Frontiers in Nutrition

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EISSN: 2296861X
Published by: Frontiers Media SA
Total articles ≅ 5,451

Latest articles in this journal

Baiwei Xu, Zhongwei Liu, Jiangyue Zhao,
Published: 27 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1042893

Abstract:
Introduction: Cataract is one of the leading causes of blindness and visual impairment, about 16 million people around the world. Trace elements play an important role in a variety of the processes in human body. This study aimed to investigate the association between daily dietary intake of trace elements and age-related cataract incidence based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008.Methods: Iron, zinc, copper, and selenium were conducted in this study among subjects aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older in US adults. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used in different models to investigate the association of trace elements intake and cataract.Results: After screening, 7,525 subjects were ultimately included in this study. A significant negative association was found between selenium intake and cataract incidence in adjusted models using multivariate logistic regression analysis (model 1: OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.997–1.000; model 2: OR = 0.997, 95% CI = 0.995–1.000; and model 3: OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.995–1.000). After dividing selenium intake into quintiles, significant negative associations between selenium intake and cataract were observed in the first quintile of model 3, the fourth and fifth quintiles of all models. In subgroup analyses adjusted for age and sex, a significant negative association was observed only in women aged 65–74 years.Discussion: Our study points out that maintaining daily dietary selenium intake at higher levels is helpful for cataract prevention, and that increasing daily dietary selenium intake in American women aged 65–74 years may contribute to the prevention of age-related cataract. The intakes of iron, zinc, copper may not be associated with age-related cataract.
Lauren O’Mahony, Emma O’Shea, Eibhlís M. O’Connor, Audrey Tierney, Mary Harkin, Janas Harrington, Sharon Kennelly, Elke Arendt, Paul W. O’Toole,
Published: 27 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1104238

Abstract:
Objectives: Strategies to improve the gut microbiome through consuming an improved diet, including adopting the Mediterranean Diet (MD), may promote healthy aging. We explored older adults’ and healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) perspectives of the MD, gut health, and microbiome for their role in healthy aging.Design: Phenomenological qualitative.Setting: Community-dwelling older adults and HCPs in primary and secondary care in Ireland.Participants: Older adults (aged 55 + years), recruited through social, retirement and disease-support groups. HCPs recruited through researcher networks and professional associations.Measurements: Semi-structured 1:1 interviews and focus groups (FGs) conducted remotely with older adults and HCPs separately. Interviews/FGs were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive thematic analysis.Results: Forty-seven older adults were recruited (50% male; 49% aged 60–69 years; 28% 70 +), and 26 HCPs including dietitians (n = 8); geriatricians (n = 6); clinical therapists (n = 4); nurses, pharmacists, catering managers, and meal-delivery service coordinators (n = 2 each). Older adults considered the MD “a nice way to enjoy food,” good for cardiovascular health and longevity, but with accessibility and acceptability challenges (increased salads/fish, different food environments, socio-cultural differences). HCPs felt the MD is included in healthy eating advice, but not overtly, mostly through the promotion of mixed-fiber intake. Older adults considered “live” yogurt and probiotics, and to a lesser extent fiber, to maintain a “healthy gut,” suggesting the gut has “something to do with” cognitive and digestive health. Overall, microbiota-health effects were considered “not common knowledge” among most older adults, but becoming more topical among both professionals and the public with advancing scientific communication.Conclusion: While “gut health” was considered important, specific effects of the MD on gut microbiota, and the significance of this for healthy aging, was under-recognized. Future efforts should explain the importance to older adults of maintaining the gut microbiota through diet, while appreciating perspectives of probiotic products and supplements.
Josep M. Llop Talaveron, , Elisabet Leiva Badosa, Jordi Bas Minguet, Joan Climent Martí, Elisabet Poyatos Cantón, María B. Badia Tahull
Published: 27 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1034481

