Interfacial Defect of Lithium Metal in Solid‐State Batteries
Abstract: All-solid-state battery with Li metal anode is a promising rechargeable battery technology with high energy density and improved safety. Currently, the application of Li metal anode is plagued by the failure at the interfaces between lithium metal and solid electrolyte (SE). However, little is known about the defects at Li–SE interfaces and their effects on Li cycling, impeding further improvement of Li metal anodes. Here, by performing large-scale atomistic modeling of Li metal interfaces with common SEs, we discover that lithium metal forms an interfacial defect layer of nanometer-thin disordered lithium at the Li–SE interfaces. This interfacial defect Li layer is highly detrimental, leading to interfacial failure such as pore formation and contact loss during Li stripping. By systematically studying and comparing incoherent, coherent, and semi-coherent Li–SE interfaces, we find that the interface with good lattice coherence has reduced Li defects at the interface and has suppressed interfacial failure during Li cycling. Our finding discovers the critical roles of atomistic lithium defects at interfaces for the interfacial failure of Li metal anode, and motivates future atomistic-level interfacial engineering for Li metal anode in solid-state batteries.
Keywords: Li metal anode / solid-state battery / large-scale molecular dynamics / interfaces / defects
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