been less explored in respect of implications of COVID-19 contagion as the majority of studies were based on either international stock exchanges or combinations of varied nation’s stock markets. It was witnessed in the interpretation section that the number of studies is increasing at a fast pace as new variants of COVID-19 are emerging over time. Significant contribution has been done in enhancing the literature on COVID-19 and the stock market by China and the USA. The maximum contribution in this domain has been done in the form of articles in the present literature. Few studies were focusing on communities, so the present study will try to fill this research gap to some extent. Research limitations/implications: This conceptual paper is demarcated by unsatisfactory analyses of writings from multi-discipline to get a comprehensive scope of notional understanding. Furthermore, there is a perchance that some other imperative phenomena or variables that prejudiced trading bustle have not been captured by present reviews of research papers. The influences of other macroeconomic variables should be explored to understand the concrete results of this pandemic. Practical implications: Most of the studies were based on foreign stock exchanges, so there is an opportunity to explore the Indian stock market concerning the implications of the coronavirus pandemic. In the literature, it was examined that short-term studies have been undertaken, which cannot determine the long-term implications of COVID-19. Over time, besides COVID-19, various other factors have started impacting the stock market, so it has become difficult to examine the influence of COVID-19 on the stock market in isolation. Social implications: The study will be helpful for future learnings in the arena of the stock market as it provides vast exposure to the present literature related to the impact of COVID-19 on economic markets. On the other hand, investors will also become aware of factors that are resultant of COVID-19 and will take the right decisions to save their investments in light of pandemic implications. The extensive review of studies will also help enterprising communities to take judicial steps to remain active in the period of economic slowdown. Originality/value: The paper provides significant implications to the investors in the stock market, and it will provide useful insight to improve their returns on their portfolios. The learning from the study will help investors to take fruitful decisions considering the uncertainty during the pandemic period. The inferences drawn from rich existing literature will be guiding enterprises to take timely actions to avoid the situation of loss in the market and adapt new models to ensure continuity of business operations. Different markets had reacted differently, so investors need to be cautious before taking trading decisions.
Keywords: COVID-19 / Stock market / Monetary / Fiscal / Policies / Stock exchange / Enterprise enterprising

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