Abstract:
Introduction: Liver damage has been associated with the accumulation of phytosterols (PS) in patients treated with parenteral nutrition (PN). We aimed to study the association of inflammatory markers with liver function biomarker (LFB) alterations in patients treated with PN containing PS.Materials and methods: Prospective observational study. Simple linear and stepwise multiple linear regression tests and interactions were performed.Results: Nineteen patients were included. In the multivariable model, determinations based on LFBs as dependent and phytosterols (and their fractions) as independent variables showed an association between increases in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lanosterol (p < 0.001), stigmasterol (p < 0.001), interleukin-10 (IL-10) × total phytosterols (Phyt) (p < 0.009), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) × Phyt (p < 0.002), IL-10 × sitosterol (p < 0.002), TNF-α × sitosterol (p < 0.001), IL-10 × campesterol (p < 0.033), IL-10 (p < 0.006 and p < 0.015), TNF-α (p < 0.048 and p < 0.027). Increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were associated with Phyt (p < 0.006), lanosterol (p < 0.016), C-reactive protein (CRP) × campesterol (p < 0.001), interleukin-6 (IL-6) × stigmasterol (p < 0.030), CRP (p < 0.08), and IL-6 (p < 0.042). Alkaline phosphatase (AP) increases were associated with CRP (p < 0.002).Discussion: Inflammation in the presence of plasmatic PS seems to have a synergistic effect in impairing liver function, mainly altering GGT but also ALT.
Marilu Mestanza, Pati Llanina Mori-Culqui,
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1078701

Abstract:
Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world after water. Multiple benefits are attributed to it in human health due to the presence of antioxidant compounds, whose content depends, among other factors, on the processing conditions of the coffee bean. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of polyphenols and antioxidants during the roasting of three varieties of arabica coffee. For this, we worked with varieties of coffee, Catimor, Caturra, and Bourbon, from the province of La Convencion, Cuzco, Peru. The samples were roasted in an automatic induction roaster, and 12 samples were taken during roasting (at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 min of roasting) in triplicate. For green coffee beans, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, moisture and apparent density were determined. The change in polyphenol content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis- (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) free radical capture technique during roasting. Polyphenol and antioxidant contents increased until minute 5 of roasting and then decreased until minute 20, and in some cases, there were slight increases in the last minute. The model that best described the changes in these bioactive compounds was the cubic model (R2 0.634 and 0.921), and the best fits were found for the Bourbon variety, whose green grain had more homogeneous characteristics. The changes in the relative abundances of nine phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In conclusion, roasting modifies phenolic compounds and antioxidants differently in the coffee varieties studied. The content of some phenols increases, and in other cases, it decreases as the roasting time increases. The roasting process negatively affects the bioactive compounds and increases the fracturability of Arabica coffee beans, elements that should be taken into account at the moment of developing roasting models in the industry.
Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Gideon Kruseman, Aymen Frija, Kai Sonder, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.1077443

