Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

Journal Information
ISSN: 11787015
Published by: Informa UK Limited
Total articles ≅ 1,210

Latest articles in this journal

Xinyi Shao, Hao Li, Tingqiao Chen, Yangmei Chen, Xue Qin, Lin Liu, Xiaoyan Luo, Jin Chen
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 359-367; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s398134

Abstract:
Objective: To illustrate the association of monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) and other serum indicators with the pathogenesis and prognosis of immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) patients in different subgroups. Methods: A total of 158 adult patients and 113 healthy controls were enrolled, and the clinical presentation and laboratory indexes were comprehensively assessed. Results: IgAV patients show significantly elevated levels of inflammatory parameters and lipid profiles compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Higher levels of the MHR and other normal inflammatory indicators were found in patients with Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement compared to other subgroups. And in group with GI involvement, significantly higher white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, complement 4 (C4), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) levels and lower levels of apolipoprotein-a (Apo-a) were observed. Their correlation analysis demonstrated positive results between MHR level and white blood cell (WBC) count (r = 0.416, P = 0.034), D-Dimer (r = 0.464, P = 0.026) and monocyte (r = 0.947, P < 0.001). And the time until first remission of skin purpura was shown positively correlated with their age (r = 0.456, P = 0.043), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (r = 0.641, P = 0.018), D-Dimer level (r = 0.502, P = 0.040) while negatively correlated with albumin (Alb) level (r=− 0.626, P = 0.003) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level (r=− 0.478, P = 0.033). Conclusion: Our study suggests that those biomarkers represented for inflammatory responses, lipid profile and immunological functions have significant differences in the subgroups of adult IgAV patients. In addition, we also found that MHR level may serve as a potential biomarker for the pathogenesis and prognosis of IgAV patients with GI involvement.
, Ilaria Piscitelli, Gabriella Fabbrocini, , , Matteo Megna
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 369-373; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s403294

Abstract:
The introduction of biologic drugs revolutionized the management of moderate-to-severe forms of psoriasis. However, safety concerns still remain, particularly on patient affected by opportunistic infections. In this scenario, the safety of biologic drugs in patient with HBV infection is debated. Globally, screening for hepatitis before starting biological treatment is mandatory as well as a referral to an infectivologist and eventual prophylactic management should be evaluated case by case, also considering risk factors. On the one hand, the use of anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor seems to increase the risk of HBV reactivation, conversely, the use of recently approved classes of biologics [anti-interleukin (IL) 17 and anti-IL23] seems to have a lower risk of HBV reactivation. However, the evidence on the safety of anti-IL23 drugs in patients affected by HBV is scant, particularly for patients undergoing treatment with tildrakizumab. Herein, we report the first case of a female patient affected by moderate-to-severe psoriasis and with chronic HBV infection undergoing prophylaxis, successfully treated with tildrakizumab without reporting hepatitis reactivation. Even if limited, our case seems to confirm available evidence about the safety of anti-IL23, particularly tildrakizumab, on patients with chronic HBV infection undergoing prophylaxis.
Qinqin Tang, Yanjun Zhou, Yujuan Chen, Jie Chen, Xincai Xiong
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 339-343; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s400302

Abstract:
Sporotrichosis is a deep fungus infection caused by the Sporothrix. In China, the most common species is Sporothrix globosa which is difficult to treat with most antifungal drugs. Atypical clinical forms of sporotrichosis can be a hinder to clinicians for an early diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis of the face caused by S. globosa in a healthy adult that was initially misdiagnosed as rosacea due to its unusual clinical features. We made an effort to dermoscopically track changes in skin lesions both before and after treatment, confirming that itraconazole was effective in the treatment of sporotrichosis.
Mei Wang, Leran Zhao, Kun Wang, Yongzhang Qin, Jingji Jin, Dong Wang, Huimin Yan,
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 345-357; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s393406

Abstract:
Purpose: Omalizumab is a humanized anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) E monoclonal antibody that is effective in treating some patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who do not respond to antihistamines. Gut microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergies and autoimmune diseases. Here, we investigated differences in the gut microbiome of adolescent CSU patients before and after omalizumab treatment, which has not been previously reported. Patients and Methods: Ten adolescent CSU patients were given 300 mg omalizumab subcutaneously in three treatments at 4-week intervals. Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) was applied to evaluate the efficacy of each omalizumab treatment during follow-up. Fecal samples were collected before and 12 weeks after the first treatment. Total DNA of the gut microbiota in all fecal samples were extracted. The 16S rRNA gene-targeted sequencing technology was used for the analysis of the diversity and distribution of gut microbiome, followed by bioinformatics analysis. Results: UAS7 scores decreased significantly after each treatment compared with the baseline (all P < 0.0001). There were five well-controlled responders and five non-responders after three treatment sessions of omalizumab. The dominant bacteria phyla in all fecal samples were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Alpha diversity analysis showed no significant difference before and after treatment (P > 0.05), whereas beta diversity analysis revealed a significant difference in the bacterial abundance before and after treatment (P < 0.01). The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria at the class level and Burkholderia, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas at the genus level decreased significantly after treatment (linear discriminant analysis > 4, P < 0.05). The functional prediction results showed that the dioxin and xylene degradation pathways were more abundant before treatment. Conclusion: Omalizumab is effective in treating CSU and the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria was reduced after treatment, which may help improve the treatment outcomes in adolescent CSU patients.
, Nicole Terpak, Sebastien Massard, Amber Schwartz,
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 317-324; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s391667

