Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 26139456 / 25992570
Total articles ≅ 419

Latest articles in this journal

Taye Alemu Mamo, Degefa Tolossa, , Tesfaye Zeleke
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 385-405; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.60720

Abstract:
The Ethiopian government has made efforts to rehabilitate degraded lands using a range of sustainable land management (SLM) initiatives. One of the key components was the use of improved structural soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies. However, the effectiveness of technology adoption varies greatly among households and abandoning previously accepted measures is a typical occurrence. Thus, this study sought to discover factors influencing smallholder farmers’ decisions to abandon already accepted SWC measures. The analysis was conducted based on data collected from 525 sample households surveyed in two districts in Central Ethiopia. An ordered cumulative logistic (POM) regression model was used to examine variables explaining households’ decision behavior. The study findings have revealed that sampled households were at different adoption stages, i.e., dis-adopters (22%), pilot-level adopters (14%) and adopters (64%). The results from the POM model also show that a range of variables influenced farmers’ dis-adoption decisions. Factors such as awareness about the risks of land degradation, access to training, incentives, land fragmentation, gender, full-time labor size, gentle slope plots, economic returns on investment and post-adoption follow-up were found to substantially influence smallholder farmers’ adoption discontinuance decisions. Thus, policymakers should consider these variables in designing strategies to overcome barriers to SLM practices.
Rinanda Gandhi Ningrum Prasetia, Suprayogi Suprayogi, , ,
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 223-232; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.57728

Abstract:
Salinity is a challenge in crop production. High salinity affects soil osmotic pressure and the balance of nutrients that inhibit plant growth. In such case, utilization of salt-tolerant rice varieties could be an alternative. This study aims to identify microsatellite markers associated with salt tolerance, compare the Inpari Unsoed 79 Agritan variety with ten other rice genotypes based on microsatellite markers and determine the qualitative composition metabolites in Inpari Unsoed 79 Agritan associated with the plant response to salinity. This research was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Universitas Jenderal Soedirman and Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bogor. This research used eleven rice varieties and ten microsatellite markers. The identification of microsatellite markers consisted of genomic DNA extraction, quantification and qualification of DNA, amplification of microsatellite DNA and data analysis. Metabolite profiling was conducted on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument. The results showed that microsatellite markers RM 241, RM 515, RM 519 and RM 528 differentiate the Inpari Unsoed 79 Agritan from the IR 29 genotype. Microsatellite markers RM 129 and RM 292 distinguished the Nona Bokra from the IR 29 genotypes. The genetic relationship of eleven rice genotypes resulted in two clusters. The GC-MS metabolite compounds in Inpari Unsoed 79 Agritan are β-Alanine and trimethylsilyl ester β-Alanine, a derivative compound of β-Alanine. These findings suggested that microsatellite markers RM 129, RM 292, RM 241, RM 515, RM 519 and RM 528 were associated with salt-tolerant in the seedling stage.
Eka Putri Sri Suwatanti, Maridi Maridi, Suntoro Suntoro
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 243-258; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.58393

Abstract:
The Klampok Sub-watershed flows in the Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, located in the upstream part of the Jragung Watershed, used as a source of irrigation. Klampok Sub-watershed experiences environmental pressures in the form of decreasing water quality because of various human activities. For this reason, this study aims to determine the changes in the water quality and pollution index of the Klampok Sub-watershed in 2016 and 2020. The water quality observations were carried out in 2020 utilizing the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Nitrate, Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) parameters. The laboratory analysis results were compared with water quality standards based on Government Regulation Number 22 of 2021 and the status of water quality based on the pollution index method under the Decree of the Minister of the Environment Number 115 of 2003. The study results showed a change in the quality and index of water pollution in 2016 and 2020. The study results revealed a decrease in the value of water quality on the parameters BOD, COD, Zn and Cu, which indicated that the water quality was improving. Moreover, the Klampok Sub-watershed pollution index decreased in 2016 and 2020 so that the Klampok Sub-watershed had quality criteria for lightly polluted water to moderately polluted to lightly polluted at each sampling point. Therefore, several efforts to control pollution and management of the Klampok Sub-watershed, such as community outreach, water quality monitoring and industrial compliance, are expected to improve so that the Klampok Sub-watershed's sustainability can provide various benefits to the community.
Nourma Al Viandari, , Heru Bagus Pulunggono, Suwardi Suwardi
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 275-288; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.58242

