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Translational genomics for achieving higher genetic gains in groundnut

, , Rakesh Kumar, Chogozie Victor Nwosu, Baozhu Guo, Graeme C. Wright, Ramesh S. Bhat, Xiaoping Chen, Sandip K. Bera, Mei Yuan, Huifang Jiang, Issa Faye, Thankappan Radhakrishnan, Xingjun Wang, Xuanquiang Liang, Boshou Liao, Xinyou Zhang, ,
Theoretical and Applied Genetics , Volume 133, pp 1679-1702; doi:10.1007/s00122-020-03592-2

Abstract: Groundnut has entered now in post-genome era enriched with optimum genomic and genetic resources to facilitate faster trait dissection, gene discovery and accelerated genetic improvement for developing climate-smart varieties. Cultivated groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an allopolyploid oilseed crop with a large and complex genome, is one of the most nutritious food. This crop is grown in more than 100 countries, and the low productivity has remained the biggest challenge in the semiarid tropics. Recently, the groundnut research community has witnessed fast progress and achieved several key milestones in genomics research including genome sequence assemblies of wild diploid progenitors, wild tetraploid and both the subspecies of cultivated tetraploids, resequencing of diverse germplasm lines, genome-wide transcriptome atlas and cost-effective high and low-density genotyping assays. These genomic resources have enabled high-resolution trait mapping by using germplasm diversity panels and multi-parent genetic populations leading to precise gene discovery and diagnostic marker development. Furthermore, development and deployment of diagnostic markers have facilitated screening early generation populations as well as marker-assisted backcrossing breeding leading to development and commercialization of some molecular breeding products in groundnut. Several new genomics applications/technologies such as genomic selection, speed breeding, mid-density genotyping assay and genome editing are in pipeline. The integration of these new technologies hold great promise for developing climate-smart, high yielding and more nutritious groundnut varieties in the post-genome era.
Keywords: diversity / BREEDING / era / trait / Gene Discovery / groundnut / genotyping assays / density genotyping assay

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