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Analisis Profil HPLC-PDA Berkombinasi dengan LC-ESI-MS dan Aktivitas Biologi dari Ekstrak Jamur Endofit, Penicillium simplicissimum, yang Diisolasi dari Rimpang Jahe Merah

Rini Muharini, Ersando Ersando, Yeni Triana, Maharani Nukila, Rahmad Ulwan, Masriani Masriani, Peter Proksch
Published: 4 September 2022

Abstract: Rimpang jahe merah digunakan sebagai tumbuhan obat tradisional dan diketahui mengandung senyawa-senyawa berkhasiat. Dekade ini eksplorasi mikroorganisme yang bersimbiosis dengan tumbuhan obat mendapat perhatian besar guna mencari alternatif sumber senyawa berkhasiat obat. Penelitian ini bertujuan memperoleh informasi profil kimia ekstrak Penicillium simplicissimum, jamur endofit yang diisolasi dari rhizoma jahe merah, menentukan daya hambatnya terhadap bakteri Staphyloccocus aureus dan Escherichia coli, dan mengevaluasi aktivitas sitotoksiknya terhadap sel limfoma tikus L-5178Y, sel kanker payudara (T47D dan 4T1) dan sel kanker usus (WiDr). Skrining fitokimia melalui teknik KLT dan pereaksi spesifik memperlihatkan adanya golongan senyawa alkaloid, triterpenoid, dan sterol pada ekstrak. Analisa data high-performance liquid chromatography dengan detektor photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) yang dikombinasikan dengan data LC-ESI-MS serta perbandingan data literatur memberikan dugaan bahwa salah satu komponen senyawa utama adalah citreonigrin F, yang diisolasi sebelumnya dari P. citreonigrin. Evaluasi aktivitas antibakteri menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak P. simplicissimum tidak memiliki daya hambat terhadap pertumbuhan kedua bakteri uji. Akan tetapi, ekstrak P. simplicissimum memberikan penghambatan yang lemah terhadap sel limfoma tikus L-5178Y pada konsentrasi 10 μg/mL dan aktivitas sitotoksik yang moderat terhadap sel kanker payudara dan sel kanker usus dengan IC50 >100 μg/mL. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa jamur endofit P. simplicissimum yang diisolasi dari jahe merah ini memiliki potensi untuk dieksplorasi lebih lanjut guna memperoleh senyawa berkhasiat obat. Profiling Analysis of HPLC-PDA Combined with LC-ESI-MS and Biological Activity of an Endophytic Fungi P. Simplicissimum Extract Isolated from Red Ginger Rhizome. Red ginger rhizome has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, and its active principal constituents have been known. In the recent decade, the exploration of endophytes in medicinal plants received huge interest in finding new bioactive compound sources.This research aims to obtain the chemical profile of an endophytic fungi P. simplicissimum extract isolated from Red ginger rhizome. This study also further evaluates its antibacterial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli and its cytotoxicity against L-5178, 4T1, T47D, and WiDr cell lines. The phytochemical screening of the extract using the TLC technique and specific reagents shows the existence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, and sterol. The further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and LC-MS/MS data, as well as literature comparison, indicated that one of the major compounds was citreonigrin F, which isolated previously from P. citreonigrin. The evaluation of antibacterial activity showed that P. simplicissimum extract did not inhibit the growth of both bacteria tested. However, P. simplicissimum extract showed a weak inhibition against L-5178Y rat lymphoma cells at a concentration of 10 μg/mL and a moderate cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells and colon cancer cells with IC50 >100 μg/mL. Nevertheless, this study showed that P. simplicissimum isolated from red ginger could be further explored for its bioactive compounds.
Keywords: 5178Y / HPLC PDA / dan aktivitas / liquid chromatography / photodiode array / bioactive compounds

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