Abstract:
Introduction: The combined populations of China and India were 2.78 billion in 2020, representing 36% of the world population (7.75 billion). Wheat is the second most important staple grain in both China and India. In 2019, the aggregate wheat consumption in China was 96.4 million ton and in India it was 82.5 million ton, together it was more than 35% of the world's wheat that year. In China, in 2050, the projected population will be 1294–1515 million, and in India, it is projected to be 14.89–1793 million, under the low and high-fertility rate assumptions. A question arises as to, what will be aggregate demand for wheat in China and India in 2030 and 2050?Methods: Applying the Vector Error Correction model estimation process in the time series econometric estimation setting, this study projected the per capita and annual aggregate wheat consumptions of China and India during 2019-2050. In the process, this study relies on agricultural data sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO) database (FAOSTAT), as well as the World Bank's World Development Indicators (WDI) data catalog. The presence of unit root in the data series are tested by applying the augmented Dickey-Fuller test; Philips-Perron unit root test; Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, and Zivot-Andrews Unit Root test allowing for a single break in intercept and/or trend. The test statistics suggest that a natural log transformation and with the first difference of the variables provides stationarity of the data series for both China and India. The Zivot-Andrews Unit Root test, however, suggested that there is a structural break in urban population share and GDP per capita. To tackle the issue, we have included a year dummy and two multiplicative dummies in our model. Furthermore, the Johansen cointegration test suggests that at least one variable in both data series were cointegrated. These tests enable us to apply Vector Error Correction (VEC) model estimation procedure. In estimation the model, the appropriate number of lags of the variables is confirmed by applying the “varsoc” command in Stata 17 software interface. The estimated yearly per capita wheat consumption in 2030 and 2050 from the VEC model, are multiplied by the projected population in 2030 and 2050 to calculate the projected aggregate wheat demand in China and India in 2030 and 2050. After projecting the yearly per capita wheat consumption (KG), we multiply with the projected population to get the expected consumption demand.Results: This study found that the yearly per capita wheat consumption of China will increase from 65.8 kg in 2019 to 76 kg in 2030, and 95 kg in 2050. In India, the yearly per capita wheat consumption will increase to 74 kg in 2030 and 94 kg in 2050 from 60.4 kg in 2019. Considering the projected population growth rates under low-fertility assumptions, aggregate wheat consumption of China will increase by more than 13% in 2030 and by 28% in 2050. Under the high-fertility rate assumption, however the aggregate wheat consumption of China will increase by 18% in 2030 and nearly 50% in 2050. In the case of India, under both low and high-fertility rate assumptions, aggregate wheat demand in India will increase by 32-38% in 2030 and by 70-104% in 2050 compared to 2019 level of consumption.Discussions: Our results underline the importance of wheat in both countries, which are the world's top wheat producers and consumers, and suggest the importance of research and development investments to maintain sufficient national wheat grain production levels to meet China and India's domestic demand. This is critical both to ensure the food security of this large segment of the world populace, which also includes 23% of the total population of the world who live on less than US $1.90/day, as well as to avoid potential grain market destabilization and price hikes that arise in the event of large import demands.
Ujwala Godbole, Divya Gupta, Nachiket Godbole, Madan Godbole
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1059332

Abstract:
Background: Data from several efficacy studies and a long-term effectiveness study have encouraged the governments to adopt a policy of providing double-fortified salt (DFS) in the Mid-Day Meal (MDM) programs in government schools across India. These envisaged food security events are likely to boost the manufacturing of DFS in a big way. Thus, it becomes pertinent to come up with a robust monitoring system involving community and field workers for quality checks. It is imperative to equip these field workers with simple testing kits (STKs) capable of qualitative detection of iron and iodine in DFS. As the consumer acceptance of foods is based on several factors including sensory characteristics, performance, convenience, cost, nutrition, and product image, a variety of iron compounds are in use for fortification. However, it becomes challenging to provide a kit that can overcome the chemical masking of iodine detection by iron compounds.Objectives: We aimed at (1) the development of a field-friendly STK for quick qualitative assessment of iodine and various forms of iron present in DFS, (2) to check its validity under field conditions.Methods: We put in place reagents combined using known chemical reactions and balanced use of oxidants to overcome the problems of encapsulation and to maximize the use, by enabling reagent combination to react with all forms of iron.Results: The kit reagents successfully detect iodine as well as three commonly used iron fortificants in DFS. Published field trials confirmed the specificity and sensitivity of the developed kit. The simplicity and use of the kit by a field worker can be seen in the enclosed video.Conclusion: The combination of improvised kit reagents allows early detection of iron and iodine in DFS. Iron is detected in a variety of iron-containing fortifications. The provision of diluted H2O2 ensures the presence of oxygen-free radicals that enhances iodine release captured by concentrated KI making iodine detection an easy task.
Jeong Bin Bong, Ji Yeon Chung, So-Yeong Kim, Han Uk Ryu, Byoung-Soo Shin,
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1071541

