Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern

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ISSN / EISSN: 25229281 / 26167115
Total articles ≅ 87

Latest articles in this journal

Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 123-142;

Background. In linguistics, it is customary to study individual language phenomena at one level of the language system. Despite this rather artificial demarcation, it is obvious that units of all structural levels actively interact with each other. This can often be traced, in particular, in various transitional phenomena, one of which are adverbial equivalents of the word in the modern Ukrainian language – semantically coherent, but differently structured compounds that have the properties of the adverbial class of words.The most common formal structure of the adverbial equivalents of the word proves to be prepositional-case forms, for example, bez perestanu (without ceasing), do boliu (to pain), z (iz) zadovolenniam (with pleasure), nad miru (beyond measure), u (v) pechali (in sadness), etc. However, linguists have not yet distinguished prepositional-case forms of a syntactically free and semantically integral character.Purpose. The purpose of the article is to distinguish between syntactically free and semantically integral prepositional-case forms that transform into the class of adverbial equivalents of the word.Methods. The research employed the method of observing linguistic material, the transformational method, the method of contextual analysis, the method of modelling equivalents of the word developed by A. Luchyk, and the descriptive method.Results. Adverbial equivalents of the word reflect the second – prepositional (analytical) – degree of adverbialisation of the prepositional-case form when the semantic load of the case is lost, but the semantic load of the preposition is preserved. At the same time, within the limits of the prepositional-case forms of the prepositional adverbialization degree, there are those in which the preposition performs a function not inherent to it.The prepositional-case form can be extended by other dependent elements. In some cases, attributive or indicative units are located between the prepositional element and the substantive, which do not change the adverbial character of the prepositional-case form as a complex morpheme. In other cases, the prepositional- case form is extended by other postpositive units, which indicates the separate functioning of the prepositional and case morphemes.Discussion. Taking into account the semantic neutralization of the preposition and case in some types of prepositional-case forms, obviously, within the prepositional (analytical) degree of adverbialisation of the prepositional-case form, it is worth distinguishing the non-proper-prepositional degree, which will be represented by units called “equivalents of the word” by lexicologists. Accordingly, the prepositional-case forms of the first (prepositional-case) and second (prepositional) degrees of adverbialisation should be considered syntactically free, and the forms of the non-proper-prepositional degree of adverbialisation should be considered semantically integral. The most typical manifestations of semantically integral prepositional-case forms in modern Ukrainian are the structures of the models “bez – without + genitive case” (bez kintsia – without end, bez miry – without measure, bez vahan – without hesitation), “z (iz, zi) – with + instrumental case” (z (iz) zadovolenniam – with pleasure, z (iz) lehkistiu – with easiness, z oburenniam – with indignation), “u (v) – in + local case” (u (v) nespokoi – in restlessness, u (v) bentezi – in confusion, v ochikuvanni – in expectation).The perspective of the research is in a broader survey of lexical units that have a formal prepositional-case structure, in particular phraseological units. Similar explorations will make it possible to distinguish syntactic, morphological and semantic phenomena more clearly.
Marharyta Zhuikova
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 171-186;

Background. The pronoun WE, in contrast to I, requires a certain effort from the participant of communication in order to recognize who exactly, apart from the speaker, is included in a specific WE-group. From the standpoint of reference theory, the pronoun WE is equivalent to the constructions I and YOU, I and HE, etc., however, the author of the work may prefer one of these ways.Сontribution to there search field. The research results, that are published in the article, enable us to display a wider view of the semantic and referential potential of the personal pronoun WE that functions as a marker of group or character identification.The purpose of the article is to identify the reference of the pronoun WE and similar pronoun groups in the speech of Lesya Ukrainka’s characters, as well as to clarify the factors that influenced the choice of a particular pronominal construction.The applied research method is a contextual-referential analysis of the pronoun WE and other pronoun groups.The main results of the study. Lesya Ukrainka uses the pronoun WE with an inclusive meaning (the speaker and his listener) and with an exclusive meaning (the speaker and a third person, except the listener) in the replicas of the characters. Both types of WE-groups can be decoded by involving information about both language and extralinguistic reality. In order to clearly indicate a certain group of characters, Lesya Ukrainka uses disjointed pronoun constructions such as I and YOU, I and HE, sometimes adding a noun after WE (we and my brother, we and Maecenas). Each case of segmented usage is associated with the need to precisely outline the content of the WE-group.Discussion. Lesya Ukrainka uses disjointed pronoun constructions in cases where she wants to avoid the group identity of her characters, to show that the characters have individual traits, aspirations, and worldview guidelines. The author masterfully uses the referential potential of first-person pronouns, adapting them to express the most complex artistic intentions.
Natalia Matveieva
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 83-99;

