Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering

Journal Information
EISSN: 25207792
Total articles ≅ 107

Latest articles in this journal

Bakhtiar A. Karim, Haitham K. Ali
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 38-54;

This work provides an explanatory analysis of the influence of input parameters on the performance of subspace-based Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms. The objective of this work is twofold. First, to drive a Steering Vector (SV) that works for arbitrary array configuration rather than just Uniform Linear Array (ULA) geometry. Second, to identify how the performance of the subspace-based algorithms is affected by tuning the input parameters. The later objective is crucial as it allows optimizing the algorithm through selecting optimum parameters to set an appropriate tradeoff between complexity and performance based on the intended applications. Toward that end, we firstly drive an SV for arbitrary array configuration followed by revealing the working principle of subspace based DoA techniques. Secondly, we evaluate the impact of several parameters namely Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), number of snapshots, number of array elements, separation between array elements, number of available sources, and dependency between sources to conduct our analysis. Numerical simulations over a wide range of scenarios along with intensive Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to show the influence of these parameters on the resolution, accuracy, and complexity of the subspace based DoA estimation algorithm. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the performance of this class of DoA estimation method is determined mostly by the values of the input parameters. Furthermore, the simulation results show that tradeoff between performance and computational complexity needs to be considered when the system parameters are chosen for DoA estimation algorithms.
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 1-7;

Contemporary architecture exists in Nader Khalili’s creative designs, including house designs in the USA and Iran, combined with the traditional architecture of Iran. His designs are founded on four characteristics, first is the inspiration from nature, and the other three focuses on low-cost, self-help, and eco-friendliness. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate his architectural thinking and the design process that leads to a rapid and sustainable shelter. In addition, this shelter can be built-in critical conditions or can be long-lasting in any crucial situation. The methodology used in this study is analytical based on qualitative and quantitative approach. The method, which is used to collect the data, is based on literature review and observation. The study concludes that Khalili’s designs are reasonable at low prices and quickly built and sustainable.
Seyed Mostafa Mirtabaee
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 66-74;

This study introduces the nature of electromagnetic bombs, how they work, the dangers, and how to deal with them. An electromagnetic bomb is a weapon that takes advantage of man's deep dependence on electricity and is designed accordingly. The purpose of this article is to design and fabricate Toyota 4.5F Tactical Vehicle ECU Electromagnetic Insulators. The design and construction of this device is also considered as vital and crucial equipment during electronic warfare and EMP attacks, so that it can be used as a reinforcement and vice versa, a weakening element or divider of the power of the enemy forces. The present study was performed as a numerical simulation in Comsol software environment. The results showed that the use of insulation is very effective in protecting the target systems against the damaging effects of electromagnetic waves. Additionally, the maximum amount of radiation to the ECU is at an angle of 0.25 radians and the minimum amount of radiation to ECU is recorded at an angle of 3.14 radians.
Araz Ali Mohammed,
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 83-96;

This paper investigates the flexural behavior of high-strength RC beams experimentally to assess the effect of Nano-silica (NS) and Macro-Synthetic High Strength Polypropylene Fiber (MPF). Ordinary Portland cement was partially replaced by the NS and MPF with different proportions to produce four concrete mixtures. Tests were conducted on the full-scale high-strength RC beams, including first crack load, failure load, deflection, concrete strain, steel strain, and mode failure, which were examined and compared. In addition, the tests on the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete mixtures were also conducted at the ages of 28 and 56 days. The test results concluded that the addition of NS and MPF significantly improved the first-cracking and failure loads and decreased deflection at levels of cracking and failure loads. Additionally, an increase in NS content resulted in a minor increase in the ultimate strain related to the failure loads. Furthermore, the mix of 3% NS with 0.5% MPF was found to lead to the highest mechanical characteristics of concrete. The improvements were the concrete compressive strength by 33.6%, split tensile strength by up to 54.1%, and flexural strength by up to 28.3% compared with control specimens.
Abdullah Awdal
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 26-37;

The Zagros Fold and Thrust belt is one of the world's most prolific petroleum provinces. Most hydrocarbon reserves are stored in naturally fractured reservoirs and such fracture systems can therefore have a significant impact on reservoir performance. Fractures are one of the most important paths for fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs. Fracture data were collected in the outcrops of the Kirkuk Group of Oligocene age around Qara Chauq South and Qara Chauq North anticlines located near the Kirkuk Oil Field. The studied formations outcropping in the Qara Chauq are the main reservoir units in the Kirkuk and Bai Hassan fields. In Kirkuk and surrounding fields, hydrocarbon production comes mainly from primary porosity with assistance from secondary porosity created by dolomitization, karstification, dissolution, vugs and fractures. Fracture attributes collected from outcrops are fracture orientation, density and length. The results show that fractures in the studied reservoir formation are not uniformly distributed due to massive lithologic nature and lack of well bedding. Furthermore, fracture orientations show a clear relationship to the local fold axis in the outcrops. NW-SE fracture set is perpendicular to the NW-SE fold axis. However, some fractures do not show any relation to the local folding. These fractures may have formed in a pre-folding or post folding stage. Other fracture orientations exhibit a symmetrical relation to the maximum horizontal stress direction. The comparative analysis of outcrop data underlines the importance of representative analogue data for reservoir modelling and production strategies.
Jafar A. Ali, Loghman Khodakarami, Murad S. Ahmed
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 15-25;

