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Diagnostic accuracy of Leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein (LRG) as a urinary biomarker in pediatric appendicitis: a prospective observational pilot study from Eastern India

, Debapriya Bandyopadhyay, Bikasha Bihary Tripathy, Akash Bihari Pati, Manoj Kumar Mohanty
Published: 15 June 2021

Abstract: Background Recently, several serum and urinary biomarkers have been investigated for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Urinary biomarkers seem to be advantageous in children as it is non-invasive, painless, and easy to perform. Leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG) is regarded as a reliable urinary biomarker for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. A prospective observational pilot study was conducted in children presenting with abdominal pain. Assessment of pediatric appendicitis score (PAS), routine blood tests, and measurements of urinary LRG was done. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urine LRG in appendicitis in Indian children and to assess the concentration of urine LRG at which it will guide the management. Results LRG had a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.586 (95% CI 0.407–0.766). There was no specific cut-off identified using Youden’s index. ROC analysis of the PAS score resulted in an AUC of 0.821 (95% CI 0.691–0.952). Using Youden’s index, the cut-off for PAS scoring was identified as 6.5 with the sensitivity of 80%, the specificity of 76.2%, positive predictive value 76.19%, negative predictive value as 80%, and diagnostic accuracy of 78%. Conclusions LRG could not show better diagnostic performance compared to routine blood tests and PAS scores. There was no specific cut-off value at which it will differentiate mesenteric adenitis and acute appendicitis and guide their management. With 78% diagnostic accuracy, PAS score (> 6) is still a better tool for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Trial registration Clinical Trials Registry Government of India, CTRI/2018/01/011182, Registered on: 08 Jan 2018.
Keywords: Appendicitis / Mesenteric lymphadenitis / Biomarkers / LRG / PAS

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