Background. The language issue in Ukraine is very important because bilingualism is a widespread phenomenon in our country. The use of the Ukrainian and Russian languages by speakers often causes language conflicts.Сontribution to the research field. These findings may help us to understand the peculiarities of the Ukrainian language situation, particularly in Kyiv and Ternopil.Purpose. The purpose of our study is to compare the bilingual practices of Kyiv and Ternopil residents.Methods. The basis of our study is the data of the All-Ukrainian population census 2001, as well as the results of the several surveys published by the sociological group “Rating” (2015) and the public organization “Space of Freedom” (2011–2021). The material of our research concludes the names of children’s shops, residential complexes, centers for children early development and private kindergartens, coffee houses in Kyiv and Ternopil.Results. It is clear that Kyiv and Ternopil are different in the language aspect to a certain extent. Residents of the capital are undoubtedly bilingual, because they use the Ukrainian and Russian languages in their everyday communication. Also in Kyiv English is a popular language, the example of which is the language landscape of the city. In contrast to the language situation in Kyiv, Ternopil is а more Ukrainian-speaking city. Its residents in their daily communication, as well as in all spheres of communication, use exclusively the Ukrainian language. The Ukrainian language in Ternopil is also the most prestigious one in the names of the various institutions.Discussion. Now we can observe the new wave of Ukrainization, which is caused by the Russian war against Ukraine. So we predict that Kyiv will quickly become more Ukrainian, and the Ukrainian language will become the main language not only in the West of the country, but throughout its territory. The prospect of our study is to investigate the language situation in both cities in the post-war period.
Uliana Holovatch
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 187-212;

Background. The Ukrainian spelling of foreign proper names (individual and family names, as well as geographical names) is one of the most difficult and controversial areas of Ukrainian orthography. Its normalization requires detailed rules for each language. To find an effective tool for introducing the determined spelling rules into regular practice is another important goal. As presented in the article, digital technologies can be useful in addressing this problem.Сontribution to the research field. The current study lays out the theoretical foundations for the development of a computer-assisted method for the automatic transcription of proper names into Ukrainian.The purpose of the study is to determine the main principles of Ukrainian practical transcription of foreign proper names.Research methods. In developing lists of foreign proper names, a method was selected that involves simultaneous sampling, the application of classification procedures and the interpretation of the linguistic phenomena. The application of this comparative method makes it possible to identify similar cases in a variety of languages, to unify rules and to enable systematization. A descriptive method was used to summarize the research results theoretically.Results. The article introduces categories for distinguishing 1) acquired proper names, which, by analogy with common names of foreign origin, generally do not differ and are firmly assimilated by the Ukrainian language and are pronounced and written in accordance with existing Ukrainian orthoepic and orthographic norms; 2) foreign proper names, which most adequately reproduce the pronunciation and spelling of the term in the source language.Rules for Ukrainian spelling of foreign proper names are formulated according to the principles of practical transcription. The main principles of Ukrainian practical transcription of foreign proper names are summarized, illustrated and justified.Discussion. The main principles of Ukrainian practical transcription of foreign proper names discussed in this article do not contravene the rules and practices of current Ukrainian orthography established in 2019. They can be useful to editors and journalists who deal with writing foreign proper names in Ukrainian in their daily work.
Iryna Protsyk
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 22-36;

