Conformal invariance and quantum nonlocality in critical hybrid circuits
Abstract: We establish the emergence of a conformal field theory (CFT) in a (1+1)-dimensional hybrid quantum circuit right at the measurement-driven entanglement transition by revealing space-time conformal covariance of entanglement entropies and mutual information for various subregions at different circuit depths. While the evolution takes place in real time, the spacetime manifold of the circuit appears to host a Euclidean field theory with imaginary time. Throughout the paper we investigate Clifford circuits with several different boundary conditions by injecting physical qubits at the spatial and/or temporal boundaries, all giving consistent characterizations of the underlying “Clifford CFT.” We emphasize (super)universal results that are consequences solely of the conformal invariance and do not depend crucially on the precise nature of the CFT. Among these are the infinite entangling speed as a consequence of measurement-induced quantum nonlocality and the critical purification dynamics of a mixed initial state.
Keywords: circuit / evolution / entanglement / CFT / Conformal invariance / Clifford / boundary / quantum
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