Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 15404196 / 15578518
Total articles ≅ 1,311

Latest articles in this journal

, Goran Korićanac, Snežana Tepavčević, Jelena Stanišić, Snježana Romić, Tijana Ćulafić, Tamara Ivković, Mojca Stojiljković
Published: 10 January 2023
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0078

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Excessive fructose consumption along with a sedentary lifestyle provokes metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fructose overload causes cardiac insulin resistance and increases reliance on fatty acid (FA) uptake and catabolism. The cardiometabolic benefits of exercise training have long been appreciated. The goal of the presented study is to shed a new light to the preventive role of exercise training on cardiac lipid metabolism in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C), sedentary fructose (F), and exercised fructose (EF) groups. Fructose was given as a 10% fructose solution in drinking water for 9 weeks. Low-intensity exercise training was applied for 9 weeks. The protein expression and subcellular localization of Lipin1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC1) were analyzed in the heart using Western blot. Cardiac forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FOXO1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein levels were also evaluated. Gene expression of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exercise training has augmented the expression of main regulators of FA oxidation in the heart and achieves its effect by increasing the nuclear content of PPARα, Lipin1, and FOXO1 compared with the fructose group (P = 0.0422, P = 0.000045, P = 0.00958, respectively). In addition, Lipin1, FOXO1, and SIRT1 were increased in nuclear extract after exercise compared with the control group (P = 0.000043, P = 0.0417, P = 0.0329, respectively). In cardiac lysate, low-intensity exercise caused significantly increased protein level of PPARα, PGC1, FOXO1, and SIRT1 compared with control (P = 0.0377, P = 0.0275, P = 0.0096, P = 0.0282, respectively) and PGC1 level compared with the fructose group (P = 0.0417). Conclusion: The obtained results imply that the heart with a metabolic burden additionally relies on FA as an energy substrate after low-intensity running.
Seshagiri Rao Nandula, Eric S. Nylen,
Published: 10 January 2023
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0069

Abstract:
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder that is associated with abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to a wide variety of pathological liver defects and associated insulin resistance (IR), obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms that cause the initiation and progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Increased lipolysis and de novo hepatic lipid synthesis lead to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Both these two entities could be interrelated and be an important mechanistic pathway, which can lead to tissue injury and hepatic cell death. Mechanisms for worsening of NAFLD include mitochondrial abnormalities, downregulation of glutathione (GSH), decreased activity of GSH-dependent antioxidants, accumulation of activated macrophages, hepatic inflammation, systemic inflammation, IR, and poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although no specific therapy has been approved for NAFLD, we review the latest medical therapeutics with emphasis on stem cell-based possibilities based on the presumed pathophysiology of NAFLD.
Published: 4 January 2023
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.29003.ack

Abstract:
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
, Ahmet Numan Demir, Cem Sulu, Emre Durcan, Serhat Uysal, Hande Turan, Hande Mefkure Özkaya, Saadet Olcay Evliyaoğlu, Oya Ercan,
Published: 20 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0060

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the cardiometabolic risk in patients with CAH (21 (OH) enzyme deficiency) on the basis of the visceral adiposity index (VAI), which indicates dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Materials and Methods: A total of 41 patients and 38 body mass index (BMI), age, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were included. The patients' and HCs' age, gender, waist circumference (WC), BMI information and total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG) values, smoking, and medication history were obtained from medical charts. Weight, height, WC, and blood pressure levels were measured. Patients' and HCs' BMI, Framingham risk scores (FRS), VAI and Ferriman–Gallwey scores were calculated. The patients' and HCs' age, gender TC, HDL, and TG, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEASO4), 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17(OH)P) values, smoking, and medication history were obtained from medical charts. Body fat and muscle mass levels were measured with Tanita T 6360. Results: Gender distribution, mean age, and BMI of patients with CAH were 34/7, 30 ± 8, 27 ± 5.4; HC subjects 30/8, 30 ± 6, 27 ± 3.8 (P = 0.9, 0.6, 0.9, respectively). The VAI values of patients with a diagnosis of CAH 3.7 (2.3–6.9) were found to be significantly higher than those of HC patients 2.5 (1.8–3.9; P = 0.02). The mean glucocorticoid doses of the patients were 17 ± 9 mg/day. The glucocorticoid dose level was determined as independent risk factor on the FRS (P = 0.03, β = 0.04) and VAI (P = 0.018, β = 0.17). Conclusion: Glucocorticoid dose optimization should be done more carefully to improve metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes in CAH patients.
Ana Cecília Arcanjo Carneiro, , Daniel Coelho de Sá,
Published: 5 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0073

