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Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Daud H. Akhtar, Sciprofile linkUmair Iqbal, Luis Miguel Vazquez-Montesino, Brittany B. Dennis, Aijaz Ahmed
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology , Volume 7, pp 1-9; doi:10.14218/jcth.2019.00028

Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the developed world, with a global prevalence of around 25%. NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in the development of NAFLD-related dyslipidemia, which ultimately increases the risk of premature cardiovascular diseases, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with NAFLD. Insulin affects hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by hepatic or extrahepatic pathways. Aside from insulin resistance, several other factors also contribute to the pathogenesis of atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with NAFLD. These include diet composition, gut microbiota and genetic factors, to name a few. The identification of potentially modifiable risk factors of NAFLD is of importance, so as to target those who may benefit from lifestyle changes and to help develop targeted therapies that decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with NAFLD.
Keywords: insulin resistance / cardiovascular diseases / Dyslipidemia / Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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