International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology

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EISSN: 27663264
Total articles ≅ 10

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Silvestre Maria Do Perpétuo Socorro Amador, de Lima Maxwell Furtado, Costa Lima E Luana Nepomuceno Gondim
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 5, pp 001-004;

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for leprosy control from 2021 to 2030 focuses on interrupting transmission, reducing autochthonous cases to zero, and using a safe and effective vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. In 2020, 127,396 new cases were registered in the world, 19,195 new cases in the Americas, and, of these, 17,979 cases in Brazil, about 93.66% of the total in the Americas. Brazil is classified as a country with a high burden of the disease, occupying the 2nd place in the world, behind only India (WHO, 2020). Análise do período de 2010-2015 em publicação recente9, apresenta as seguintes cidades no estado do Pará nas quais se observou maiores taxas de incidência (detecção): Marituba, Belém, Marabá, Parauapebas e Altamira [9]. Material and method: This is an analytical retrospective study carried out in a database - Epi-Info resulting from records of Surveillance and Seroprevalence actions in five endemic municipalities for leprosy located in the Southeast and West of Pará. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, Clinical Classification, vaccination status with BCG, and the result of the search for IgM antibodies against PGL-1 of Mycobacterium leprae by the “In house” ELISA technique. Results: We evaluated 1551 records examined in the laboratory from 2014 to 2016, which were classified into 123 Multibacillary -MB patients (123/1551 = 7.93%); 71 Paucibacillary-PB patients (71/1551 = 4.57%); 451 Intradomicilliary Consanguineous Contacts - CCOSI (451/1551 = 29.07%) and 906 Non Consanguineous Contacts - CNCOS (906/1551 = 58.41%). 57 MB patients (13.47%), 13 PB patients (3.07%), 133 CCOSI (31.44%) and 220 CNCOS (52.00%) were positive for PGL-1. The correlation of the Classification with the vaccination status showed 57 MB patients without any BCG (57/125 = 45.6%) and only 3 patients with two doses of BCG (3/125 = 2.4%); 17 PB patients without any dose of BCG (17/69 = 24.63%); 80 CCOSI without any BCG (80/455 = 17.58%) and 171 CNCOS (171/906 = 18.87%). The odds ratio (OR) in the analysis between unvaccinated MB patients compared to CCOSI was statistically significant (OR = 14.25; p ˂ 0.0001). The study shows the importance of using the BCG vaccine in healthy contacts of patients with leprosy, as it shows the probability of unvaccinated individuals being 14.25 times more likely to become ill with Multibacillary forms compared to CCOSI. In addition, the BCG vaccine has been in use for 80 years and is the only vaccine that we can use in leprosy control programs. Conclusion: Although the leprosy epidemiological data analyzed recently (2010 - 2015) show a downward trend in the main indicators in Pará, such as the detection of new cases and prevalence, the endemic municipalities are still classified as hyperendemic for the population under 15 years of age and This proves that Surveillance is essential, as well as BCG vaccination according to the Ministry of Health Standards.
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 4, pp 032-036;

It is difficult to predict how the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, would react to an attempt to link his theory and the method of treating mental disorders based on it [1], with such a purely physical disease as acute pneumonia (AP).
M Luisetto, Yesvi Ar, Edbey Khaled, Khan Farhan Ahmad, Ar Yesvi, Ba Nili, C Fiazza, Gr Mashori, Oy Latyshev
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 4, pp 016-027;

Aim of this work is to analyze the coronavirus viral surface properties related the pattern of electrical features. This chemical physical property is relevant and crucial to set profile of diffusion, severity of disease, efficacy of therapeutic strategy and in order to search new way to fight COVID-19 and the NEW VARIANT. The phenomena of immune evasion and the different pattern of efficacy towards variants of some vaccine or some antibodies combination produce the need to verify if considering the electrical feature of viral surface can be a right tool or not. As result of this research it is possible to submit to the scientist that the viral surface properties and electrical feature can be an element to be considered in various preventive or treatment measure. The specificity of action of some vaccine or antibodies seem to tell us that also the aspecific methods are useful. A specific chemico physical factors can influence the electrical charges viral surface behavior. Hpertonic saline solution, humidity, electrical charge barrier in mask are simply example of the effect. That can be obtained action on viral surface chemico -physical properties.
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 4, pp 010-015;