Abstract:
Introduction: Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the pilosebaceous unit, and there are conflicting evidences regarding its association with metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR). Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 162 acne patients, over 20 years of age, matched for age and sex with 78 healthy controls without acne. The measured parameters included waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol. Acne severity was determined according to the Global Acne Grading System. The criteria used for the diagnosis of MS were those of the Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome Statement, adjusted for South Americans, and the IR was calculated using the HOMA-IR. Results: The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in cases, compared to controls (12.3% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.014), as was the prevalence of IR (11.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.047). In addition, MS and IR showed a positive correlation with the degree of acne severity (P = 0.011 and P = 0.021, respectively). HDL levels were significantly lower in cases (P = 0.012) and showed an association with acne severity (P = 0.038). In the logistic regression model, the risk factor that independently influenced both MS and IR in patients with acne was the WC (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Adults with acne, especially the most severe cases, are significantly more likely to have MS, IR, and lower HDL levels, compared to controls without acne.
Claudio Carallo, Alessandro Capozza, Agostino Gnasso
Published: 1 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Volume 20, pp 567-575; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2021.0127

Abstract:
Background: Statin therapy is a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, 7%–29% of statin-treated patients complain of muscular fatigue, cramps, and/or pain (statin-associated muscle symptoms [SAMS]). In recent years, the important role of vitamin D in muscle health maintenance has been highlighted. In addition, hypovitaminosis D is very prevalent, and might be a reversible risk factor for SAMS occurrence. Methods: In our controlled intervention study, patients suffering from both SAMS and hypovitaminosis D underwent vitamin D replacement for 6 months. SAMS intensity and its impact on the quality of life were evaluated with a questionnaire during follow-up. A subgroup of patients who were not at the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target attempted a statin rechallenge after 3 months. Control subjects, with SAMS only, were not treated. Results: Blood vitamin D levels reached 261% of baseline values. Pain intensity was reduced by 63%, and all life quality indicators improved. At follow-up, percentage variations in SAMS intensity and in vitamin D levels were inversely related (r = 0.57, P = 0.002). In a multiple regression analysis, this association was found to be independent. Among the rechallenge subgroup, 75% successfully tolerated high-intensity statins during the follow-up. The parameters of interest were unchanged in control subjects. Conclusions: In our findings, the amount of increase in vitamin D concentrations is directly related to SAMS improvement. Although randomized studies are needed, 25(OH)D levels can be measured, and eventually supplemented, in all patients suffering from SAMS, and this can be done together with a statin rechallenge after 3 months for patients who are not at the LDL-C target. Register: The study protocol was registered with the EudraCT clinical trial register [ID: 2019-003250-83] in date April 8, 2020.
Azam Armanmehr, Hossein Jafari Khamirani, ,
Published: 1 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Volume 20, pp 576-583; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2021.0140

Abstract:
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of signs and symptoms that are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The major risk factor for developing MetS is abdominal obesity, which is caused by an increase in adipocyte size or quantity. Increased adipocyte quantity is a result of differentiation of stem cells into adipose tissue. Numerous studies have investigated the expression of key transcription factors, including PPARG and CEBPB during adipocyte differentiation in murine cells such as 3T3-L1 cell lines. To better understand the expression changes during the process of fat accumulation in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we compared the expression of DYRK1B, PPARG, and ẟB in ASCs between the patient (harboring DYRK1B R102C) and control (healthy individuals) groups. Methods: Gene expression was evaluated on the eighth day before induction and days 1, 5, and 15 postinduction. The pluripotent capacity of ASCs and the potential for differentiation into adipocytes were confirmed by flow cytometry analysis of surface markers (CD34, CD44, CD105, and CD90), and Oil Red O staining, respectively. The Expression of DYRK1B, PPARG, and CEBPB were assessed by real-time-polymerase chain reaction in patients and normal individuals. The effects of AZ191, a potent small molecule inhibitor on DYRK1B and CEBPB expression in patients' samples were studied. Result: The expression of DYRK1B kinase and transcription factors (CEBPB and PPARG) are higher in ASCs harboring DYRK1B R102C compared with noncarriers on days 5 and 15 during adipocyte differentiation. These proteins may be helpful to elucidate the mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related disorders like MetS. Furthermore, the new compound AZ191 exhibited inhibitory activity toward DYRK1B and CEBPB. We suggest that AZ191 may be helpful in defining the potential roles of DYRK1B and CEBPB in adipogenesis.
, Débora Marchetti Chaves Thomaz, Rodrigo Juliano de Oliveira, Rita De Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Amariles Diniz Ramires, Doroty Mesquita Dourado, Elisvânia Freitas dos Santos, Adriana Conceicon Guercio Menezes, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva
Published: 1 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Volume 20, pp 558-566; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0047