Abstract:
Introduction: Retinol is known to have positive benefits on the skin including enhancements in barrier function, increased epidermal thickness, reductions in fine lines and wrinkles and reductions in hyperpigmentation. Improved methods to enhance the penetration of retinol are desirable. Methods: A study was conducted to examine if addition of natural jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil might help passively enhance the penetration of retinol through the skin’s lipid barrier. The model used to examine the passive penetration of the retinol is the skin parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (Skin-PAMPA). In this study, three formulations were examined. The formulations included two control blends: a moisturizing emulsion without retinol and the same product containing 1.0% retinol without jojoba oil. The remaining formulation contained similar concentrations of retinol with 10% jojoba oil. The studies were conducted by applying the products to the Skin-PAMPA models at 37°C/5% CO2 for 16 hours and then extraction of the acceptor reservoir with cyclohexane (ratio 1:5 acceptor fluid to cyclohexane). The resulting acceptor reservoir cyclohexane solutions were analyzed for retinol by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: The formulations without retinol showed no indications of retinol penetration by HPLC. The control formulation with 1.0% retinol demonstrated that retinol had permeated the membrane in the 16-hour timeframe with a measured Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 7 units. Analysis of the formulation containing 1.0% retinol and 10% jojoba oil indicated retinol had permeated with a AUC of 285 units, a nearly 40-fold increase in active retinol permeation. Discussion: The ability for jojoba oil to directly act to help skin permeation of a key skin care active like retinol has not been previously demonstrated. This potential for jojoba oil to enhance passive skin penetration of critical skin actives, like retinol, can help to improve the performance of skin care products employing active topical ingredients.
Laiji Ma, Yujie Niu, Chunying Yuan, Tianming Bai, Suzhen Yang, Man Wang, Yan Li, Li Shao
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 325-337; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s400321

Abstract:
Purpose: Everyone pursues perfect skin, but there exist significant differences between cultures, and no commonly accepted standards have been established. Therefore, our study attempted to define the “ideal skin” of oriental women and analyze the relationship between different skin physiological parameters and microbiomes. Patients and Methods: Based on our customized grading standard, the VISIA CR photos of 111 young women aged from 18 to 25 in Shanghai were collected and scored by the severity of pores, acne, spots, and wrinkles. The volunteers were then divided into “ideal skin” (W1), “normal skin” (W2), and “undesirable skin” (W3) groups. The physiological parameters of facial skin were measured by non-invasive instrumental methods, and the skin microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA and ITS high-throughput sequencing. Results: From “ideal skin” to “undesirable skin”, the skin physiological parameters, α-diversity, and composition of the facial microbiome showed noticeable regular changes. Compared with the “normal skin” (W2) and “undesirable skin” (W3), the “ideal skin” (W1) group had lower sebum content, TEWL, melanin, hemoglobin, and roughness but higher hydration content and skin pH value. Furthermore, the Shannon index of skin bacteria was significantly increased in W1 (P = 0.004), suggesting that the ideal skin had higher species diversity. From W1 to W3, the species composition was changed significantly. The abundance of Actinobacteria was increased, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were decreased. Correspondingly, the abundances of lipophilic Propionibacterium and Malassezia were increased, while the abundances of Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Streptococcus, were significantly decreased. Additionally, Spearman correlation analysis revealed strong correlations between the physiological parameters and the microbiota. Notably, the Shannon index of skin bacteria was significantly positively correlated with skin hydration (P = 0.03) but negatively correlated with the abundance of Cutibacterium (P = 0.000), hemoglobin content (P = 0.025), and sebum content (P = 0.5). Therefore, the skin hydration content and the abundance of Cutibacterium played an important role in maintaining the α-diversity and skin homeostasis. Conclusion: Ideal skin had better water-oil balance and barrier function, higher microbial diversity, and more reasonable species distribution. Therefore, daily skincare needs to control skin oil and maintain skin microecological balance to achieve ideal skin conditions for young women aged 18– 25 years old.
Sadan Mohammed Al Harbi, Nada Jomaan Al Ghamdi, Tarek Mohamed Elsharkawy, , Sultan Bajawi
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 309-316; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s395675

