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Sleep quality and mental health in coronavirus disease 2019 patients and general population during the pandemic

Siraj Wali, Ranya Alshumrani, Sultan Qanash, Ahmad Aldobyany, Faris Alhejaili, Ibrahim AlQassas, Mohammed Shabrawishi, Omar Alnashiwaty, Mohannad Badghaish, Mohammad Adnan,
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Published: 1 January 2022
 by  Medknow

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic commonly affected general populations. Data on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep quality in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate sleep quality and assess the psychological burden of the pandemic in COVID-19 patients and the general population. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional survey. Participants with COVID-19 were recruited from different health-care centers in the western region during the lockdown period from May 13, 2020 to September 2, 2020. All participants completed a validated online survey. The control group comprised individuals from the general public who responded to the online survey through social media. Demographic data, COVID-19 status, and history of chronic diseases were collected. Sleep quality, depression, and insomnia were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results: In total, 1091 participants were surveyed and 643 (58.9%) were positive for COVID-19. Poor sleep quality was reported in 66.1% of COVID-19 patients (mean score ± standard deviation [SD] 6.9 ± 4.0) and 72.8% of controls (mean score ± SD 7.6 ± 4.3). Insomnia affected 50.5% of COVID-19 patients (mean score ± SD 6.5 ± 5.5) and 58.5% of controls (mean score ± SD 7.6 ± 5.5). Depression was diagnosed in 39.5% of COVID-19 patients (mean score ± SD 4.7 ± 4.6) and 70.1% of controls (mean score ± SD 8.9 ± 6.7). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a great impact on mental health and sleep quality in both COVID-19 patients and the general population but more pronounced in the general population.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019 / depression / insomnia / sleep quality

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