Abstract:
Background and aims: The nutrition support team (NST) comprises doctors, nutritionists, pharmacists, and nurses who provide intensive nutritional treatment designed for each patient by evaluating their nutritional status of hospitalized patients. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of patients referred to the NST among those admitted to a tertiary hospital and to understand the factors affecting their clinical course and changes in pressure sore grades.Methods: This study included 1,171 adult patients aged 18 years or older referred to the NST at a tertiary hospital in a metropolitan city between 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2020. Patients were divided into five age groups, neuro department and non-neuro department, those treated in the intensive care unit (ICU), and those not treated in the ICU. Patients were also compared based on the presence of pressure sores at the time of NST referral and changes in pressure sore grades at the first time of NST referral and discharge (improved pressure sores, no change in pressure sores, and aggravated pressure sores). In addition, this study examined the factors affecting changes in pressure sore grades.Results: As age increased, the proportion of both low albumin levels and pressure sores significantly increased (p < 0.001), and the neuro department showed a significantly lower proportion of low albumin levels and pressure sores (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with pressure sores was higher (64.9%), and this patient group showed significantly higher rates of low albumin levels (p < 0.001) and treatment in the ICU (p < 0.001). The group with aggravated pressure sore grades had a significantly higher proportion of patients in the surgery department (p = 0.009) and those treated in the ICU (p < 0.001). Admission to the surgery department was a factor that aggravated the grade of pressure sores [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.985, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.168–3.371]. When patients were not treated in the ICU, the grade of the pressure sores was less likely to worsen (aOR = 0.364, 95% CI = 0.217–0.609).Conclusion: Pressure sores and low albumin levels are closely related, and the risk of developing and aggravating pressure sores is particularly high in patients in the surgery department and those receiving ICU treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to actively implement NST referral to ensure that overall nutrition, including albumin, is well supplied, especially for patients in the surgery department and treated in the ICU, as they are at high risk of pressure sore development and aggravation. Moreover, since low albumin levels frequently occur in elderly patients, it is necessary to consider including the elderly in the indications for referral to the NST.
Caili Fu, Xi Yu, Hongwei Guo, Chunping You, Jun Du
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1126929

Abstract:
Editorial on the Research TopicRecent advances and product opportunities in the technology of proteins, probiotics, and prebiotics This special issue, titled “Recent Advances and Product Opportunities in the Technology of Proteins, Probiotics, and Prebiotics,” draws together a collection of papers that address current advances in product changes and in the technologies of proteins, prebiotics, and probiotics. Many publications focused on this topic have been reviewed and published that relate to the development of personalized nutrition, which differs from the population-based nutrition intervention that provides one-size-fits-all treatments. Based on the individual's unique characteristics, including anthropometric characteristics, biomarkers, genotypes, gut microbial composition, pre-interventional dietary patterns, and physical activity status, personalized nutrition enables tailored healthy lifestyle choices and thus, improves health outcomes. Kan et al. explored the potential variables that might alter an individual's response to a specific diet, and the results were transposed into three review articles (Wan et al.; Wang et al.). The gut microbiome, genotype, and phenotypic related biomarkers were specifically highlighted as the most important dimensions for personalized nutrition to achieve its desired goal (Wang et al.). Variations in these dimensions were associated with distinctive nutrition-related traits, including the bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and utilization of nutrients, which subsequently, affected the efficacy of nutritional intervention (Kan, Wu, et al.; Wan et al.). Building upon these endeavors, this group of researchers performed the first personalized nutrition study in China to test the hypothesis that the deployment of the above-mentioned dimensions in a nutritional intervention study could result in a greater lifestyle change among obese adults (Kan, Yi, et al.; Zheng et al.). Their theory was supported by the subjects' much greater decreases in body mass index, waist measurement, and percentage of body fat in the personalized nutrition-treated team compared to the standard study participants (Kan, Yi, et al.). In a subsequent investigation, Zheng et al. identified the gut microbiome's role in modifying lipid metabolism outcomes connected to fat distribution and obesity-related gene polymorphisms, while Zhang et al. discovered that through altering the gut microbiota, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ST-III-fermented milk can ameliorate autistic-like symptoms of mice with autism spectrum conditions brought upon by the use of valproic acid. Zheng et al. summarized the systematic assessment of the prebiotics' contribution to promoting probiotics (You et al.). By identifying novel ligand fishing models using nanotechnologies for obesity treatment, Tian et al. showcased another method to promote further advancements in personalized nutritional interventions. Noticeably, machine learning was utilized to capture complex relationships between the phenotypic, genomic, and metagenomic features and nutritional needs of an individual to develop tailored dietary and nutritional advice. The fact that computational algorithms need to be trained by big datasets will add tremendous value to multi-omics approaches (Wang et al.). Some interesting works that involved the novel utilization of natural products and microorganisms are also included. Wang et al. successfully used Lactobacillus for the improvement of meat quality in Sunit sheep. And they further revealed that the underlying mechanism of such improvement is related to the altered mitochondrial biosynthesis via the AMPK pathway. Wu et al. investigated and found that by targeting ferroptosis, traditional Chinese medicine has a preventive impact on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver cancer. CF and XY researched the relevant literature and created the initial version of the draft. HG, CY, and JD amended the manuscript. All of the contributors have reviewed and consented to the published version of the manuscript. This work was made possible by the Key Research and Development Project of Hainan Province (ZDYF2022XDNY335), the Cooperation project of Amway China Co., Limited and the National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute (Grant No. Am20220229RD), and the 5th High-Level Entrepreneurship and Innovation Team Project of Putian City (Added-value Processing of Predominant Aquatic Products in Putian City). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Keywords: protein, peptide, probiotic, prebiotic, personalized nutrition Citation: Fu C, Yu X, Guo H, You C and Du J (2023) Editorial: Recent advances and product opportunities in the technology of proteins, probiotics, and prebiotics. Front. Nutr. 10:1126929. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1126929 Received: 18 December 2022; Accepted: 11 January 2023; Published: 26 January 2023. Edited and reviewed by: Filippo Rossi, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy Copyright © 2023 Fu, Yu, Guo, You and Du. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does...
Yuan Cai, Yu-Di Zhong, Hao Zhang, Pei-Lin Lu, Yong-Yi Liang, Biao Hu, Hui Wu
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1025936