Background. The nicknames of players of football teams make a separate group of Ukrainian football onomastics. These unofficial anthroponyms were not the object of a thorough analysis, although labeling football players with nicknames is a feature of football discourse.Сontribution to the research field. The present study raises the possibility that nicknames of Ukrainian football players, like other unofficial anthroponyms, were formed on the basis of the transformation of players’ surnames and names, as well as metaphorically.Purpose. To find out the origin and methods of creating unofficial anthroponyms of football players who played for the Lviv team “Karpaty”.Methods. The main methods of research include discursive analysis and description of actual material, obtained thanks to sociolinguistic methods of questionnaires and interviews of football players, football specialists, journalists and fans. Additionally, the method of quantitative calculations is involved.Results. Among the nicknames of the football players of Lviv “Karpaty” who played for this team in different years, the largest group is unofficial anthroponyms, based on surnames that have undergone a variety of transformations, primarily reductions of the creative base, as well as by adding diminutive suffixes to the reduced creative base. Less often they use diminutive forms of football players’ names as nicknames. Unofficial personal names formed from the patronymics of the players are very rare. Often nicknames of football players, which appeared as a result of the reduction of players’ surnames or the creation of diminutive forms of their names, are associated with Russian lexemes, thus indicating the influence of outside colonial and post-colonial naming trends on the formation of the unofficial Ukrainian football anthroponymicon. Many nicknames were formed metaphorically, when the basis of the transfer of signs by similarity was either the external features of the “Karpaty” players, or the specifics of the character, behaviour of football players, their extra-football interests, or a combination of internal and external characteristics at the same time.Discussion. Two main ways of creating nicknames for Lviv “Karpaty” football players prevail – the transformation of players’ surnames and names, and the appearance of unofficial anthroponyms based on metaphor. The perspective of further studies of the nicknames of Ukrainian football players is seen in recording and describing a complete corpus of unofficial anthroponyms of players of various football teams throughout the entire period of football development in Ukraine and in identifying the main trends of unofficial naming in the sphere of football.
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 5-21;

Background. Forming a system of spatial, social and cultural landmarks, each speaker consciously/unconsciously records proper names which seem important. The most significant units are remembered, and it is they that determine the general idea of the entire set of marked objects. Since the system of linguistic units in the individual mental lexicon is regulated by a great number of subjective factors, it can be assumed that the tendencies of the reflection of reality in the mental lexicon common to a group of speakers open the way to the analysis of current social stereotypes. Shop and store names are one of the groups of commercial names, therefore, by their very nature, they are maximally oriented towards reflecting positive stereotypes of large social groups.Purpose. The purpose of this article is to analyze how the names of shops and stores are reflected in the mental lexicon of the women residents of Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine, and to try to outline the connection between the proper names verbalization in speakers’ mental lexicon and their ideas about extralinguistic reality.Methods. The material for this study consists of 249 graphic variants of 160 names of clothing, footwear and food stores, collected by surveying 45 women residents of Kyiv. Descriptive, comparative, and quantitative methods were used in the research, and techniques of the structural method were occasionally involved.Results. Current store names in the capital of Ukraine create а very colorful linguistic landscape with its main feature – the predominance of foreign language components, both lexical and graphic. Among all this diversity, the speaker remembers 3 or 4 names оn average, which determine her idea of the general trends in the nomination of objects in this field and indirectly ‒ these objects themselves. The analysis of store and shop names active in the mental lexicon of Kyiv residents shows that the absolute majority of clothing and shoe stores (79 % and 81 %, respectively) are perceived by names identified with other cultural spaces. Not only the name’s origin, but primarily its graphic form is a clear indicator of belonging to some cultural space. The opposite case in the name system of grocery stores is recorded ‒ only 26 % of them were reproduced by respondents in Latin. The form in which the store or shop name is stored in the mental lexicon depends on a) the graphic code visualized on the signboard / in the advertisement and b) the sound form of the name commonly used in informal communication. The activity of the second factor directly depends on the symmetry of the sound and spelling of the barbarism name and the level of speaker’s foreign language competence. The result of the collision of different graphic codes in the speaker’s mind is mixing, which is manifested in the recording of the original form of the name from Latin to Cyrillic during memorization. Therefore, while keeping proper names in memory, speakers try to assimilate their form to the rest of the fixed units, and this often manifests itself in the transformation of the original form of proper name.Discussion. Oversaturation of Kyiv’s commercial ergonomics system with barbaric names forms a strong public stereotype about the attractiveness and progressiveness of other cultures in the consumption sphere and creates the illusion of the absence of national Ukrainian in it. Trying to master the system of store and shop names, Kyiv residents find themselves in a conflict situation: the dominant graphic code for them is the Cyrillic alphabet, while the Latin alphabet prevails in the visual space of Kyiv’s trade establishments. The way out of this situation is transformation ‒ recording of the original name with the help of a graphic system convenient for the speaker. In order to form a general idea about the reflection of the commercial proper names system in the mental lexicon of Ukrainians, it is necessary to involve in the study data from representatives of different age groups from different regions of the country.
Kateryna Blyzniuk
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 63-82;