Abstract:
Rainfed paddy fields have a great potential to be developed in Indonesia, especially in Central Java. However, water irrigation management, drought stress, pest and disease infestation and low nutrients that affect paddy yield remain the constraints. Unpredictable climate pattern is also a limiting factor in the cultivation of rainfed paddy fields. This narrative review aims to identify and discuss solutions to problems that exist to increase the yield of rainfed paddy fields with several techniques that support sustainable agriculture. This review paper was prepared by collecting government data and interviews with several farmer group leaders as complementary data. Based on field conditions, farmers in rainfed paddy fields provide fertilization inputs that are not following the fertilizer recommendations. Moreover, field conditions with limited water availability have caused paddy cultivating in several locations only once a year with low yields. Water storage can help farmers meet the need for water, especially during dry and water-stress conditions. The farmers also need to pay attention to the appropriate fertilization doses and the use of additional organic matter derived from cultivation residues, which are expected to increase the availability of nutrients in the soil. The use of short-life and drought-resistant varieties can aid in overcoming the problem of crop failure in the middle phase caused by water scarcity. Finally, we identify and emphasize that rainfed paddy fields generally have a limiting factor for water and nutrients and several technologies are needed to contribute to increasing more sustainable paddy yields.
, Degefa Tolossa, Anteneh Girma, Belay Kassa
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 211-222; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.55910

Abstract:
Over the years, there has been a continuous increase in the demand for tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) due to population growth, average incomes and urbanization in Ethiopia, but its innovation system has not been fully explored. This research aims to determine the supportive effect of tef innovation system on its investigation and development as well as the systemic constraints in the process.A coupled structural-functional innovation system analysis was used to explore the barriers faced in Central Ethiopia. The results revealed the constraints affecting the innovation system, namely limited capacity of existing actors, weak interactions and partnerships among actors, weak enforcement of institutions as well as inadequate/poor infrastructure. They also showed that technology development, technology diffusion, entrepreneurial activities, market development, resource mobilization and legitimacy creation have been the weak functions of tef innovation. Furthermore, a failure in one of the functions has a knock-on effect on others, which causes an overall dysfunctional innovation system. Based on the results, failures of the structural elements along with weaknesses of functions have constrained the development of tef innovation systems sector. A combination of technological, institutional and technical intervention must be implemented to overcome this problem.
, Cindy Evelyne, Dela Rosa, Salfarina Ramli
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 357-372; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.61537

Abstract:
Jelly candy is syrup-phase, non-crystalline candy made using sugar, corn syrup and gelling agents such as gelatin, natural gums, pectin or starch. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) has red edible calyx that is the potential to be used as a natural colorant for jelly candy as it contains anthocyanins. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of different concentrations of dried roselle calyx and sucrose on the characteristics of roselle calyx jelly candy developed. The concentrations of sucrose used were 63.56%, 70.62%, 77.68% and 84.75%. The concentrations of dried roselle calyx used were 6.67%, 10.00%, 13.33% and 16.67%. Sensory analysis was done with 70 untrained panelists to analyze physical characteristics and preferences toward the jelly candies. Results of hedonic tests indicated that the best-formulated jelly candy according to aroma, texture, color and taste was made using 16.67% of dried roselle calyx and 63.56% of sucrose. The best-formulated jelly candy contains 19.52% of moisture, 0.03% of ash, 8.24% of protein, 1.72% of fat and 70.49% of carbohydrates. The selected jelly candy contains 14.23±0.23 mg 100g-1 of anthocyanin and an antioxidant capacity (IC50)value of 16863.8346 μg ml-1. This research shows the potential use of roselle calyx as a natural colorant in jelly candy manufacturing and can be consumed as a healthier option for sweet treats.
, William Larbi, William Ghartey
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 197-210; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.52996

Abstract:
Along the maize value chain in Ghana are a wide range of risks that confront actors; the risk chain actors' face include production and marketing risks. Accordingly, risk management, which has become an integral part of maize value chain activities, is challenged with several factors, some of which are economic, institutional, social and behavioral factors. This study posits that risk preferences/behavior of farm decision-makers in the maize value chain have empirical importance for economic and policy analysis. Thus, an experimental gambling approach was used to elicit the risk aversion behavior of respondents (farmers). Here, the respondents' risk aversion behavior over varying game levels was investigated. The multinomial logit model was used to investigate endogenous and exogenous factors explaining the risk behavior. The data were obtained by interviewing 220 maize farmers who were sampled with a two-stage sampling procedure. This study revealed that most of the farmers in the study area exhibited risk aversion behavior. About 33% of farmers showed extreme risk aversion behavior at the games’ lowest level and increased to 45% as the game level rose. It was also found that sex, age, level of formal education, access to credit, access to the storage facility, household size, farm size and the number of extension visits to the farm significantly explained the risk aversion behavior the maize farmers exhibited. Because farmers are risk-averse and become more risk-averse as stakes become high, any farm innovations to be introduced to them must be implemented gradually, especially with the low-income farmers. It is also critical to make risk mitigation 'handles' available to farmers so that they can rely on them during times of risk.
I Gede Ketut Susrama, Ni Made Trigunasih, I Ketut Suada, Ni Nyoman Ari Mayadewi
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 333-343; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.56341

