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Risk Factors and Complications in 947 Tuberculosis Patients Hospitalized in the Pulmonology Department of Fann Chnu from 2017 to 2019

Maïmouna Fafa Cisse, Emmanuella Mahugnon Tognimassou, Samba Niang, Fatimata Binetou Rassoule Mbaye, Khady Thiam, Yacine Dia Kane, Nafissatou Oumar Toure

Abstract: Introduction: Despite current progress, tuberculosis remains a major public health problem, given its still high incidence, prevalence, and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries, including Senegal. This risk is higher for immunocompromised people. Complications and comorbidities can also affect the course of the disease, affecting the prognosis. It is in this context that this study was undertaken with the objective of determining the risk factors and complications in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective and descriptive study carried out in 2021, from records of patients hospitalized for tuberculosis from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019, at the Pulmonology Department of Fann. Inclusion criteria were all patients on TB treatment after diagnosis of tuberculosis has been confirmed bacteriologically or clinically according to the World Health Organization’s TB case definition. Multidrug-resistant TB was excluded. Results: Out of 4516 hospitalized patients, 20.96% of patients were tuberculosis patients. The sex ratio was 2.18. 4/5 of the patients were between 18 and 39 years old. The main contributing factors of TB found were undernutrition (93.13%), active smoking (36.75%) and diabetes (35.97%). The time between hospitalization and onset of symptoms was greater than 2 months in 60.53% of cases. A complication was noted in 89.10% of patients, particularly bacterial/viral bronchopulmonary co-infection (31.15%). The trend was favorable in 88.49% of cases. It resulted in death in 10.98% of cases. Conclusion: Most integrated-care nutritional support programs focus on HIV. Undernutrition appears to play a much more important role than HIV in the extent of TB in poor countries. It creates a vicious circle with tuberculosis, one of the components of which is immunosuppression and the increased frequency of complications such as bacterial/viral community/nosocomial co-infection, the actual incidence of which is poorly known and deserves special attention given the importance of added morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Undernutrition / Tuberculosis / Bacterial Co-Infection

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