Abstract:
Background: Currently, telomere length is known to reflect the replication potential and longevity of cells, and many studies have reported that telomere length is associated with age-related diseases and biological aging. Studies have also shown that vitamin C acts as an oxidant and free radical scavenger to protect cells from oxidative stress and telomere wear, thus achieving anti-aging effects. At present, there are few and incomplete studies on the relationship between vitamin C and telomere length, so this study aims to explore the relationship between vitamin C and telomere length.Methods: This study used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) database from 1999 to 2002, a total of 7,094 participants were selected from all races in the United States. Male participants accounted for 48.2% and female participants accounted for 51.8%. The correlation between vitamin C and telomere length was assessed using a multiple linear regression model, and the effect of dietary vitamin C on telomere length was obtained after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), and poverty income ratio (PIR).Results: This cross-sectional study showed that vitamin C was positively correlated with telomere length, with greater dietary vitamin C intake associated with longer telomeres (β = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.05, P = 0.003).Conclusion: This study shows that vitamin C intake is positively correlated with human telomere length, which is of guiding significance for our clinical guidance on people’s health care, but our study need to be confirmed by more in-depth and comprehensive other research results.
Haiyang Li, Zhangkai J. Cheng, Zhiman Liang, Mingtao Liu, Li Liu, Zhenfeng Song, Chuanbo Xie, Junling Liu, Baoqing Sun
Published: 26 January 2023
Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1042047

Abstract:
Introduction: Lung cancer is a serious global health concern, and its subtypes are closely linked to lifestyle and dietary habits. Recent research has suggested that malnutrition, over-nutrition, electrolytes, and granulocytes have an effect on the development of cancer. This study investigated the impact of combining patient nutritional indicators, electrolytes, and granulocytes as comprehensive predictors for lung cancer treatment outcomes, and applied a machine learning algorithm to predict lung cancer.Methods: 6,336 blood samples were collected from lung cancer patients classified as lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). 2,191 healthy individuals were used as controls to compare the differences in nutritional indicators, electrolytes and granulocytes among different subtypes of lung cancer, respectively.Results: Our results demonstrated significant differences between men and women in healthy people and NSCLC, but no significant difference between men and women in SCLC patients. The relationship between indicators is basically that the range of indicators for cancer patients is wider, including healthy population indicators. In the process of predicting lung cancer through nutritional indicators by machine learning, the AUC of the random forest model was as high as 93.5%, with a sensitivity of 75.9% and specificity of 96.5%.Discussion: This study supports the feasibility and accuracy of nutritional indicators in predicting lung cancer through the random forest model. The successful implementation of this novel prediction method could guide clinicians in providing both effective diagnostics and treatment of lung cancers.
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