Long-distance energy pipelines are subject to risks of repeated hazards and posing pipeline safety problems. Hazards that may attack the pipelines are environmental and human activities. In this study, the risks of hazards on pipeline were assessed using Geographic Information System (GIS) as research on pipeline risk assessment using GIS is quite limited. Satellites help to monitor pipelines from space. The study spatially analyzes the risks that a pipeline encounters and the Kurdistan oil pipeline from Taq Taq oil field to Peshkhabur was used as a case study. Six criteria including distance to cities and villages, rivers, roads, slopes, and temperature in cold and hot weather were considered. Weight is given to each criterion; a maximum of 37.5% for human activities and a minimum weight of 12.5% for slope. The calculations were carried out spatially rather than through statistical operations. Three sets of maps were obtained for each criterion with different units. Then the maps were overlayed to represent a single map and the units were standardized using Fuzzy membership. The results show the risk level of each criterion along the 270 km length of the Kurdistan national pipeline.
Arwa Salam Mohammed, Ansam N. Al-Hassani
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 75-82;

Etoposide (ETP) is a topoisomerase Ⅱ (TOP Ⅱ) inhibitor and one of the leading chemotherapeutic drugs for treating a wide variety of tumors. However, ETP induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity limits its clinical use. This study aims to investigate the protective potential of taurine (Tau) to mitigated histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys of female albino rats treated with ETP. A total of 18 female rats were divided into three groups; control group, ETP-exposed group received intraperitoneal injection of ETP on the first 3 days of the study for a total cumulative dose of 44 mg/kg to induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, ETP + Tau group received ETP as stated previously with 400 mg/kg/day of Tau via oral gavage for 15 days. Sections from the liver and kidney were evaluated under light microscope and ETP-exposed group revealed vascular congestion, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration predominantly lymphocytes, edema, vacuolar degeneration, atypical cells, pyknosis, and necrosis while liver and kidney sections of rats treated with combination of ETP + Tau group exhibited marked alleviation of the histopathological damage. The study concludes that treatment with ETP induced marked structural damages in the liver and kidney and such morphological damages are effectively diminished by administering Tau.
Varoojan K. Sissakian, , , Hassan O. Othman
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 55-65;

The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) forms the northeastern part of the Arabian Plate that is colliding with the Eurasian Plate. Due to the ongoing collision, the whole KRI territory is folded; accordingly, long anticlines are developed in NW – SE trend, they change west wards to almost E – W. The Cretaceous carbonate rocks form the bulk of the anticlines; in the central part of KRG. North and northwest wards, rocks of Paleozoic, Triassic and Jurassic ages are exposed in the core of some anticlines. Whereas southwards, Tertiary rocks are exposed in the core of anticlines. From tectonic point of view, the KRI territory is located in four tectonic zones; each has its own characteristics. Majority of the developed anticlines at the KRI are thrusted and exhibit lateral growth. We have presented many examples of laterally growing anticlines with clear indications for their growth.
Arsalan Mahmoodzadeh, Adil Hussein Mohammed, Hawkar Hashim Ibrahim, Shima Rashidi, Yusra Ahmed Salih
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 8-14;

Having a good knowledge of the time and cost required to build a tunnel can be very important in reducing uncertainties related to the management of its construction. In this paper, using data obtained from the constructed parts of a tunnel, Gaussian process regression (GPR) method is developed to predict the time and cost of the non-constructed parts. Finally, by comparing the results predicted by the GPR model with the actual ones, it was concluded that the developed GPR model has a high potential to reduce uncertainties related to the time and cost of tunnel construction. Also, the ability of GPR model to predict time and cost of tunnel construction was compared with two other methods of support vector regression (SVR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Finally, the GPR model was superior to the SVR and ANN methods in terms of prediction accuracy
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6;

The ever-expanding urban architecture in developing areas requires more land space for construction purposes to be available. For this, utilizing the sub-surface areas through excavations in populous cities is now on the increasing trend. Two major concerns in such excavation projects are excavation-wall stability and the induced ground settlements which can be countered by a soil nailing-ground anchor system. In this regard, influential factors such as nail length and nail inclination angles can affect the overall performance of stabilized ground. Therefore, the focus of the present study is on how the aforementioned influence excavation-induced ground deformations. The numerical simulation is conducted using the software Plaxis 2D. The established numerical models help to explain how changes in the nails’ inclination angles and anchor lengths can change the observed behavior of the walls; from which helpful tips for practicing engineers are drawn accordingly. Such results could also be utilized for classroom presentations to aid students’ understanding of geotechnical engineering concepts.
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