Abstract:
Induced mutagenesis is one way to improve the quality of crops, especially to increase the resistance to pests and diseases. This research aimed to determine colchicine and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on cowpea M3 purple and mung bean Vima1, in concatenation for developing resistant crops. This research consists of four packages: (1) first package (cowpea M3 purple seeds treated with colchicine solution, (2) second package (cowpea M3 purple seeds treated with EMS solution), (3) third package (mung bean Vima1 seeds treated with colchicine solution) and (4) fourth package (mung bean Vima1 seeds treated with EMS solution). The results of this research revealed that induced mutagenesis by colchicine solution treatment reduced the incidence of bean leaf beetles up to 19% on cowpea M3 purple, as well leaf miners by 5% to 9% and bean leaf beetles up to 5% on mung bean Vima1. Treatment of EMS solution decreased the incidence of bean leaf beetles by 17% on cowpea M3 purple and pink mealybug by 5% to 15% on mung bean Vima1. Induced mutagenesis using EMS solution significantly decreased vegetable leaf miner incidence by 33% to 93% or 71% on average. Colchicine and EMS solution treatment caused aphid attacks in cowpea M3 purple, particularly in pods. The attacks did not happen on leaves and aphid incidence in pods was slower than in control. Some promising mutant candidates were found from this research that will be used in further crop development studies. It is expected that the method and results of this research could inspire faster development of resistant crops.
Zulfa Rahmadita Nur Azizah, Sakhidin Sakhidin, Saparso Saparso, Agus Sarjito
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 310-320; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.58500

Abstract:
Induction of flowering is one of the efforts that can extend the production period of Chokun oranges. This study aims to determine the effect of the dose of paclobutrazol (PBZ), duration of drought stress and the combination of treatments that gives the best results on the Chokun orange (Citrus sp.). The research design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD), consisting of 3 replications. The treatment in this study was a combination of the dose of PBZ (control, active ingredient 0.75 g plant-1 and active ingredient 1.5 g plant-1) and duration of drought stress (control, 1, 2 and 3 weeks). The results show that the application of PBZ and duration of drought stress can induce the flowering of citrus plants as seen from the generative shoot variables with a quadratic model on the equation y = -17.778x2 + 31.556x + 26.667 at the optimum dose of 0.89 g plant-1 of active ingredient and 1 week of drought. The dry period of 3 weeks gives the best results seen from variables of the number of flowers and number of fruits. In general, the results suggest that the application of PBZ and duration of drought stress can transfer from the vegetative phase to the generative phase which in turn could induce the flowering of citrus plants.
Almansyah Nur Sinatrya, Sigit Soeparjono, Tri Candra Setiawati
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 37, pp 344-356; https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v37i2.60756

Abstract:
Tobacco variety H382 was a cigar type tobacco that has a high economic value and potential as export trade commodity in Indonesia. The development stage of tobacco was very sensitive to water stress, like the water excess. Silicon was one of the most abundant elements in earth crust and has a role in water stress reduction to the plant. The objective of this study was to determine the response of tobacco crop variety H382 with the application of silicon fertilizer to adapt in waterlogging stress condition. This study used a factorial randomized block design with first factor was silicon fertilizer (0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 ml) and second factor was excess water stress treatments (50% to 70%, 70% to 90%, 90% to 110% and 110% to 130% of field capacity). All treatments were replicated three times. The results showed that the addition of 0.45 ml silicon fertilizer to waterlogged tobacco crop could escalate the adaptive response of plant to cope with stress; seen from the increasing of the opened stomata, aerenchyma formation and the chlorophyll content of tobacco crop under excess water stress compared to control. Silicon supplementation improves the water availability in root surroundings and repairs the root architecture; thus, lead to a better hydraulic conductivity of the root for water and nutrient intake. Furthermore, authors found that the application of silicon fertilizer helped tobacco crop variety H382 improve plant adaptability to deal with excess water stress.
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