Background. According to lexicographical sources, the semantics of the concept of the Homeland are dominated by the components ‘land’ (‘country’), ‘inheritance’, ‘father’, ‘family’, ‘native’, ‘property’, ‘origin’, ‘genesis’. They are sufficient, but they significantly limit the entire range of meanings, connotations, and associations that can be associated with the Homeland and do not capture the shades of meaning corresponding to the current socio-political and cultural situation.Contribution to the research field. The present study helps us to understand changes occurring in the meanings of words. In particular, the results show the dynamics in the perception of the Homeland, differences in the traditional lexicographic meaning and associative image.Purpose. The purpose of the article is to investigate the associative image of the Homeland concept, which was formed in the language picture of the world of Ukrainian youth.Methods. The written free associative experiment was conducted in April 2022. As a result, 1,009 questionnaires and 1,215 associations on the Homeland stimulus were collected. 253 types of reactions were identified.Results. The experiment showed that young Ukrainians most often associate Ukraine, mother, and home with the Homeland. 8% of responses are determined by the region of residence of the participants. Associations form thematic groups around the concepts of family, home, national symbols, values, and combat. A sense of belonging, ownership, kinship, love, warmth, pride, and happiness is important. Freedom and life become integral values. In the national picture of the world, the Homeland is visualized through the colours of the blue-yellow flag, embodied in Ukrainian nature.Discussion. The verbal image of the Homeland for a modern young Ukrainian has little to do with politics or ideology, instead emotional, imaginative and value components prevail. Despite the war, ideas about the Homeland did not become radicalized and did not acquire aggressive or militant features. On the contrary, the associative image of the Homeland reflects the perception of it as a place of love and warmth, a native home, a fatherland, and the highest value that must be protected.
Tetiana Hromko
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 157-170;