Abstract:
T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder in which the majority of cells are reactive T cells with only a minor population of neoplastic large B cells. THRLBCL is a very rare lymphoma, and most cases are nodal THRLBCL; an extranodal case of THRLBCL presenting primarily on the skin is an extremely rare occurrence with only a few cases reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of a primary cutaneous THRLBCL in a 41-year-old Saudi male who presented unusually with multiple skin lesions. He was successfully treated with electron beam radiotherapy and had a complete resolution with no recurrence as of his 24-month follow-up.
Fitria Salim, , Oki Suwarsa, Endang Sutedja
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 301-307; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s401815

Abstract:
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease that can be triggered by various precipitating factors, including colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The toll-like receptor (TLR), which belongs to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRR), can recognize components of S. aureus, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). This receptor is known to be expressed on monocytes. However, the understanding of the role of SEB in the pathogenesis of AD through the TLR pathway, especially TLR2 and TLR6, is not widely known. Purpose: To investigate the expression of TLR2 and TLR6 on peripheral blood monocytes induced by SEB during AD exacerbations. Patients and Methods: Twenty AD patients and 20 healthy subjects as a control group were selected. A 5 mL blood sample from each subject was taken for monocyte culture, which was induced by SEB for three days, and the outcomes were assessed by flow cytometry to evaluate TLR2 and TLR6 expression. Results: The expression of TLR2 on peripheral blood monocytes in AD patients was increased compared to healthy controls (p = 0.000), but not for the expression of TLR6 (p = 0.304). In the AD group, TLR2 and TLR6 expression on peripheral blood monocytes after being induced by SEB was significantly increased compared to before induction (p = 0.025 and p = 0.023, respectively), but not in the control group (p = 0.737 and p = 0.100, respectively). Conclusion: There is significantly increased expression of TLR2 and TLR6 on peripheral blood monocytes induced by SEB during exacerbation in AD patients.
Ephrem Ashenafi, Teferra Abula, , Mahlet Arayaselassie, Moti Sori
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 279-299; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s393379

Abstract:
Background: The leaves of Vernonia auriculifera (Asteraceae) have traditionally been used to treat wounds in several regions of Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess the wound healing properties of the leaf extract and solvent fractions of V. auriculifera in mice. The leaf extract and solvent fractions of V. auriculifera have also been evaluated for their anti-oxidant properties because of their impact on the wound healing process. Material and Methods: Air-dried leaves were extracted using 80% methanol. They were also successively fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The residue was then macerated in water for 72 hr. Simple ointment bases were formulated according to British Pharmacopoeia. Thereafter, two types of ointment formulations, 2.5% w/w and 5% w/w, were formulated. Wound healing and acute dermal toxicity studies were performed on mice. To assess free radical scavenging activity, a 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) assay was performed. Results: In both models, wounds treated with 2.5% and 5% (w/w) of the ME, the aqueous fraction (AQF), methanol fraction (MEF), and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) ointments demonstrated significant wound healing activity, as shown by enhanced wound contraction, a shortened epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and enhanced tissue breaking strength. The extract and solvent fractions displayed free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 1.2 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 1.5 mg/mL, and 2.83 mg/mL for ME, AQF, MEF, and EAF, respectively, as compared to 1.42 mg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusion: The result of this study indicates that 80% of methanol extract and solvent fractions are endowed with wound healing activity. Additionally, this study has also revealed that ME, AQF, MEF, and EAF have the capacity to scavenge free radicals. The study indicated that the wound healing effect could be attributed to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.
Pierre Bourgeois, Mirela Mariana Roman, Justine Schweicher, Pauline Lavoisier, Philippe Maquet, Clarence Karler, Mateusz Lizewski, Alessandro Fouarge, Nicolas Cuylits, Véronique del Marmol, et al.
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, pp 257-265; https://doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s393038

Abstract:
Background: The number of people within the European population having at least one tattoo has increased notably and with it the number of tattoo-associated clinical complications. The injected inks are known to be removed by the lymphatic vessels and can be found in the draining lymph nodes. Aim of the Study: To report our observations on the lymphatic drainages seen under tattoos using near infrared fluorescence imaging of these lymphatic vessels after the injection of indocyanine green. Material and Methods: Indocyanine green was injected intradermally at the basis of the 20 tattooed area(s) in 19 subjects (nine women and ten men; mean age = 28.6). Ten subjects had only black tattoos (six upper limbs and four lower limbs), five (two upper limbs and three lower limbs) black and white tattoos and five multi-colored tattooed limbs (four lower limbs and one upper limb). Results: The imaging exams revealed alterations in eight individuals, seven of whom had tattoos on their lower limbs. Furthermore, the imaging results showed that the abnormalities might be related to the tattooed limb, the tattoo extent and colour. Conclusion: Alterations of the cutaneous lymphatic channels are frequently observed under tattooed territories. Their causal factors should be more precisely studied in future works and these lymphatic alterations should be considered in tattooed patients when using similar imaging techniques for therapeutic and surgical assessments.
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