This article presents an overview of information regarding Acanthamoeba keratitis per epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, clinical manifestations, risk factors, environmental implications, diagnosis, treatment and management as well as COVID-19 characteristics which may be taken into cognizance for suspected infected patients, researchers and ophthalmologic practitioners. Acanthamoeba spp. is pathogenetically ubiquitous in nature. Acanthamoeba keratitis is considerably an ocular-threatening and debilitating keratitis that exhibits contumacious characteristics which hinder or impede treatment or management. At inception, Acanthamoeba generally depicts atypical clinical features which are frequently misdiagnosed as other microbial keratitis. Fundamentally, it constitutes a rare corneal infection of which the aetiologic agent is the protozoon Acanthamoeba spp. in contact lens wearers, presenting features of severe ophthalmic distress, blurred vision, blepharospasm, ocular excoriation, extraneous entity sensation and photophobia culminating in aberrant visual functionality. These are perspicuously due to retarded prompt and adequate treatment and management. Personal and environmental hygiene, especially on the hands, face and ocular areas as advised for the COVID-19 protocol could prevent contamination and dissemination of Acanthamoeba keratitis infection. The differentiating relatedness of Acanthamoeba keratitis, COVID-19 ophthalmologic infections and other ocular problems may not have been clearly elucidated.
Bhad Pranay Raja, Bobde Meeneri Vilas, G Sibi
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 4, pp 005-009;

Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 4, pp 001-004;

Cystoisosporiasis (formerly isosporiasis) is caused by Cystoisospora belli (erstwhile named Isospora belli) is encountered globally, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Cystoisosporiasis is a human intestinal disease whose etiology is the parasite Cystoisospora belli with infection frequent in immunocompromised subjects, principally HIV-infected and AIDS patients. This coccidium parasite infects the epithelial cells and lining of the villi of the small and large intestines. C. belli is the least frequent of the three intestinal coccidia, viz: Cryptosporidium, microsporidium and C. belli which perturb humans. The clinical presentation of cystoisosporiasis gives a semblance of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarhoea found in COVID-19, AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Research has not presented comorbid features of COVID-19 and cystoisosporiasis. The oocytes of C. belli are visualizable microscopically on wet mounts via bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC) and epifluorescence. Trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole constitute the normal treatment of choice. C. belli,HIV-infected/AIDS and COVID-19 patients have clinicopathological correlates necessary to elucidate comorbidities and mechanisms of the diseases.
Ali Muhammad, Diso Sani U, Abdullah Muhammad S, Mu’Azu Lurwan, Nas Farouk S
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 3, pp 054-058;

Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella sp associated with acute diarrhea among children in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted among children less than 5 years diagnosed with acute diarrhea and admitted to paediatric ward of Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital Kano. Stool samples from a total of 37 (20 male and 17 female) subjects were used to isolate and identified the pathogen. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted using disc diffusion method. The result showed 12 out of 37 samples were positive for Shigella sp which accounted for 32.4%. Higher incidence of Shigella sp was found among subjects of age between 2 – 3 years. The isolates were 100% resistant to Ampicillin. High resistance was also observed in Amoxicillin (83.33%), Chloramphenicol (58.33%) and Tetracycline (25%). The isolates are 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 66.7% to Levofloxacin and Gentamicin each and 58.33% to Erythromycin. Three (3) isolates were resistance to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin, 5 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin while 2 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin. It is concluded that Shigella sp is one of the etiological agent of diarrhea in children. Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and Gentamicin are drugs of choice for treating diarrhea caused by Shigella sp.
Zaki Sadiya, Malathi R, Latha V, Sibi G
International Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Biochemical Technology, Volume 3, pp 049-053;

Cissus quadrangularis a succulent vine belongs to Vitaceae family is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and used frequently to various disorders. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, glycosides and rich source of calcium. This study aims to bring a systematic review of C. quadrangularis in various pharmacological mechanisms. Evidence from the previous studies suggested the efficacy of C. quadrangularis with antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, bone turnover, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective activities. In conclusion, Cissus quadrangularis appears worthy of pharmacological investigations for new drug formulations.
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