Background. The modern linguographic description of idiom is characterized by the peculiarities of verbalization, which is methodologically justified by compiling a thesaurus of its lingual. The lexicographic staffing of dialect units recorded in oral speech clarifies views on lexical, phraseological and other language units as an object of lexicographic description, improves the reproduction of their communicative qualification, clarifies the grammatical aspect of reflecting the contexts of speech on the basis of scientific-pragmatic action.Contribution to the field of research. This study raises the possibility that the completeness of describing the lingual of the idiom is ensured by the introduction to the thesaurus of all language and speech units previously recorded in the monolingual corpus of texts. These discoveries can help us to understand the qualification of the thesaurus approach as a complete representation of the lingual of the idiom. This conclusion, although preliminary, indicates that the monolingual thesaurus is a new lexicographic technology for dialectology, which, based on its structure and principles of organization, extrapolates the description of the lingual of the idiom to the modeling of the lexical-grammatical system. This discovery is important for the development of linguographics as a comprehensive description of the language system. These conclusions raise methodological and technological questions about the nature and scope of the linguistic composition of the idiom, i. e. lingual.Purpose. Monoidiomic lingual as a basis for a comprehensive study of the idiom has its own specifics. Dialectological lexicography both maintains its traditions and uses new technologies for creating dictionaries for the latest research, such as a monographic description of a particular idiom (subdialect) as a language system.Methods. The methodology of the thesaurus of idiom with complex parameterization of idiomemic (idiomological) lexicography takes into account the completion of the linguistic system, especially in the part of speech lexicography, actualized in modern linguistics by the theory of language based on usage. The functional purpose of the monoidiomatic lingual as a source of further research into the lingual of the idiom is methodologically important.Results. The monoidiomatic thesaurus is a linguistic publication or an electronic resource that contains words (phrases, phraseological units, paremias, etc.) arranged in alphabetical order (with a display of lexicographic, grammatical, phraseographic and other units), and explains the meaning of the described linguistic and speech units, providing another linguistic information, or provides information about creatures and objects denoted by them (onymographic units), as well as provides contexts of their use in the idiom of a certain language system. This combination of findings lends some support to the conceptual premise that the key to describing linguistic and speech units on the basis of thesaurus is the systematic positioning of the lingual of the idiom, according to the based on use theory of language, which makes it possible to linguistically interpret the material taking into account its using in a live text.Discussion. The monoidiomatic thesaurus as an important aspect of modern linguistics can become the most complete source and indispensable tool of scientific research – from the completeness of lexicon fixation to the monographic description of subdialect as a language system, because it has obvious advantages over the traditional differential lexicographic approach. Being focused on multi-aspect linguistic and non-linguistic studies, the monolingual thesaurus includes the initial inventory of the language data of the lingual for a number of speech and language units, which fully represent the language system of the idiom (subdialect). The perspective of this type of linguistic technology in linguistics lies in its ability to solve a number of problems through empirical evidence.
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 213-216;

Some tips for the teacher (Review of the book: Jakubowska-Krawczyk, Katarzyna, Romaniuk, Svitlana, & Zambrzycka, Marta (Eds.). (2022). Szkolne rozmуwki ukrainsko-polskie. Material pomocniczy dla nauczycieli nieznajacych jezyka ukrainskiego, ktуrzy pracuja z uczniami z Ukrainy)
Liudmyla Kravchenko, Khrystyna Petriv
Language: Classic - Modern - Postmodern pp 37-62;

Background. The article is dedicated to 1225 names of streets, alleys and squares in Ukraine, renamed during April – August 2022 as a result of the process of de-russification. Urbanonyms were changed not to neutral ones, but, on the contrary, in the new names Ukrainian national values were emphasized, as well as the belonging of communities to the Ukrainian cultural space, demonstrating the difference between Ukrainian and Russian identity.Сontribution to the research field. These findings may help us to understand the impact that the last political events in Ukraine as well as the war have made on the national identity of Ukrainians, especially in the linguistic approach. The analysis of urbanonyms according to the markers of national identity showed the main trends in the change of modern urbanonymicon.Purpose. The comprehensive analysis of the renaming in Ukrainian urbanonymicon because of the process of de-russification in the cultural space of Ukraine and in the aspect of affirmation of national identity in names.Methods. The research methodology is based on the general scientific methods and on the linguistic methods, especially descriptive and comparative (to compare the urbanonyms before and after the renaming).Results. The research consists of two parts. First, we analyzed 1225 former names of the streets and identified six groups of these names. Then, we analyzed the renamed urbanonyms and focused on 8 groups of them, which appeal to certain markers of the Ukrainian national identity: 1. Common beliefs – 263 names of streets (21,47 %); 2. Common territory, or homeland – 247 (20,16 %); 3. Common actions (decisions, achievements) – 242 (19,76 %); 4. Common myths and historical memories – 229 (18,7 %); 5. Common language – 90 (7,35 %); 6. Common culture – 70 (5,71 %); 7. Common economy – 47 (3,84 %); 8. Common religion – 37 (3 %).Discussion. By comparing new names with markers of national identity, we can assert that during the hot phase of the war, when there is a threat to the existence of the country, Ukrainians come to the fore for common worldview orientations, which allow to unite, common actions and decisions, which are aimed at obtaining certain results, deep understanding of the concepts homeland, our territory, awareness of the importance of preserving historical memory for the formation of the successful Ukrainian society today and to pass it on to the next generations, so that our language and our culture are always relevant.
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