Abstract:
Background: High consumption of carbohydrates can trigger metabolic and inflammatory disorders in the body. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fiber supplementation on inflammation and hepatic steatosis in mice fed high-carbohydrate diets. Methods: Swiss male mice were distributed into two control groups and two experimental groups that received isocaloric diet rich in starch (55%) or rich in fructose (55%). In the last 4 weeks of the experiment, the animals received 5% fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation via gavage, or water in the control groups. After 16 weeks, biochemical analyses, inflammatory cytokines, and histology of the liver of the animals were performed. Results: The animals that received fructose had higher weight at the end of the experiment as well as liver weight, consumed more feed, had higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and a higher degree of hepatic steatosis when compared with the animals that received starch. However, the animals that received starch showed a higher inflammatory process. FOS supplementation was efficient in reducing liver weight and hepatic steatosis degree in animals fed with fructose diet but showed more degeneration of liver tissue and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. FOS reduced the levels of urea and total cholesterol in the starch-fed animals. Conclusions: Diets rich in carbohydrates such as starch and fructose cause deleterious effects in animals, and fiber supplementation can bring beneficial effects.
Ha-Neul Choi, Hyunjung Lim, Young-Seol Kim, Sang-Youl Rhee,
Published: 1 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Volume 20, pp 551-557; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0044

Abstract:
Background: Obesity is commonly associated with a high risk of metabolic disorders, and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities are affected by some specific obesity phenotypes, regional fat distribution, and body mass index. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between obesity phenotypes and regional fat distribution in Korean subjects. This study aimed to assess regional fat distribution by gender using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to identify a link between fat distribution and metabolic disorders in Korean subjects. Methods: This study included 35 Korean subjects (20 women, 15 men) who were classified into two groups by gender, and further divided into two groups based on their obesity phenotype: a metabolically abnormal obesity (MAO) and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) group. Fat distribution was measured using MRI. The blood parameters were measured using a commercially available kit. Results: Women in the MAO group had more risk factors for metabolic abnormalities than those in the MHO group. Serum glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were also significantly higher in women with MAO than in those with MHO. The intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of women with MAO was significantly higher than that of women with MHO. Serum HDL-C level was negatively correlated with IMAT, whereas leptin showed a positive correlation with IMAT in all subjects. Conclusions: Metabolic abnormalities according to obesity phenotype posed a higher risk in women than that in men. These findings suggest that an understanding of gender differences in relation to the association between obesity and metabolic risk would be helpful to reduce the prevalence of obesity.
Mutlu Güneş, , Serap Yavuzer, Hakan Yavuzer, Ibrahim Murat Bolayirli, Zeynep Oşar Siva
Published: 1 December 2022
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Volume 20, pp 592-598; https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2022.0008

Abstract:
Aim: Although atherosclerosis and osteoporosis (OP) are seen in elderly patients, it is still a matter of research whether there is an age-independent relationship between them. In our study, we planned to investigate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), OP, and bone turnover parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) of both sexes. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 patients and 40 healthy volunteers with chronic diseases such as DM2, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and OP. Group 1 had 27 patients with DM2 and OP, group 2 had 42 patients with DM2 and no OP, and group 3 had 40 healthy volunteers without DM2 and OP. Results: In the control group, CIMT was measured lower than the patients with DM2 (0.8 + 0.1 and 1.1 + 0.3, P < 0.001, respectively). Femur T score and lumbar T score values of patients with DM2 were lower than the control group (−0.48 + 1.1 and 0.7 + 0.6, P < 0.001, and −1.3 + 1.5 and 0.6 + 0.5, P < 0.001, respectively). Bone turnover markers in DM2 compared to the control group (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen: 240.9 ± 211.1 and 606.5 ± 200.8, P < 0.001; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase: 47.9 ± 15.5 and 431.5 ± 140, P < 0.001; and osteocalcin: 13.2 ± 5.0 and 19.7 ± 9.2, P < 0.001, respectively) were lower. Patients with femoral region (TSF) T score and lumbar region (TSL) T score below −2.5 were found to have higher CIMT values than those without (1.2 ± 0.23 mm and 0.9 ± 0.23 mm, P = 0.006, and 1.1 ± 0.28 mm and 0.95 ± 0.21 mm, P = 0.003, respectively). In linear regression analysis, age (β = 0.01, P < 0.001), OP (β = 0.166, P = 0.001), and DDM2 (β = 0.222, P = 0.04) were found to be effective on CIMT, while DM2 (β) = −0.754, P < 0.001), CIMT (β = −0.258, P = 0.021), body mass index (β = 0.355, P = 0.028), and age (β = −0.229, P = 0.029) were found to be independent factors on TSF. Conclusion: Bone turnover and bone mineral density are decreased in DM2 patients. In addition, subclinical atherosclerosis is more common in DM2 patients. Findings suggest that there is a relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and OP due to metabolic factors other than age.
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