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Genetics of Immune Dysregulation and Cancer Predisposition: Two Sides of the Same Coin

Sigal Matza Porges,

Abstract: Approximately 10% of cancers have a hereditary predisposition. However, no genetic diagnosis is available in 60%-80% of familial cancers. In some of these families, immune dysregulation-mediated disease is frequent. The immune system plays a critical role in identifying and eliminating tumors; thus, dysregulation of the immune system can increase the risk of developing cancer. This review focuses on some of the genes involved in immune dysregulation the promote the risk for cancer. Genetic counseling for patients with cancer curently focuses on known genes that raise the risk of cancer. In missing hereditary familial cases, the history family of immune dysregulation should be recorded, and genes related to the immune system should be analyzed in relevant families. On the other hand, patients with immune disorders diagnosed with a pathogenic mutation in an immune regulatory gene may have an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, those patients need to be under surveillance for cancer. Gene panel and exome sequencing are currently standard methods for genetic diagnosis, providing an excellent opportunity to jointly test cancer and immune genes.
Keywords: immune dysregulation / immune surveillance / pathogenic mutation / germline/somatic mutation / penetrance

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